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									                       COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES
                           GSM 460 SECTION B
                              Winter 2007
                                              Mary Shapiro

James Kouzes and Barry Posner in their “The Leadership Challenge identify one key leadership
practice as “Inspiring a Shared Vision.” A leader must “envision an uplifting and enabling
future,” and then she must enlist the support of others in moving towards that vision. There are
many ways a leader can enlist the support of others, writes Kouses and Posner: “identify your
constituents, find common ground, and develop your interpersonal competence.” The next
behaviors involve communication: “breathe life into your vision, speak positively, speak from the
heart, make the intangible tangible, and listen first and often.” Communicating persuasively and
in a way that motivates people to take action is essential to spurring action towards the vision.

Yet we have all hit major challenges in communicating: getting our point across accurately and
clearly, getting our idea heard in a meeting, persuading someone to change their behavior,
articulating a sensitive or unpopular message, or presenting in front of a large, diverse audience.

The goal of GSM460 is to provide students with the skills and strategies necessary to be effective
in enlisting the support of others, permitting them to use their business communication as a tool
for advancing their vision, agenda and career. Towards that end, the course enables the student to:

 COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES                       In fulfillment of SOM      And SOM GOAL
 COURSE OBJECTIVES                              PROGRAM GOAL:              LEARNING
        Diagnose the challenges to             #1 Analysis and            #1 Simmons students
         effective communication posed          Decision Making            will use appropriate
         by diverse styles, culture, gender     #2 Exercise of             quantitative and
         and virtuality, strategize ways to     Leadership and Power       qualitative information
         deal with those challenges, and        #3Strategies for Women     to identify critical
         practice their implementation          and their careers          problems and issues
        Practice the persuasion skills         #4 Global Perspective      #2 Simmons students
         critical for leaders enlisting the     #5 Social Responsibility   will develop and defend
         support of others, both one-on-                                   persuasively a set of
         one, in front of a large audience,                                recommendations.
         and in writing.

30% individual participation (see rubrics for Class Participation following)

      A note on reading: Wherever possible, articles are available on WebCt. Required articles
      will provide additional insight into the class cases and exercises. Those marked FYI are
      meant as additional resources that students can access as they wish on WebCT, or if not
      available on the web, in hard copy (as noted) in the library. While the instructor may not
      bring articles up for discussion in class, students may bring them up if there are topics they
      would like to discuss in greater detail.

35%   proposal (requirements listed in Syllabus section; see rubrics for Persuasive Writing

35%   formal presentation (see rubrics for Presentations following)

        Complete your “Communication Styles Diagnostic” which will be returned to you
        scored at our first class. Go to: web.simmons.edu/~shapiro/csd.html and type
        “MBA Winter 2007” in program field.

CLASS 1      January 9, 2007, 6-9 PM
              identify the barriers to understanding posed by differences in
                communication styles
              learn to adapt to their style, or to frame your own to reduce
              strategize how to be persuasive upwards in an organization

             READ: “Communication Styles on Team Dynamics” by Mary Shapiro

             READ:      “Persuasion” by Michael Hattersley

             READ: “Principles of Effective Persuasion” by Nitkin Nohria

CLASS 2      January 16, 2007 6-9PM
              identify the motivators under which people operate
              develop skills to uncover their needs and package your message as meeting
                those needs
              “Joan Fitzgerald”case: Strategies for promoting your vision

             READ: “Influence Without Authority” by Allan Cohen and David Bradford

             READ:      “The Necessary Art of Persuasion” by Jay Conger

             REVIEW QUESTIONS AND PREPARE: “Joan Fitzgerald” case:

          Q:     What challenges could Joan expect in her new job at Worldwide? What
                 barriers to building trust?

          Q:     Describe Joan‟s communication style. Did it “fit” with the organization‟s
                 culture? Give examples. What “red flags” should Joan have seen
                 indicating potential problems?

