Biology EOC Review Answers_1_ by malj

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									                           Biology EOC Review Answers

Goal 4

4.01

   1. Evidence about microorganisms continued to accumulate. Biologist saw Monera
      has two groups, so they separated it into Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
   2. 3-Domain system
   3. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
   4. They scientific system of naming each species of organisms
   5. salamanders-frogs             lizards-snakes         crocs-birds
   6. lungfish
   7. birds


 Domain      Bacteria     Archaea                           Eukarya

Kingdom     Eubacteria   Archaebact    Protista     Fungi        Plantae       Animalia
                         eria
Cell Type   Prokaryote   Prokaryote    Eukaryot     Eukaryote    Eukaryote     Eukaryot
                                       e                                       e
   Cell    Cell walls    Cell walls    Cell         Cell walls   Cell walls    No cell
Structures with          without       Walls of     of chitin    of            walls or
           peptidogly    peptidogly    cellulose                 cellulose;    chloropla
           can           can           in some;                  chloroplast   sts
                                       some                      s
                                       have
                                       chloropla
                                       sts
 Number     Unicellular Unicellular    Most         Most        Multicellul    Multicell
 of Cells                              unicellula   multicellul ar             ular
                                       r; some      ar; some
                                       colonial;    unicellular
                                       some
                                       multicellu
                                       lar
Mode of     Autotroph    Autotroph     Autotrop     Heterotrop Autotroph       Heterotro
Nutrition   or           or            h or         h                          ph
            heterotrop   heterotroph   heterotro
            h                          ph
Examples    Streptococ   Methanoge     Amoeba,      Mushroo      Mosses,       Sponges,
            cus,         ns,           Parameci     ms, yeasts   ferns,        worms,
            Escherichi   halophiles    um,                       flowering     insects,
            a coli                     Slime                     plants        fishes,
                                       molds                                   mammals
                                       Giant
                                       kelp
          Usually        Usually       Most         May be       May be      May be
Common Asexual by        Asexual by    commonl      asexual by   asexual     sexual or
Reproduct Binary         Binary        y asexual.   budding,     (rhizoids,  asexual
   ive    Fission        Fission       May be       fragmentat   budding, or
Methods                                sexual or    ion or       fragmentati
                                       asexual      spores.      on) or
                                                    May be       sexual
                                                    sexual by
                                                    spores

Archaea have cells walls without peptidoglycan.

I’m not too concerned with the next part 4.02 about the charts on various groups of
organisms. Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes however, are a different story. You need
to know this!!

                             Prokaryotic                    Eukaryotic
Membrane-bound                                              X
organelles
Ribosomes                    X                              X
Types of Chromosomes         Single                         Multi
Size                         5-50 micrometers               5-50 Mictrometers
Transport of materials       Endocytosis/active transport   Cellular products
Excretion                    Diffusion                      Diffusion
Respiration                  Diffusion                      Aerobic
Regulation                   Diffusion                      Gene expression
Nutrition                    Autotroph and heterotroph      Food from outside the cell
Reproduction                 Simple division                Cell division
Growth and development       Cell division                  Cell division
Synthesis                    Protein                        Protein
Viruses:
   1. Typical virus is composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein
      coat. The capsid includes protein that enable a virus to enter a host cell
   2. Bacterial- vaccine and antibiotics; Viral- vaccine and preventative measures


    1. the evolution of two or more interdependent species each adapting to changes in
       the other
    2. An orchid from Madagascar has an unusually long spur containing a supply of
       nectar within its tip. The hawk moth adapted and drew on equally long feeding
       tube that enables it to feed on nectar.

4.04

Interactive role of Genetics and Environment
Sickle cell anemia and malaria
Sickle cell is a disorder caused by a recessive gene. Individuals who inherit two copies
of the recessive allele will have sickle cell anemia; individuals who inherit only one of
the alleles are said to have sickle cell trait. People with sickle cell trait are resistant to the
malaria parasite, therefore, in areas where malaria kill large numbers, it is an advantage
to have sickle cell trait.

Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use
Tobacco use (smoking or smokeless) increases the risk of lung and mouth cancer.

Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and sun exposure
The body needs some exposure to the Sun to produce adequate amounts of vitamin D.
Excessive exposure to the sun’s rays increases an individual’s risk of developing skin
cancer. Getting sufficient amounts of the B vitamin folic acid may provide some
protection against skin cancer,
Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic interaction)
You may have heard diabetes is genetic but genes are not the only risk factor for diabetes.
Lifestyle factors including obesity and physical inactivity leads to Type 2 diabetes. These
risks coupled with a genetic predisposition are the unpleasant recipe for Type 2 diabetes.


Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder which results in an inability to break down
the amino acid phenylalanine. The build-up of phenylalanine in affected individuals
results in mental retardation. If children are tested at birth and placed on a special diet
low in phenylalanine, they will develop normally and not suffer any ill effects.

1. Acquired Immunity
- Acquired immunity- defending against a specific pathogen by gradually building up
   resistance to it.
- An acquired immune response occurs when the immune system recognizes an antigen
   and responds to it.
- Antigen-a foreign substance that stimulates an immune response. Often, antigens are
   proteins found on the surface of bacteria or other foreign substances such as pollen.
- Antibodies- are proteins in the blood plasma produced in reaction to antigens that
   react with and disable antigens.
- The development of acquired immunity is the responsibility of the lymphatic system.
- Acquired Immunity involves two main types of cells, T cells and B cells. There two
   main types of T cells, and two main types of B cells. Each cell type has a unique
   function.

                  T cells                                        B cells
Helper T cells        Killer T cells           B cells               Memory B cells
Activiate B cells     Release enzymes          Produce antibodies    Remain in the
“Help” B cells        that produce holes                             bloodstream to
                      in the pathogens,                              respond rapidly if
                      thus killing them                              the same pathogen
                                                                     invades the body
                                                                     again.

2. They produce memory T cells that will remember the antigen if they reenter the body.
3. They track down and destroy the bacteria, fungi, protozoan or foreign tissues that
contains the antigen.
4. As the pathogenic cells are brought under the cytotoxic cells release chemicals that
shut down the T cells.
5. Plasma cells and memory B cells.
6. Antibodies are destroying pathogens.
7. Produces memory B cells.
Passive Immunity- is developed when an individual receives antibodies that were
generated in another host.
Examples:
-   Mother passes antibodies to unborn child through the placenta or to the infant through
    the mother’s milk.
-   Injecting antibodies from another animal or human into a person. A person bitten by a
    snake may be injected with antibodies from an animal that is immune to the snake
    bite.

Active Immunity- is obtained when a person is exposed to antigens and produces
antibodies.
Examples:
- Once a person recovers from an infection, they will usually be immune if exposed to
    the pathogen again.
Active immunity can be induced artificially by vaccines. If a person is given a vaccine
containing a weakened, dead, or partial portion of the pathogen, the body will produce
antibodies to the pathogen
Health and Nutrition:
4. they don’t have normal maintenance of cartilage and bone; antioxidant; absorption.
Vitamin D- not normal bone growth or absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin
A- not normal growth of skin cells and weak eye sight.
Parasites
Vector, symptoms, and treatment for malaria
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, Plasmodium, which infects red
blood cells.

The symptoms characteristic of malaria include flu-like illness with fever, chills, muscle
aches, and headache. Some patients develop nausea, vomiting, cough, and diarrhea.
Cycles of chills, fever, and sweating that repeat every one, two, or three days are typical.
There can sometimes be vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, and yellowing (jaundice) of the
skin and whites of the eyes due to destruction of red blood cells and liver cells.

Key interventions to control malaria include: prompt and effective treatment with
artemisinin-based combination therapies; use of insecticidal nets by people at risk; and
indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes.


Environmental Toxins:

Toxins

Lead: Lead pipes and deteriorated lead-based paint in older homes and high levels of
lead contaminated house dust are the most common sources of lead poisoning in U.S.
children. Lead is much more harmful to children than adults because it can affect
children’s developing nerves and brains. The younger the child, the more harmful lead
can be. Unborn children are the most vulnerable. Children get lead in their bodies when
they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow the lead object. They can
even get lead poison on their fingers from touching a dusty or peeling lead object, an then
putting their fingers in their mouths or eating food afterward. Tiny amount of lead can
also be inhaled.

