Biology EOC Review Answers Goal 4 4.01 1. Evidence about microorganisms continued to accumulate. Biologist saw Monera has two groups, so they separated it into Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. 2. 3-Domain system 3. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species 4. They scientific system of naming each species of organisms 5. salamanders-frogs lizards-snakes crocs-birds 6. lungfish 7. birds Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebact Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia eria Cell Type Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryot Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryot e e Cell Cell walls Cell walls Cell Cell walls Cell walls No cell Structures with without Walls of of chitin of walls or peptidogly peptidogly cellulose cellulose; chloropla can can in some; chloroplast sts some s have chloropla sts Number Unicellular Unicellular Most Most Multicellul Multicell of Cells unicellula multicellul ar ular r; some ar; some colonial; unicellular some multicellu lar Mode of Autotroph Autotroph Autotrop Heterotrop Autotroph Heterotro Nutrition or or h or h ph heterotrop heterotroph heterotro h ph Examples Streptococ Methanoge Amoeba, Mushroo Mosses, Sponges, cus, ns, Parameci ms, yeasts ferns, worms, Escherichi halophiles um, flowering insects, a coli Slime plants fishes, molds mammals Giant kelp Usually Usually Most May be May be May be Common Asexual by Asexual by commonl asexual by asexual sexual or Reproduct Binary Binary y asexual. budding, (rhizoids, asexual ive Fission Fission May be fragmentat budding, or Methods sexual or ion or fragmentati asexual spores. on) or May be sexual sexual by spores Archaea have cells walls without peptidoglycan. I’m not too concerned with the next part 4.02 about the charts on various groups of organisms. Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes however, are a different story. You need to know this!! Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Membrane-bound X organelles Ribosomes X X Types of Chromosomes Single Multi Size 5-50 micrometers 5-50 Mictrometers Transport of materials Endocytosis/active transport Cellular products Excretion Diffusion Diffusion Respiration Diffusion Aerobic Regulation Diffusion Gene expression Nutrition Autotroph and heterotroph Food from outside the cell Reproduction Simple division Cell division Growth and development Cell division Cell division Synthesis Protein Protein Viruses: 1. Typical virus is composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. The capsid includes protein that enable a virus to enter a host cell 2. Bacterial- vaccine and antibiotics; Viral- vaccine and preventative measures 1. the evolution of two or more interdependent species each adapting to changes in the other 2. An orchid from Madagascar has an unusually long spur containing a supply of nectar within its tip. The hawk moth adapted and drew on equally long feeding tube that enables it to feed on nectar. 4.04 Interactive role of Genetics and Environment Sickle cell anemia and malaria Sickle cell is a disorder caused by a recessive gene. Individuals who inherit two copies of the recessive allele will have sickle cell anemia; individuals who inherit only one of the alleles are said to have sickle cell trait. People with sickle cell trait are resistant to the malaria parasite, therefore, in areas where malaria kill large numbers, it is an advantage to have sickle cell trait. Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use Tobacco use (smoking or smokeless) increases the risk of lung and mouth cancer. Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and sun exposure The body needs some exposure to the Sun to produce adequate amounts of vitamin D. Excessive exposure to the sun’s rays increases an individual’s risk of developing skin cancer. Getting sufficient amounts of the B vitamin folic acid may provide some protection against skin cancer, Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic interaction) You may have heard diabetes is genetic but genes are not the only risk factor for diabetes. Lifestyle factors including obesity and physical inactivity leads to Type 2 diabetes. These risks coupled with a genetic predisposition are the unpleasant recipe for Type 2 diabetes. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder which results in an inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. The build-up of phenylalanine in affected individuals results in mental retardation. If children are tested at birth and placed on a special diet low in phenylalanine, they will develop normally and not suffer any ill effects. 1. Acquired Immunity - Acquired immunity- defending against a specific pathogen by gradually building up resistance to it. - An acquired immune response occurs when the immune system recognizes an antigen and responds to it. - Antigen-a foreign substance that stimulates an immune response. Often, antigens are proteins found on the surface of bacteria or other foreign substances such as pollen. - Antibodies- are proteins in the blood plasma produced in reaction to antigens that react with and disable antigens. - The development of acquired immunity is the responsibility of the lymphatic system. - Acquired Immunity involves two main types of cells, T cells and B cells. There two main types of T cells, and two main types of B cells. Each cell type has a unique function. T cells B cells Helper T cells Killer T cells B cells Memory B cells Activiate B cells Release enzymes Produce antibodies Remain in the “Help” B cells that produce holes bloodstream to in the pathogens, respond rapidly if thus killing them the same pathogen invades the body again. 2. They produce memory T cells that will remember the antigen if they reenter the body. 3. They track down and destroy the bacteria, fungi, protozoan or foreign tissues that contains the antigen. 4. As the pathogenic cells are brought under the cytotoxic cells release chemicals that shut down the T cells. 5. Plasma cells and memory B cells. 6. Antibodies are destroying pathogens. 