          Q:     What could Joan have done to more successfully enlist support for her

          PREPARE: If you were Joan Fitzgerald, what could you have said to the Vice
          Presidents to enlist their support? How would you state your vision? Put yourself
          in Joan‟s shoes and prepare a 2-minute statement (one page, double spaced) that
          states your vision clearly and persuasively.
               this statement will not be handed in (so no need to type it; it can be notes
                  from which you will speak extemporaneously)
               it will be shared orally with a small group of colleagues
               you will get feedback on how powerfully you presented your “vision” and
                  strategies for improving it

CLASS 3   January 23, 2007, 6-9PM
              use your body and the structure of your speech to convey authority
                and confidence
              identify ways in which women often sabotage their credibility
              channel nervous energy into physical behaviors which support and
                enhance your verbal message
              get the most impact out of your visual aids
              manage “question and answer” periods and other audience situations
                more effectively

          READ: “Persuasive Presentations: Know Your Audience” and “Package Your
                 Message” by Mary Shapiro

          READ: “Harnessing the Science of Persuasion” by Robert Cialdini

          READ: “Change the Way you Persuade” by Gary Williams and Robert Miller

CLASS 4   January 30, 2007, 6-9PM
              videotape a 5-minute presentation using visual aids
              receive and give feedback on delivery style from the audience

          PREPARE: a 5-minute speech that involves a persuasive element about an idea or
          something you are passionate about.
              you may use a speech you have recently made or are currently preparing for
                work; or discuss something pertaining to your work, industry, or something
                you are personally committed to or believe in
              it must involve persuading the audience to do something: whether it is to
                agree to take action, or to consider an idea
              it must include a clear statement of “vision,” benefit of acting, and
                proposed action step
              visuals may be used---flipcharts and overheads will be available in all
                locations; other media are available upon request
              speech notes are permitted (memorization is not necessary) but cannot be

CLASS 5   February 6, 2007, 6-9PM
              understand the underlying values and expectations driving
                “appropriate” behavior across cultures and gender
              identify the implications and strategies for communicating and
                managing in these different realities

          READ: “Communicating Across Cultures” by Mary Shapiro

          READ: “The Power of Talk: Who Gets Heard and Why” by Deborah Tannen

          READ: “How to Communicate Globally” by Ernest Gundling

          PREPARE: “Cross Cultural Dialogues” READ EACH AND:
             identify the value differences imbedded in the communication which are
               driving each person‟s expectations of the other
             strategize options for the “American manager” which would enable them to
               be more effective

CLASS 6   February 13, 2007, 6-9PM
              experience the challenges to communicating virtually
              understand the limitations, barriers, and challenges of communicating
                in writing, and/or not face to face
              strategize how to use electronic media effectively

          READ: “The Human Moment at Work” by Edward Hollowell

          READ: “Do You Speak Internet?” by Nancy Woodward

                  READ: “How Your Communication Style „Speaks‟ to Remote Colleagues”
                         by Maureen Sullivan

                  READ: “He-Mails, She-Mails: Where Sender Meets Gender” by Joyce Cohen

                  READ: “How to Email Like a CEO” by Bruce Headlam

FINAL             By February 21, 2007

                  READ: “Nuts and Bolts of Proposal Writing” by Mary Shapiro

                  WRITE AND HAND IN AT MBA OFFICE: 1-2 page (double spaced) proposal in
                  “memo format” (brief, bullets, TO: name of reader, etc. )
                      it can be one you have already written at work, or one composed for this
                      where you propose something (a project, an idea, a change) to a decision
                       maker (boss, board, etc.) and you are attempting to get their sign-off on it as
                       a result of reading your proposal
                      in a separate paragraph upfront, state your reader‟s Communication Style,
                       your Communication Style, the need(s) you perceive they have, and any
                       relevant history to help me understand the situation more accurately

Students are expected to collaborate on group projects, and permitted to study together for exams. Homework
assignments are expected to represent individual work only, unless the assignment sheet specifically states otherwise

I also expect you to adhere to the highest standards of honesty and integrity—in your dealings with me and with one
another. Please read and take to heart the sections on the honor system in the Simmons College Student Handbook.
You are expected to comply with all provision of the Simmons College Honor Code—violations will not be tolerated.