Mercury: Mercury has traditionally been used to make products like thermometers,
switches, and some light bulbs. Mercury in the air eventually settles into water or
onto land where it can be washed into water. Once deposited, certain
microorganisms can change it into methylmercury, a highly toxic form that builds
up in fish, shellfish, and animals that eat fish. Fish and shellfish are the main
sources of methylmercury exposure to humans. Mercury exposure at high levels
can harm the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and immune system of people of
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
  Innate behavior-inborn and works perfectly the first time it happens. Sometimes called
  instincts.
     Ex: nest building in birds and spinning webs in spiders
     taxis- a response made by an organism to an environmental stimulus.
     Ex: phototaxis - response to light
         Chemotaxis - response to a chemical substance.
Positive response- organism moves toward stimulus.
negative response- organism moves away from stimulus.
Reflex- a response that does not involve complex thought processes. A rapid response
that is beneficial to the organism. Ex: sneezing and blinking.
Learned behavior- acquired during the life of the organism.
Imprinting- social attachment to mother formed within a few hours of birth.
Classical Conditioning or association- responses to one stimulus becoming associated
with another stimulus. Ex: You call your dog for dinner every night as you are using the
electric can opener to open his food. After a while, when the dog hears the can opener he
will come to the kitchen thinking it is time to eat.
Habituation- a response that is repeated over and over until it becomes automatic. A form
of learning in which an animal learns to ignore a stimulus upon repeated exposure to it.
Ex: If a grandfather clock were moved into your home it would initially disrupt your
sleep, however, once you became accustomed to it you would sleep right through it.
Trial and error learning- Ex: young birds will peck at any small object. Through trial
and error they eventually learn to peck only at edible objects.
Reasoning or insight learning- use of past experiences to help find solutions to new
problems. Especially common in primates because of their intelligence.

Social Behavior

 Communication within social structure using pheromones
An organism generates and emits these hormonal chemicals in order to relay a message to
another member of the same species. Ants and bees demonstrate two prominent examples
of pheromone usage, which acknowledged their incredible capability to organize the
behaviors of the whole colony.
Ants produce numerous different pheromones, each with its own distinct purpose. Ants
secrete pheromones to attract mates, to signal danger to the colony, or to give directions
about a location. Other pheromones act as deterrents keeping out unwanted ants from
foreign colonies or preying insectivores.
Still other pheromones communicate ants to congregate.
Honeybees release chemical signals for making food sources, marking their hive, in
scenting potential hive sites, and in assembling swarms for flight.

Courtship dances
Many non-human animal species have mate-selection rituals also referred to as
“courtship”. Animal courtship may involve complicated dances or touching;
vocalizations; or displays of beauty or fighting prowess. From the scientific point of
view, courtship in the animal kingdom is the process in which different species select
their partners for reproduction purposes. Generally speaking, the male initiates the
courtship and the female chooses to either mate or reject the male based on his
“performance”.

Territorial defense
 Territorial animals defend areas that contain a nest, den, or mating site and sufficient
food resources for themselves and their young. Defense rarely takes the form of overt
fights: more usually there is a highly noticeable display, which may be visual (as in the
red breast of the robin), auditory (bird songs or the call of gibbons) or olfactory, through
the deposit of scent marks. Many territorial mammals use scent –marking to signal the
boundaries of their territories; the marks may be deposited by urination, by defecation, or
by rubbing parts of the bodies that bear specialized scent glands against the substrate.

BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS
-diurnal -organisms that are active during the day.
-nocturnal-organisms that are always active at night and rest during the day.
phytochrome- a plant pigment (red) that allows plants to determine the length of the
daylight.
photoperiodism- a plant’s response to changes in the length of daylight.
    short day plants- flower in fall when the length of daylight is shorter.
    Long day plants- bloom in spring and summer.
    day neutral plants- can bloom at any time of year.
Circadian rhythms- biological clocks that operate on a 24-hour cycle.
annual rhythms- patterns in animals and plants that occur in yearly cycles.
    Ex: Hibernation, or Estivation- reduced activity during the summer.

