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					                  EE231 Optical Electronics - Class outline

• Class website: http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/classes/ee231/Fall03/
• Instructor: Claire Gu, BE 253B, claire@soe.ucsc.edu
• Lecture: Tue/Thu 10-11:45, Stevenson 221
• Office hours: Wed 2-4 pm
• Homework: bi-weekly
• Grading policy:


             Course Element             Percentage
                Homework                    20
                 Midterm                    20
            Project/Term Paper              30
                   Final                    30
                   Total                   100


EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
               EE231 Optical Electronics - Class outline II

• Midterm: Written, in class
• Final: during the final’s week
• Project:
        • investigate class-related subject
        • literature review
        • problem/calculation
        • assigned or student-suggested -> talk to me
        • term paper and in-class presentation
• class content: mainly lasers, but we’ll really learn much more:
        • optics
        • physics
        • materials
        • systems

EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                Electromagnetic Spectrum




                                               MASER: Microwave Amplification
                                           }   by Stimulated Emission of
                                               Radiation




                                            }     LASER: Light Amplification
                                                  by Stimulated Emission of
                                                  Radiation




EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                        Different types of lasers




  Free electron laser, UCSB                                   Ti:Sapphire laser:
  (63 mm – 2.5 mm)                                            ultrashort pulses (30 fs)
                                                              (700-1000 nm)


                                           VCSEL array:
                                           vertical cavity
                                           surface emitting
                                           laser (850 nm)


EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                        Laser characteristics




  • spectrally broad                                     • very monochromatic
  • divergent                                            • does not diverge as fast
  • can’t be focused tightly                             • can be focused tightly
  • not very intense                                     • can be extremely intense
  • incoherent                                           • spatial coherence (interference)
                                                         • temporally coherent (beat notes)
 What is needed ?
                                                   More generally:
                                                   • active medium
                                                   • pump -> far from thermal equilibrium
                                                   • feedback (resonator, mirrors)


EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                         Laser characteristics II -Threshold




                          spectral narrowing   kink in
                                               output power


EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                                  Laser history




                                                             Javan invents
                                                             He-Ne laser
                Townes invents and             Maiman builds first
                                   Schawlow and Townes
                builds first MASER             (ruby) LASER
                                   propose LASER                   Spectra introduces
                                             first fiber optic communication
                       IBM builds first                       CD Ti:Sapphire laser
      Hall buildsAlferov builds first laser printer (Chicago) player
 Einstein predicts                           system
                 heterostructure laser
      semiconductor
 stimulated emission laser
                                                               Faist nanowire laser
                                                 Nakamura builds builds quantum built
                                                 blue laser diode     at UCB
                                                               cascade laser




1910       1920           1930             1940    1950   1960    1970   1980   1990   2000

   EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                        Lasers in science




                                        ultrafast phenomena

                              laser cooling           biological
                              and trapping            processes

                                         interferometry
                                         length measurements




EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                        Lasers in medicine




corrective eye surgery
                                                          removing blemishes




                                                gallbladder surgery
                                                using fiber optics




EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                                         Lasers in every day life




                                                           CD players

barcode scanners




                                                       laser printers
                                                                        • laser cutting
                                                                        • laser welding
                                                                        • ....

 EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003
                         Lasers in communication systems

   laser as source
                                  booster
                                  amplifier                                                 pre-amplifier D
     4 WDM                                                                                                       E                 4 PIN
     EA-DFB                                                                                                      M                 receivers
     lasers                                                 160 km                       attenuator
                                                                                                                 U
                                                         standard fibre                  and power               X
                                                                                         meter

channel separation:
100 GHz (0.8 nm)                   optical
                                   spectrum
                                   analyser




 laser as amplifier
                        Monitor                              980/1550                                            Monitor
                                              Isolator        coupler                                 Isolator
         Input           tap                                                                                      tap                  Output

                                                                              Er fibre




                                   PIN-diode                                                                               PIN-diode

                                                                  980 nm
                                                                 pump laser

     EE 231 Optical Electronics, Fall 2003

				
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