Reasonable accommodations will be provided for students with documented physical, sensory, systemic, cognitive,
learning, and psychiatric disabilities. If you have a disability and anticipate that you will need a reasonable
accommodation in this class, it is important that you contact the Academic Support Center early in the semester.
Call Ext. 2474, or stop by the center in the Palace Road building, Suite 304A. Students with disabilities receiving
accommodations are also encouraged to contact their instructor within the first week or two of the semester to
discuss their individual needs for accommodations.


Class 1                     PPT: Class 1 and 2 persuasion
                            Example: Influencing through Persuasive Communication
                            Behavioral Styles Summary
                            How to Increase/Decrease Your Style Components

                            Adjusting Communication Styles
                            Communication Styles on Team Dynamics
                            Persuasive Communication: Motivating People to Act
Class 2                     Learning Points from Joan Fitzgerald
                            Ten Commandments of Influencing Without Authority
                            Best Practices of Persuasion
Class 3                     PPT: Class 3 presentations
                            Strategies for Persuasive/Visionary Presentations
                            Strategies for Controlling Nerves
                            Choosing a Visual Aid
Class 5                     PPT: Gender and culture


                                           PERSUASION ARTICLES

The Language of               By Robert Cialdini       To persuade others, think and speak in terms of personal
Persuasion                                             relationships.
Storytelling that Moves       HBR interview with       A major Hollywood writer talks about increasing your
People                        Screenwriter Robert      persuasiveness by telling compelling stories
To Get Heard, Get in Tune     By James Wilson          Know what‟s important in your company and link your
with Your Company‟s                                    proposal to it.
Rhetorical Key
What you Say, What They       By Anne Field            The more uncertain the situation, the more likely
Hear                                                   employees won‟t correctly process what you say
A Winning Proposition         By Janice Obushowski     Good concise advice for proposal writing

Writing an Executive          By John Clayton          Quick tips for mastering the summarize-and-sell approach
Summary That Means                                     needed to craft compelling executive summaries
On the Folly of Rewarding     By Steven Kerr           Classic research on how we often reward people for
A while hoping for B                                   undesired behavior

One More Time: How do         By Frederick Herzberg    HBS classic research on motivation
you Motivate Employees
Mastering the Art of          By Betty Marton          Communicate your passion with vivid language and
Persuasion                                             compelling evidence

Carrots, Sticks and Self-     By Alfie Kohn            Classic discussion of how rewards don‟t motivate people
Can‟t Buy Me Love             By Bob Filipczak     Money isn‟t the motivator we all think it is
                                       PUBLIC SPEAKING ARTICLES

How to Structure a                                     The Gettysburg Address as an example of persuasive
Persuasive Speech                                      speech writing
Managing Bad News in          By James Lukaszewski     Written in 1990, couldn‟t be more relevant today

Coping with Stage Fright,     By John Daly              Summary of strategies for coping with pre-speech jitters

Presentations and the                HBS article        Strategies for structuring a presentation with some creative
Greeks                                                  differences

Five Winning Ways to                 HBS article        Many ideas for beginning a presentation
Begin a Presentation

The 20th Century‟s Greatest          HBS article        A deconstruction of Martin Luther King‟s memorable
Speech---What made it so                                speech
Are Your \Presentations              HBS article        Six strategies for making your speech more inspiring
Telling the Numbers Story         HBS Working       How to give data-dense presentations in a compelling way
                               Knowledge Newsletter
                                  VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION ARTICLES