Goal 5
Relationship                   Definition                      Example
Mutualism                      Both species benefit            Flowers and bees
Commensalism                   One speices benefits the        Barnacles           attach
                               other is not helped nor         themselves to a whale
                               harmed
Parasitism                     One helped the other            Tapeworms         and       a
                               harmed                          mammal
1. Hares   Foxes

2. Hares are everyones prey and in the winter their food source runs out.

3. Foxes have the hares allyear long as a food source, even in winter.



-Abiotic factors are nonliving parts of an organism’s environment such as sunlight,
temperature, and precipitation
-Biotic factors are all the living organisms that inhabit an environment.
-biotic potential- the highest possible rate of reproduction for a given population under
ideal conditions.
-limiting factors- circumstances that keep populations from reaching their biotic
potential.
    Density dependent limiting factors – a variable related to the density of a
population that affects
    population size. Ex: shortages of food or nesting sights.
    Density independent limiting factors – a variable that affects population size the
same way regardless of
    population density. Ex: weather, floods, and fire.
POPULATION GROWTH




                                  J curve – exponential growth - Under ideal conditions,
                                  (unlimited food supply, no competition for mates, etc.)
                                  a population's size would continue to increase
                                  indefinitely. This can be shown graphically and
                                  resembles the letter J.
                                            -S curve – logistic growth -In real
                                            populations size cannot continue
                                            to increase indefinitely. It will
                                            increase until carrying
                                             capacity has been reached then it
                                            will level off.
                                            -carrying capacity -the number
                                            of individuals of a population that
                                            a given environment can support.




Recycling of materials in the Environment

The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle




-trophic levels - in an ecosystem, an organism's position in a food chain - for example,
herbivores make up the
  second trophic level and carnivores make up higher trophic levels.

        Ex:      plant ---- mouse-------- snake---------owl------decomposer
              (producer) (first order     (second order (third order
                           consumer)       consumer)       consumer)


                            FOOD WEB

- pyramid of energy- each wlevel within a pyramid of energy represents the energy
available within that trophic level. Each time you move upward in the food chain there is
roughly a 90% decrease in the amount of available energy. This means each level
contains only about 10% of the energy that was available at the previous level.
-pyramid of numbers- a diagram that shows how many individuals an ecosystem can
support.
-food web -a series of interrelated food chains in an ecosystem.
-biomass- total dried weight of all organic matter at different trophic levels.
-pyramid of biomass- shows how much living matter an ecosystem can support. Note
the difference in the
  characteristic shape of a terrestrial ecosystem versus an aquatic ecosystem.

- acid precipitation caused by sulfur dioxide, SO2, which is produced when fossil fuels
are burned. Can make lakes and rivers too acidic for organisms to live in, kill trees, and
corrode stone.



-greenhouse effect - results when carbon dioxide traps heat near the Earth's surface;
could be producing global warming, which may eventually have a serious effect on
climate.

- biological magnification- the accumulation and increased concentration of non-
biodegradable toxins in the environment as you move up the food chain. Biological
magnification of the pesticide DDT caused bald eagles to become endangered.

Habitat destruction- is the process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally
unable to support the species originally present. In this process, plants and animals which
previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. Agriculture is
the principle cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction
include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently
ranked as the most important cause of species extinction worldwide.

Deforestation- The cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested
area. Deforestation can erode soils, contribute to desertification and the pollution of
waterways, and decrease biodiversity through the destruction of habitat.

ecological succession - gradual processes by which communities change over time.

primary succession - succession that begins in areas where there is no life such as a new
volcanic island or an area that has just been exposed due to the movement of a glacier.

pioneer stage - the first stage of primary succession, consisting of algae, protists, and
cyanobacteria in an aquatic community. Consists of lichens growing on bare rocks in a
terrestrial (land) environment. The action of the lichens and their subsequent death and
decomposition lead to the formation of soil.
-Early stages in succession are characterized by communities with small inhabitants with
short life cycles, few different species, simple food chains, and wasted energy.
- The community continues to undergo an orderly series of changes until it reaches the
final stage of succession.

climax community - the final community in ecological succession. The climax
community is complex, stable, and tends to remain basically the same unless disturbed by
nature or humans. Climax communities are characterized by larger inhabitants with
longer life cycles, many species, complex food webs, and efficient energy use.
- Typical succession in a terrestrial biome: rock  lichen  mosses  grasses 
shrubs  trees

POPULATIONS




Review factors influencing birth rates and death rates.
Effects of population size, density, and resources used on the environment.
- immigration- movement into a population.
- emigration- movement out of a population.

An introduced species (also known as an exotic species) is an organism that is not native
to the place or area where it is considered introduced and instead has been accidently or
deliberately transported to the new location by human activity. Introduced species can
often be damaging to the ecosystem it is introduced to.

								
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