Name __________________________ Period _____ AP Environmental Science 2010-2011 Review Sheet for APES Test UNIT 9: Resource Use and Abuse REVIEW SESSION: In class on Wednesday, February 9th TEST DATE: Thursday, February 10th STUDY RECOMMENDATION: Because this unit has several main topics (Food production, Pest Management, 3 R’s, and Waste/Disposal), you may benefit from studying more actively—make a concept outline (reorganize the information from your notes), study in groups, teach someone else something, draw some pictures, anything that helps you use the knowledge and skills from this unit. PLEASE NOTE: Continuing with this test, you will be expected to be able to answer review questions about the previous unit. Additionally, short answer/free response questions may contain connections to previous units. CONTENT REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1) Explain the three ways in which food is produced/acquired. 2) What are the three top crops produced for human consumption (excluding sugar)? 3) What are the two main types of agricultural systems? What are the differences between them? 4) What is the difference between the green revolution and the second green revolution? 5) What is the difference between monoculture and polyculture? What are the pros and cons of each? 6) Describe the benefits of each of the following sustainable agriculture methods: (a) conservation tillage, (b) terracing, (c) contour farming, (d) intercropping, (e) agroforestry, and (f) crop rotation. 7) What are the “green” fertilizer options (i.e. organic, not inorganic chemical fertilizers)? Know benefits, downsides. 8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers? 9) Define the following agricultural problems: eutrophication, salinization, overgrazing, overcultivation, desertification. 10) How does erosion result in coarse soils with poor nutrient quality? 11) Know the basic benefits and risks of genetically modified organisms in food production. 12) What is the difference between malnutrition and undernutrition? 13) What is a pest? What is a pesticide? 14) What are the pros and cons of pesticide use? When should pesticides be used? Explain. 15) What is IPM? Explain the philosophy and know some specifics that differ from regular pesticide use. 16) What are the three R’s? What are the differences between them? Which is the best environmental option? Which is the best economic option? 17) Be able to discuss the differences between low and high waste approaches/solutions, especially closed-loop solutions. 18) Be able to diagram a sanitary landfill and explain how it works. 19) Describe how incineration works. What are the pros and cons of using incineration as a waste disposal method? 20) Explain why different factors need to be considered in landfill design, including: topography, wind, distance from collection, local climate, soil, groundwater, and ultimate use. 21) What is hazardous waste? What is RCRA? Be able to describe the pros and cons of EACH of the six methods we discussed in class: surface waste lagoons, deep well injection, hazardous waste landfills, aboveground bunkers, incineration and export.