E-Body Language Decoded       By Robert Whipple         Strategies for effective emails
You are what you write: Six   In Public Relations       More strategies for effective emails
ways to Ensure that Your      Quarterly
Emails Make---Not Break--
-Your Career
Five Challenges to Virtual    By Krikman, Rosen,        Strategies for dealing with virtual teams
Team Success                  Bison, Tesluk,
Managing the Life Cycle of    By Stacie Furst, et.al.   Strategies for dealing with virtual teams
Virtual Teams
No Moment of Silence          By Donald Norman          Strategies for protecting yourself from constant intrusions
                                                        by technology

Rules for the Wired           By Marjorie Brody         Tips for virtual communication
Do You Know the Rules         By Loretta Prencipe       Tips for running a virtual meeting
and Manners of an
Effective Virtual Meeting?
E-Etiquette                   By Dana May Casperson     Tips for email communication

Out of Sight, Out of Mind     By Carolyn Hirschman      Managing virtual employees
Can I Apologize by E-         By David Stauffer         Guidelines for delivering difficult messages

Does Bill Gates Know from     By Michael Hattesley      More email strategies

Learn to Be a Distance        By Donald Weiss           Pitfalls and advice for managing virtually
Gender and Virtual Work       By Maureen Scully    Summary of research conducted by Simmons‟ Center for
                                                   Gender in Organizations
                                   CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Preventing Culture Crashes    By Reena Jana             Strategies for creating a workplace that accommodates
                                                        many cultures
Spinning Your Wheels?         By Cornelius Grove        Strategies for dealing with virtual and cross-cultural

Successful Global Teams                               issues in teams
Know how to Gain
                                        MANAGEMENT ARTICLES

Is Silence Killing Your     By Perlow and Williams    The price of employee silence is great…so what can you
Company?                                              do about it?
Management Time: Who‟s      William Oncken            A “must read” HBS general management article on
Got the Monkey?                                       upward delegation and how changing your language may
                                                      change your workload
Nobody Trusts the Boss      By Fernando Bartolome     HBS classic article on creating the trust needed for
Completely—Now What?                                  upward flow of communication

15 Ways to Win People‟s     By Perry Pascarella       The foundation of your ability to persuade is trust
Hidden Messages             By Michael McCaskey    How images, setting, and body language may be
Managers Send                                      speaking louder than your words
Managing Social Distance    By Rob Goffee and      Understanding the political peril you face when
in Flat Companies           Gareth Jones           communicating and not recognizing the real hierarchy
                                                   that exists in flat organizations
                                          PROPOSAL WRITING
Winning Project Approval:   By John McLaughlin     Concise outline for making your case; while he is writing
Writing a Convincing                               for a facilities management audience, the outline is
Business Case for Project                          powerful for all applications
How to Write a Business     By Keith Schilit          More strategies
Build Your Case to          By James McAlister        More strategies

                            PRESENTATION RUBRICS AND FEEDBACK

     TRAIT      SCORE            4 score                       3 score                        2 score                     1 score
Structure and           Structure of speech           Structure of speech            Structure of speech           Structure of speech is
Content                 totally transparent (intro,   mostly transparent.            vaguely or inconsistently     indiscernible or has
                        body, conclusion) through                                    transparent                   some sections missing
                        use of “bridge” statements
                        and data hierarchy clues.
                        Introductory section          Introductory section           Introductory section          Introductory section
                        includes all components:      includes most components       includes a few                is missing
                        name, credentials, topic                                     components, and/or
                        statement, need/problem,                                     includes only a name and
                        agenda, attention getter                                     topic statement
                        Develops in the               Develops a mostly clear        Develops a somewhat           Does not include a
                        introductory section a        and compelling benefit of      clear and plausible benefit   benefit of listening
                        clear and compelling          listening                      of listening
                        benefit of listening

                        Sequence of topics in         Sequence of topics is fairly   Sequence of topics is         Sequence of topics is
                        body section is logical       logical                        somewhat logical              indiscernible

