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APES Final Exam Review

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					APES Final Exam Review

    1. There are several methods of solid-waste disposal including sanitary landfills,
       incineration, chemical treatment, biological treatment, and discharge into sewers,
       streams, and rivers. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?
       What is the greatest source of municipal solid waste today?
             a.   sanitary landfill – fig. 21-13 page 545
             b.   incineration - fig. 21-11 page 543
             c.   chemical treatment – page 542, 2nd column
             d.   biological treatment – phytoremediation/bioremediation
             e.   discharge –
             f.   greatest source of municipal solid waste = paper
    2. What are three methods of solid waste management (the 3-Rs)? How does each
       work? (pp. 534-535)
             a. reduce
             b. reuse
             c. recycle
    3. Global warming is expected to raise ocean levels. Where are the populations that
       would be most effected by this rise?
             a. coastal areas of high population (India)
    4. Where is the world’s greatest biodiversity found?
          a. Amazon rainforest (Brazil)
    5. What are the causes of desertification and where is it occurring most rapidly
             a. overgrazing/deforestation
             b. Sub-Saharan Africa
    6. What countries have the most stable populations today and where are populations in
       the greatest flux?
             a. developed countries like the United States
             b. Africa/Southeast Asia/India
    7. What are the different types of symbiosis and be able to give and example of
       each? (pp. 172,178)
             a.   parasitism
             b.   mutualism
             c.   commensalisms
             d.   competition
    8. What are the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and how do they relate to
       the environment? (p. 59)
             a. Energy is neither created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed.
             b. Low quality energy is lost as it is transformed from one form to another.
    9. What does the Law of Conservation of Matter state?
             a. Matter is neither created nor destroyed. ((p.55)

Dr. Sisson                                                                    2010-2011
    10. What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy? (p.51)
             a. potential energy – energy at rest
             b. kinetic energy – energy in motion
    11. List and describe as many different types of renewable energy as you can. (Chapter
        16 all, pp. 380-410)
            a. solar
                      i. passive and active
                     ii. thermal
                    iii. photovoltaic
            b. wind
            c. hydroelectric
            d. geothermal
            e. tidal
    12. What characteristics help determine water quality? What do they indicate?
            a. fecal coliform test – bacterial contamination
            b. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
            c. pH – acidic or basic
            d. Nitrates/Phosphates – excess nutrients
            e. Turbidity - sediment
    13. Why are the following gasses important: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,
        methane, radon, and sulfur dioxide? (Chapter 17, pp. 418-436)
             a.   carbon dioxide – greenhouse gas
             b.   carbon monoxide – toxic
             c.   methane – greenhouse gas
             d.   radon – radioactive pollutant in homes
             e.   sulfur dioxide – acid rain
    14. How is ozone formed and how is it broken down in the atmosphere? What is
        compound is most responsible for ozone depletion? What are the positive and
        negative affects of ozone in the atmosphere?
             a. ozone is formed from a photochemical reaction (pp.472-478)
             b. CFCs
             c. + blocks harmful UV radiation / - respiratory irritant
    15. What is a flood plain and why have human populations settled in flood plains?
             a. area in the lower part of a river created by water overflowing the banks
                (page 159)
             b. fertile land/transportation
    16. Know the major environmental laws we discussed? When were they enacted? What
        are the basic tenants of each law?
             a. last page of 118 Ways to Go APES
    17. What is the primary cause of acid rain in the United States?
             a. burning coal (pp. 428-429)

Dr. Sisson                                                                    2010-2011
    18. What are major causes of species extinction today (HIPPO)? (Fig. 22-12, p.572)
             a.   Habitat destruction or degradation
             b.   Invasive species
             c.   Population
             d.   Pollution
             e.   Overfishing
    19. What are the different methods harvesting forests? What are the negative
        effects of clear cutting? (pp.602-604)
             a. clear-cutting – habitat destruction, reduces biodiversity, soil erosion,
                desertification (page 604)
             b. selective cutting
             c. seed tree cutting
             d. shelterwood cutting
             e. strip cutting
    20. What does demographic transition refer to? Know the different stages of
        demographic transition and what is happening to death rates, birth rates and total
        population in each stage. (fig. 12-25,p. 269)
             a. As countries become industrialized, first their death rates decline and then
                their birth rates decline. There is low or zero growth rate in the
                Preindustrial and Postindustrial stages.
    21. Define evolution? Why is it important?
             a. evolution -the change in a populations genetic makeup through successive
                generations (page 100)
             b. theory of evolution – all species descended from earlier, ancestral species
             c. major driving force of adaptation to changes in environmental conditions
    22. How much have global temperatures risen over the last hundred years?
             a. 0.6 degrees centigrade (page 450)
    23. Why would you not want to mine mineral resources from Antarctica?
             a. fragile ecosystem
    24. What does fragmentation of an ecosystem refer to? What are the effects?
             a. large, continuous area of habitat is (1) reduced in area and (2) divided into a
                patchwork of isolated areas or fragments. (p.573)
             b. threat to species extinction
    25. What is the major domestic use of water in the U.S. today?
             a. toilets
    26. How would you characterize tropical rainforest soils.
             a. thin horizons/nutrient poor
    27. What are the two major elements that make up the Earth’s crust?
             a. silicon and oxygen
    28. What is the ultimate source of energy for all of Earth’s ecosystems?
             a. sun