7. Produces memory B cells. Passive Immunity- is developed when an individual receives antibodies that were generated in another host. Examples: - Mother passes antibodies to unborn child through the placenta or to the infant through the mother’s milk. - Injecting antibodies from another animal or human into a person. A person bitten by a snake may be injected with antibodies from an animal that is immune to the snake bite. Active Immunity- is obtained when a person is exposed to antigens and produces antibodies. Examples: - Once a person recovers from an infection, they will usually be immune if exposed to the pathogen again. Active immunity can be induced artificially by vaccines. If a person is given a vaccine containing a weakened, dead, or partial portion of the pathogen, the body will produce antibodies to the pathogen Health and Nutrition: 4. they don’t have normal maintenance of cartilage and bone; antioxidant; absorption. Vitamin D- not normal bone growth or absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin A- not normal growth of skin cells and weak eye sight. Parasites Vector, symptoms, and treatment for malaria Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, Plasmodium, which infects red blood cells. The symptoms characteristic of malaria include flu-like illness with fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache. Some patients develop nausea, vomiting, cough, and diarrhea. Cycles of chills, fever, and sweating that repeat every one, two, or three days are typical. There can sometimes be vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, and yellowing (jaundice) of the skin and whites of the eyes due to destruction of red blood cells and liver cells. Key interventions to control malaria include: prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies; use of insecticidal nets by people at risk; and indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes. Environmental Toxins: Toxins Lead: Lead pipes and deteriorated lead-based paint in older homes and high levels of lead contaminated house dust are the most common sources of lead poisoning in U.S. children. Lead is much more harmful to children than adults because it can affect children’s developing nerves and brains. The younger the child, the more harmful lead can be. Unborn children are the most vulnerable. Children get lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow the lead object. They can even get lead poison on their fingers from touching a dusty or peeling lead object, an then putting their fingers in their mouths or eating food afterward. Tiny amount of lead can also be inhaled. Mercury: Mercury has traditionally been used to make products like thermometers, switches, and some light bulbs. Mercury in the air eventually settles into water or onto land where it can be washed into water. Once deposited, certain microorganisms can change it into methylmercury, a highly toxic form that builds up in fish, shellfish, and animals that eat fish. Fish and shellfish are the main sources of methylmercury exposure to humans. Mercury exposure at high levels can harm the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and immune system of people of ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Innate behavior-inborn and works perfectly the first time it happens. Sometimes called instincts. Ex: nest building in birds and spinning webs in spiders taxis- a response made by an organism to an environmental stimulus. Ex: phototaxis - response to light Chemotaxis - response to a chemical substance. Positive response- organism moves toward stimulus. negative response- organism moves away from stimulus. Reflex- a response that does not involve complex thought processes. A rapid response that is beneficial to the organism. Ex: sneezing and blinking. Learned behavior- acquired during the life of the organism. Imprinting- social attachment to mother formed within a few hours of birth. Classical Conditioning or association- responses to one stimulus becoming associated with another stimulus. Ex: You call your dog for dinner every night as you are using the electric can opener to open his food. After a while, when the dog hears the can opener he will come to the kitchen thinking it is time to eat. Habituation- a response that is repeated over and over until it becomes automatic. A form of learning in which an animal learns to ignore a stimulus upon repeated exposure to it. Ex: If a grandfather clock were moved into your home it would initially disrupt your sleep, however, once you became accustomed to it you would sleep right through it. Trial and error learning- Ex: young birds will peck at any small object. Through trial and error they eventually learn to peck only at edible objects. Reasoning or insight learning- use of past experiences to help find solutions to new problems. Especially common in primates because of their intelligence. Social Behavior Communication within social structure using pheromones An organism generates and emits these hormonal chemicals in order to relay a message to another member of the same species. Ants and bees demonstrate two prominent examples of pheromone usage, which acknowledged their incredible capability to organize the behaviors of the whole colony. Ants produce numerous different pheromones, each with its own distinct purpose. Ants secrete pheromones to attract mates, to signal danger to the colony, or to give directions about a location. Other pheromones act as deterrents keeping out unwanted ants from foreign colonies or preying insectivores. Still other pheromones communicate ants to congregate. Honeybees release chemical signals for making food sources, marking their hive, in scenting potential hive sites, and in assembling swarms for flight. Courtship dances Many non-human animal species have mate-selection rituals also referred to as “courtship”. Animal courtship may involve complicated dances or touching; vocalizations; or displays of beauty or fighting prowess. From the scientific point of view, courtship in the animal kingdom is the process in which different species select their partners for reproduction purposes. Generally speaking, the male initiates the courtship and the female chooses to either mate or reject the male based on his “performance”. Territorial defense Territorial animals defend areas that contain a nest, den, or mating site and sufficient food resources for themselves and their young. Defense rarely takes the form of overt fights: more usually there is a highly noticeable display, which may be visual (as in the red breast of the robin), auditory (bird songs or the call of gibbons) or olfactory, through the deposit of scent marks. Many territorial mammals use scent –marking to signal the boundaries of their territories; the marks may be deposited by urination, by defecation, or by rubbing parts of the bodies that bear specialized scent glands against the substrate. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS -diurnal -organisms that are active during the day. -nocturnal-organisms that are always active at night and rest during the day. phytochrome- a plant pigment (red) that allows plants to determine the length of the daylight. photoperiodism- a plant’s response to changes in the length of daylight. short day plants- flower in fall when the length of daylight is shorter. Long day plants- bloom in spring and summer. day neutral plants- can bloom at any time of year. Circadian rhythms- biological clocks that operate on a 24-hour cycle. annual rhythms- patterns in animals and plants that occur in yearly cycles. Ex: Hibernation, or Estivation- reduced activity during the summer. Goal 5 Relationship Definition Example Mutualism Both species benefit Flowers and bees Commensalism One speices benefits the Barnacles attach other is not helped nor themselves to a whale harmed Parasitism One helped the other Tapeworms and a harmed mammal 1. Hares Foxes 2. Hares are everyones prey and in the winter their food source runs out. 3. Foxes have the hares allyear long as a food source, even in winter. -Abiotic factors are nonliving parts of an organism’s environment such as sunlight, temperature, and precipitation -Biotic factors are all the living organisms that inhabit an environment. -biotic potential- the highest possible rate of reproduction for a given population under ideal conditions. -limiting factors- circumstances that keep populations from reaching their biotic potential. Density dependent limiting factors – a variable related to the density of a population that affects population size. Ex: shortages of food or nesting sights. Density independent limiting factors – a variable that affects population size the same way regardless of population density. Ex: weather, floods, and fire. POPULATION GROWTH J curve – exponential growth - Under ideal conditions, (unlimited food supply, no competition for mates, etc.) a population's size would continue to increase indefinitely. This can be shown graphically and resembles the letter J. -S curve – logistic growth -In real populations size cannot continue to increase indefinitely. It will increase until carrying capacity has been reached then it will level off. -carrying capacity -the number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support. Recycling of materials in the Environment The Carbon Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle -trophic levels - in an ecosystem, an organism's position in a food chain - for example, herbivores make up the second trophic level and carnivores make up higher trophic levels. Ex: plant ---- mouse-------- snake---------owl------decomposer (producer) (first order (second order (third order consumer) consumer) consumer) FOOD WEB - pyramid of energy- each wlevel within a pyramid of energy represents the energy available within that trophic level. Each time you move upward in the food chain there is roughly a 90% decrease in the amount of available energy. This means each level contains only about 10% of the energy that was available at the previous level. -pyramid of numbers- a diagram that shows how many individuals an ecosystem can support. -food web -a series of interrelated food chains in an ecosystem. -biomass- total dried weight of all organic matter at different trophic levels. -pyramid of biomass- shows how much living matter an ecosystem can support. Note the difference in the characteristic shape of a terrestrial ecosystem versus an aquatic ecosystem. - acid precipitation caused by sulfur dioxide, SO2, which is produced when fossil fuels are burned. Can make lakes and rivers too acidic for organisms to live in, kill trees, and corrode stone. -greenhouse effect - results when carbon dioxide traps heat near the Earth's surface; could be producing global warming, which may eventually have a serious effect on climate. - biological magnification- the accumulation and increased concentration of non- biodegradable toxins in the environment as you move up the food chain. Biological magnification of the pesticide DDT caused bald eagles to become endangered. Habitat destruction- is the process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species originally present. In this process, plants and animals which previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. Agriculture is the principle cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the most important cause of species extinction worldwide. Deforestation- The cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. Deforestation can erode soils, contribute to desertification and the pollution of waterways, and decrease biodiversity through the destruction of habitat. ecological succession - gradual processes by which communities change over time. primary succession - succession that begins in areas where there is no life such as a new volcanic island or an area that has just been exposed due to the movement of a glacier. pioneer stage - the first stage of primary succession, consisting of algae, protists, and cyanobacteria in an aquatic community. Consists of lichens growing on bare rocks in a terrestrial (land) environment. The action of the lichens and their subsequent death and decomposition lead to the formation of soil. -Early stages in succession are characterized by communities with small inhabitants with short life cycles, few different species, simple food chains, and wasted energy. - The community continues to undergo an orderly series of changes until it reaches the final stage of succession. climax community - the final community in ecological succession. The climax community is complex, stable, and tends to remain basically the same unless disturbed by nature or humans. Climax communities are characterized by larger inhabitants with longer life cycles, many species, complex food webs, and efficient energy use. - Typical succession in a terrestrial biome: rock lichen mosses grasses shrubs trees POPULATIONS Review factors influencing birth rates and death rates. Effects of population size, density, and resources used on the environment. - immigration- movement into a population. - emigration- movement out of a population. An introduced species (also known as an exotic species) is an organism that is not native to the place or area where it is considered introduced and instead has been accidently or deliberately transported to the new location by human activity. Introduced species can often be damaging to the ecosystem it is introduced to.
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