                        Organization is very          Organization is mostly         Organization is somewhat      Organization is
                        transparent through the       transparent through fairly     transparent through the       indiscernible
                        consistent use of             consistent use of “bridges”    inconsistent use of
                        “bridges” and verbal          and verbal hierarchy           “bridges” and verbal
                        hierarchy (punctuating                                       hierarchy
                        main points and
                        subordinating supporting
                                                      Main points mostly well        Main points somewhat          Main points not
                        Main points well              supported with data and/or     supported; some missed        supported, and/or
                        supported with data           examples; may have some        opportunities for support     support not obvious,
                        and/or examples;              creativity in arguments        and use of creativity         and/or no creativity in
                        exhibited creativity in                                                                    arguments
     TRAIT      SCORE            4 score                       3 score                        2 score                     1 score
                            Conclusion section            Conclusion section             Conclusion section            Conclusion section is
                            includes all components:      includes most components       includes a few points         missing.
                            summary of main points,                                      and/or only includes a
                            benefits of acting, and                                      “thank you”
                            next steps (where
Physical Delivery           Eye contact length is 3-5     Eye contact length is          Eye contact length is rare    Eye contact is non-
                            seconds per person            slightly brief per person                                    existent

                            Eye contact coverage          Eye contact coverage           Eye contact coverage          Eye contact coverage
                            includes every person in      includes most people, and      includes a few people, and    does not include any
                            audience; pauses when         mostly pauses when             sometimes speaks while        people, and/or time is
                            reading notes or PTT          reading                        reading                       spent only on reading
                                                                                                                       notes or PPT
                            Gestures are all              Gestures are mostly            Gestures are sometimes        Little to no gestures
                            meaningful, of great          meaningful, some variety in    meaningful, little variety    and/or hand movement
                            variety in size, and are      size, and usually deliberate   in size, and occasionally     is distracting from
                            consistently deliberate in    in pace                        deliberate in pace            verbal message
                            Frequent and meaningful       Some meaningful                No meaningful                 Body movement
                            movement around the           movement around the            movement; stays rooted        includes swaying
                            stage                         stage                                                        pacing or other
                                                                                                                       distracting behaviors

                            Quiet upper body and          Mostly quiet upper body        Occasionally umecessary       Unnecessary and/or
                            good posture                  and good posture               upper body movement           distracting upper body
                                                                                                                       movement and posture
                            Voice is consistently solid   Voice is mostly solid in       Voice is inconsistently       Voice may be hard to
                            in volume, deliberate in      volume, deliberate in pace,    solid in volume, deliberate   hear, is too fast or too
                            pace, and professional in     and professional in tone       in pace, and professional     slow in pace, and/or
                            tone                                                         in tone                       may be distracting with
                                                                                                                       the use of non-words
                                                                                                                       or other speech
                                                                                                                       idiosyncrasies; tone
                                                                                                                       may be inappropriate
                                                                                                                       for topic/audience
      TRAIT         SCORE            4 score                        3 score                       2 score                     1 score

 If used, Use of                   Consistently interacts       Frequently interacts with    Occasionally interacts          Never interacts with
 Visuals                           with and controls the        and controls the attention   with and controls               visuals, and/or may
                                   attention on her visuals     on her visuals               attention on her visuals        turn her back to her
                                                                                                                             audience to read from
 If used, format of                All slides significantly     Most slides contribute       Some slides contribute          Slides do not
 PPT                               contribute to the verbal                                                                  contribute
                                   message‟s clarity and
                                   All slides use color, font   Most slides are consistent   Some inconsistent use of        Apparently random use
                                   size and font style, and                                  color, size, style and titles   of color, size, style and
                                   title style consistently                                                                  titles

                                   Images are used              Images are frequently used   Images are rarely used          Images are not used
                                   consistently where           where possible
                                   possible to enhance the

                                   The 6 x 6 rule (maximum      The 6 x 6 rule is followed   The 6 x 6 rule is followed      Most slides are too
                                   of 6 words on 6 lines) is    on most slides               on a few slides, too            textually dense
                                   followed on all slides                                    textually dense on others