Dr. Sisson                                                                      2010-2011
    29. List the five major greenhouse gasses. (p.449)
             a.   H2O
             b.   CO2
             c.   NOx
             d.   CH4
             e.   CFCs
    30. What are the four different types of population pyramids and what does each tell
        us about what is happening to a country’s population? Be able to give examples of
        countries exhibiting each type.
             a. rapid, slow, zero, negative (p. 263)
    31. Know the nutrient cycles for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
             a. pages 84-89
    32. Know what ‘half-life’ refers to and how to calculate half-life characteristics.
             a. the time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and
                emit their radiation (p. 56)
    33. What are the major gasses found in the Earth’s atmosphere?
             a. Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)
    34. What are the major environmental problems facing the world today?
             a. Figure 1-9 (page 12) problems = Biodiversity Depletion, Food Supply, Waste
                Production, Water and Air Pollution
             b. Figure 1-10 (page 12) major causes = population growth, unsustainable
                resource use, poverty, environmental costs, too little knowledge
    35. What is carrying capacity? How would you illustrate it on a population growth
             a. The number of individuals of a given species that can be sustained
                indefinitely in a given space (page 191)
             b. Figure 9-5, page 193
    36. Define adaptation? Give some examples of species adaptation.
             a. A heritable trait that enables organisms to better survive and reproduce
                under a given set of environmental conditions. (page 101)
    37. How is crude oil processed? What are some of the products of refined crude oil?
             a. Heated and distilled in gigantic columns to separate it into components with
                different boiling points (page 355)
             b. Gasoline, aviation fuel, heating oil, diesel fuel, asphalt, petrochemicals
    38. What is a wetland and why is it important?
             a. Land covered with water all or part of the time (page 160)
             b. Flood control, water quality, biodiversity
    39. What are the different types of tectonic plate boundaries and what features are
        associated with each?
             a. Convergent boundaries, Divergent boundaries, Transform faults
             b. See page 208

Dr. Sisson                                                                    2010-2011
    40. What is a food chain, a food web, and what are trophic levels?
             a. A sequence of organisms, each of which is a source of food for the next
                (page 76).
             b. A complex network of interconnected food chains.
             c. Feeding levels (figure 4-18, page 77)
    41. What has happened to CO2 levels in world since the industrial revolution and what
        affect has this had on the environment?
           a. Increased / global warming
    42. What are the different types of genetic diversity?
             a.   Genetic diversity (page 76)- diversity within a species
             b.   Species diversity – variety among species)
             c.   Ecological diversity – variety among biological communities
             d.   Functional diversity – different processes of functions
    43. What does the Tragedy of the Commons refer to?
             a. overuse of common-property or free access resources (page 11)
    44. How is nuclear waste handled today?
             a. Stored on site (page 370)
    45. What are the stages of coal formation?
             a. Peat-lignite-bituminous-anthracite (page 363)
    46. In addition to melting glaciers and ice caps, what is causing a rise in ocean levels?
             a. Expansion due to increased temperature (page 461)
    47. Know what point and non-point sources of pollution are.
             a. Point source – single identifiable source (page 10)
             b. Non-point source – pollutants come from dispersed sources
    48. How much of the Earth’s water is fresh water? How much fresh water is available
        for use?
             a. ~2.6% /~ .6% (figure 14.2, page 314)
    49. What is biomass? In which ecosystems would you find the greatest biomass
             a. The dry weight of all organic matter contained in an organism. (page 77)
             b. Estuaries, swamp and marshes, and tropical rainforests (fig. 4-25, page 81)
    50. What are the characteristics of a National Forest, National Wildlife Refuge,
        National Park, and National Wilderness Area? (see pages 595-596)
             a. National Forest – used for logging, mining, livestock grazing, farming, oil and
                gas extraction, sport hunting and fishing (multiple use).
             b. National Wildlife Refuges – habitats and breeding areas for waterfowl and
                big game to provide a harvestable supply for hunters; a few protected
                endangered species. Permitted activities include sport hunting and fishing,
                oil and gas development, mining, logging, grazing (moderately restricted-use)
             c. National Parks – Only camping, hiking, sport fishing, and boating; motor
                vehicles must stay on roads; sport hunting by permit. (restricted use)

Dr. Sisson                                                                      2010-2011
             d. National Wilderness Area – recreational activities only; roads and motorized
                vehicles are banned. (restricted use)

    51. What is the greenhouse effect? How does it differ from global warming?
             a. Greenhouse effect – natural process that warms the Earth’s lower
                troposphere and surface. (page 448)
             b. Global warming – the enhanced greenhouse effect resulting from increased
                levels of greenhouse gases. (pp 448-449)
    52. Differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds. (pp. 49-50)
             a. Organic = contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds;
                hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, carbohydrates, DNA
             b. Inorganic = anything not organic
    53. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback loops. (page 45)
             a. Positive – changes in a certain direction provides information that causes a
                system to change further in the same direction.
          b. Negative – one change leads to a lessening of that change
    54. What is El Nino?
             a. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a change in climate patterns
                resulting from (1) the prevailing westerly winds weaken, (2) surface water
                along the South and North American coasts become warmer, and (3)the
                normal upwellings of cold, nutrient-rich water are suppressed. (pp. 119-120)
    55. What is eutrophication? What are the primary causes of cultural eutrophication?
             a. An excessive supply of nutrients, especially nitrates and phosphates, in
                water systems resulting in algal blooms. (pp. 157-158)
             b. Human inputs of nutrients from the atmosphere and from nearby urban and
                agricultural areas.

Dr. Sisson                                                                    2010-2011