 FINAL SCORE:                       Comments:
 A= 33 and above*
 A- = 30-32
 B+ = 27-29
 B= 24- 26
 B- = 20-23
* If using PPT, then A = 52 and above,
A- = 47-51, B+ = 42-46, B = 35-41, B- = 28-34

                                         CLASS PARTICIPATION RUBRICS

      TRAIT          SCORE              4 score                     3 score                   2 score                 1 score
Frequency and                 Spoke frequently in all       Spoke fairly frequently     Rarely spoke            Didn‟t contribute.
timing of                     classes                       in most classes.
                              Participated in all aspects   Sometimes waited to         Made one or two brief
                              of a class discussion from    enter the conversation in   comments in class
                              beginning to end              the middle or late in the
Quality of Comment           Analyzed facts of case with    Often drew comments         Sometimes drew          Talked loosely,
                             high level of sophistication   from facts of case;         comments from the       sometimes pulling
                             and integrated theoretical     and/or talked about         case, rarely included   facts from case and
                             materials into analysis        theories but did not        theories                sometimes not;
                                                            integrate the two

                             Always supported               Usually supported           Sometimes               Usually made
                             comments with facts from       comments, frequently        supported comments,     comments with no
                             the case, theories, or data    with data beyond the        usually only with       supporting arguments
                             from class or outside class    case                        data from the case

                             Frequently provided rich                                   Rarely provided         Did not provide
                             and relevant examples          Sometimes provided          examples, most of       examples, or
                             from own experiences or        relevant examples,          them relevant           provided irrelevant
                             other sources                  usually relevant                                    ones

                             Consistently revealed prior    Frequently revealed prior Rarely revealed prior     Could not explain
                             preparation by                 preparation               preparation;              concepts or analysis
                             incorporating course                                     comments often a
                             concepts and new data                                    recap of prior

      TRAIT          SCORE            4 score                       3 score                   2 score                1 score
Effect of Comments           Consistently moved the         Frequently moved the        Sometimes moved        Often took the
                             discussion forward and/or      discussion forward          the discussion         discussion off topic
                             added to the richness          and/or added to the         forward and/or added   (with no tie-in to
                             through new content,           richness of the             to the richness        previous comments);
                             compelling questions, or       discussion                                         or did not contribute
                             different opinions/ideas                                                          to discussion (by
                                                                                                               repeating the
                             Comments often built                                       Comments sometimes     comments of others);
                             upon/synthesized               Comments usually built      were a leap in the     or moved the
                             discussion with a clear        upon previous discussion    discussion             discussion backward
                             segue                                                                             (by revisiting a
                                                                                                               previous topic)

                             When offering a different      When offering a             When offering a        When offering a
                             or opposing view,              different or opposing       different or           different or
                             consistenly offered            view, usually did so in a   opposing view,         opposing view, may
                             comments in a constructive     constructive way            occasionally got       have done so
                             way that encouraged the                                    defensive or           argumentatively, or
                             debate to continue                                         argumentative          included ridicule or
Quality of                   Always spoke with clarity      Usually spoke with          Inconsistently spoke   Comments often
Presentation                 (main point upfront            clarity                     with clarity           lacked structure or a
                             followed by relevant                                                              clear point
                             supportive data)

                             Always spoke with              Usually spoke with          Inconsistently spoke   Often included
                             conviction (no qualifiers or   conviction                  with conviction        qualifiers and
                             apologies)                                                                        apologies

                             Always spoke with              Usually spoke with          Inconsistently spoke   Often spoke too softly
                             confidence (solid volume,      confidence                  with confidence        to be heard, and/or in
                             firm tone)                                                                        a passive or unsure

      TRAIT          SCORE            4 score                       3 score                   2 score                1 score

Levels of          Through body language          Through body language   Body language gave    Body language
Engagement         (eyes, posture, face),         showed active           little or no          revealed a total
                   showed active                  participation in most   indication of         disengagement
                   participation in all classes   classes                 engagement            (“checked out”)

                   When opposed by others,        When opposed by others, When opposed by       Withdrew in the face
                   always remained active         usually remained active others, sometimes     of a challenge or
                   and balanced advocacy (of      and balanced            withdrew or           opposition
                   own position), compromise,                             capitulated quickly
                   or acknowledgement of
                   superior comment

 FINAL SCORE:      Comments:
 A= 33 and above
 A- = 30-32
 B+ = 27-29
 B= 24- 26
 B- = 20-23

                                      PROPOSAL RUBRICS AND FEEDBACK

      TRAIT           SCORE            4 score                       3 score                       2 score                    1 score
Opening: catches              States primary                States primary conclusions,   Includes only some of the    Missing many of the
reader’s attention            conclusions and               recommendations, and          necessary components         necessary components
                              recommendations, and          benefits of acting as         (conclusions,
                              benefits of acting as         proposed.                     recommendations,
                              proposed in a creative and                                  benefits) and/or includes
                              provocative way.                                            all in a rote, mechanical
Body: Links                   Consistently explains the     Usually explains the data/    Sometimes connects data      Does not explain
proposed action and           data/ interpretations in      interpretations in terms of   and conclusions to the       “what‟s in it for me” or
benefits                      terms of how it impacts       how it impacts the reader     reader                       makes unreasonable
                              the reader (“what‟s in it     (“what‟s in it for me?”)                                   connections.
                              for me?”)
Compelling                    Concisely summarizes          Summarizes main points        Has an incomplete            Does not have a
conclusion                    main points and               and recommendations           summary of main points;      summary of main
                              recommendations                                                                          points

                              Creates a positive and        Includes some benefits of     Includes a weak benefit of   Is missing a benefit of
                              compelling vision of the      taking action.                taking action                acting; may introduce
                              future with appealing                                                                    new information at this
                              benefits of taking action                                                                point
Communication                 Consistently adjusts the      Mostly adjusts the level of   Inconsistently adjusts       Does not adjust to the
Style of reader               level of detail, directness   detail, directness of         detail, directness, and      reader‟ style
                              of language, and tone to      language, and tone to the     tone to reader;
                              the reader                    reader

                              Selects several benefits      Most benefits are fairly      Selects benefits that are    Does not include
                              which are very meaningful     meaningful to the reader      vaguely meaningful to        benefits, and/or
                              to the reader given their                                   reader                       includes benefits not
                              communication style                                                                      appealing to reader‟s

                    Employees numerous              Employees some               Employees few structuring    Does not employee
                    structuring strategies to       structuring strategies       strategies                   structuring strategies to
                    appeal to the                                                                             appeal
                    communication style of
                    the reader (titles, length of
                    paragraphs, bullets, tables,
                    as appropriate)

Grammar, Usage      Free of spelling,               Few, if any, spelling,       Some spelling,               Frequent errors in
and Mechanics       capitalization, and usage       capitalization, or usage     capitalization, or usage     spelling, capitalization,
                    errors                          errors                       errors                       or usage errors

                    No fragments or run-on          Few fragments or run-ons     Some fragments or run-ons    Many fragments or
                    sentences                                                                                 run-ons
                                                    Few errors in punctuation    Some errors in punctuation
                    Few, if any, errors in                                                                    Serious and frequent
                    punctuation                                                                               punctuation errors
Structure and       Structure is totally            Structure is mostly          Structure is vaguely         Structure is not at all
Support             transparent (proposed           transparent                  transparent                  obvious, and/or is
                    action, need, benefit)                                                                    missing elements
                    through the use of bridges,
                    titles, formatting

                    All main ideas are well         Most main ideas are fairly   Some ideas are supported,    Little or no support of
                    supported by details such       well supported               and/or are partially         main ideas, and/or
                    as data or examples                                          supported                    supporting data is
                                                                                                              contradictory or

FINAL SCORE:        Comments:
A = 30 and above
A- = 27-29
B+ = 24-26
B = 20-23
B- = 19 and below


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