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					               Lesson One            Thinking as a Hobby


Part One Warm-up


I. Picture Description
Please describe the following pictures in detail and depict their symbolic
meaning in your own words.
Compare your answer with that of the author, and try to find their symbolic
meaning in the boy’s (the author) eyes.

II. Quotations on Thinking
“Intelligence is something we are born with. Thinking is a skill that must be
learned.” —Edward de Bono
“Most people can’t think, most of the remainder won’t think, and the small
fraction who do think mostly can’t do it very well.” —Robert Heinlein
     “I think, therefore I am.” —René Déscartes
“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”—Socrates“We
think too small. Like the frog at the bottom of the well. He thinks the sky is only
as big as the top of the well. If he surfaced, he would have an entirely different
view.”—Mao Zedong “Thinking is what a great many people think they are
doing when they are merely rearranging their prejudices.” —William James
“Nurture your mind with great thoughts.” —Benjamin Disraeli
“What is the hardest task in the world? To think.” —Ralph Waldo Emerson
III. What Is Your Story?
Have you got an anecdote or true story about your school life?
Would you like to tell it to your partner?

Part Two        Background Information
I. Author
Sir William Gerald Golding (September 19, 1911—June 19, 1993) was an
English novelist, poet and winner of 1983 Nobel Laureate in Literature:
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the
diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world
of today.”
The Author’s BackgroundBorn on September 19, 1911 at St. Columb Minor,
a village near Newquay, Cornwall, he started writing at the age of seven.
He went to Oxford University (Brasenose College) in 1930, where he studied
natural sciences and English language. His first book, a collection of poems,
appeared a year before Golding received his BA.
He married Ann Brookfield, an analytical chemist, in 1939. He became a
teacher of English and philosophy at Bishop Wordsworth’s School in
Salisbury.
During World War II he served in the Royal Navy and was involved in the
sinking of Germany’s mightiest battleship, the Bismarck. He participated in
the invasion of Normandy on D-Day and at war’s end went back to teaching
and ]writing.
In 1961 his successful books allowed Golding to leave his teaching post and
he spent a year as writer-in-residence at Hollins College in Virginia. He then
became a full-time writer. He received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II
in 1988.
William Golding died in his home at Perranarworthal, near Truro, Cornwall on
June 19, 1993.
William Golding’s main works
Poems (1934);Lord of the Flies (1954);The Inheritors (1955);Pincher
Martin (1956)
Free Fall (1959);The Spire (1964) ;Darkness Visible (1979)
The Trilogy Rites of Passage (1980, Booker Prize)
Close Quarters (1987);Fire Down Below (1989), republished under the
general title To The Ends of the Earth
Quotations of the author Language fits over experience like a straight-jacket.
My yesterdays walk with me. They keep step, they are gray faces that peer
over my shoulder. Novelists do not write as birds sing, by the push of nature.
It is part of the job that there should be much routine and some daily stuff on
the level of carpentry. II.Rodin’s Thinker
Resting on the horizontal panel above the doors, The Thinker became the
focal point of The Gates of Hell and subsequently perhaps the most
well-known sculpture of all time. The athletic-looking figure, inspired by the
sculpture of Michelangelo, depicts a man in sober meditation, yet whose
muscles strain with effort—possibly to evoke a powerful internal struggle.
Rodin initially referred to the figure as Dante but eventually what we know as
The Thinker evolved into a more symbolic representation of creativity,
intellect, and above all—thought.
Goddess VenusAs Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty, Venus is associated
with cultivated fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the
Greek Goddess of Love, Aphrodite

Part Three Text Appreciation
I. Text Analysis 1. Theme: Thinking is not just for professional thinkers like
philosophers. It is something all educated people should enjoy doing, and it is
considered one of the most precious qualities in young scholars for the healthy
mental development.
2. Structure
Part 1 (Paras. 1—24 ) about: How the subject of thinking was first brought up
to the author and his understanding of the nature of “grade-three thinking”
Part 2 (Paras. 25—29) about: The author’s analysis of the nature of
“grade-two thinking”
Part 3 (Paras. 30—35) about: The author’s understanding of the “grade-one
thinking” and his desire for it
3. General Analysis
How are the three statuettes described by the boy and what do they
symbolize?
Venus
naked with nothing but a bath towel; no arms; in an unfortunate positionfrozen
in panic, worrying about the towelbusying being beautifulLeopard
crouching; naked ready to spring down at the top drawer from the
cupboardbusy being natural
Rodin’s Thinker
naked, muscular, who sat, looking down; his chin on his fist and elbow on his
knee utterly miserable; contemplate the hindquarters of the leopard in endless
gloom not miserable, an image of pure thoughtQuestion: What do the
three statuettes symbolize? What effect do the boy’s descriptions have?
They represented the whole of life. The leopard stood for all animal needs or
desires; Venus stood for love and the Thinker stood for thinking as a uniquely
human feature.
An humorous and sarcastic effect has been achieved by the author’s
description of the statuettes, which established a background to support his
later analysis of three grades of thinking and some human natures.
Question: How did the author describe the following figures to
demonstrate his analyses of different grades of thinking?
Headmaster: nothing human in his eyes, no possibility of communication
(not understand his students)
Me, the boy: delinquent, not integrated, misunderstanding the symbolic
meaning of the statuettes, couldn’t think
Mr. Houghton: ruined by alcohol, preaching high-moral life but showing
hypocritical and prejudiced nature
A pious lady: who hated German with the proposition of loving enemies
Question: How did the author describe the following figures to
demonstrate his analyses of different grades of thinking?
Ruth: foolish argument, illogical and fled at last
British Prime Minister: talking about the great benefit conferring on India by
jailing Nehru and Gandhi
American politicians: talking about peace and refusing to join the League of
Nations
Me, the author: not easily stampede, detect contradiction; turned into a
professional thinker
The summary of the characteristics of the three grades of thinking
Thinking Grade-three Ignorance, hypocrisy, prejudice, self-satisfied,
contradictions
                 Mr. Houghton, nine tens of people
Grade-two Detecting contradictions; do not stampede easily; lag behind, a
                withdrawal, destroy but not create Ruth, the author, (maybe)
some acquaintances
Grade-one To find out what is truth, based on a logical moral system
        far and few between, only in books
4. Further Questions on Appreciation1. What does the author mean when he
say “… I dropped my hobby and turned professional”?2. Why is the author
much more conclusive and informative about grade-three and grade-two
thinking than about grade-one? What do you think grade-one thinking is?
Have you got any indication from the essay?3. Give examples of Golding’s
wit. Does his sense of humor and the use of some writing devices help him
achieve his purpose in this essay? Give some examples

II. Writing Devices1. Metonymy : It will lecture on disinterested purity
while its neck is being remorselessly twisted toward a skirt.(girls) (Para. 23)
In metonymy, an idea is evoked or named by means of term designating some
associated notion. “It” stands for “thought” in grammar, but actually refers to
Mr. Houghton, and it is vulgar to refer to a girl as a skirt.
The burglar was in Sally’s mind all day long. (burglar=some idea of the
burglar)
•Democracy favors the vote rather than the bullet. (Vote=election,
bullet=military solutions)
•“Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.” (Mao Zedong refers it to
the military revolution)
Bill Gates is the king of operating systems worldwide. (Bill Gates =
Microsoft)• The pen is mightier than the sword. (pen = writer; sword =
fighter)2. Synecdoche : Synecdoche can be included in metonymy, and it
refers to the substitution of the part for the whole or of the whole for the partIf
we were counting heads, the Buddhists were the boys for my money. (Para. 27)
(head = person)
There are two mouths to feed in my family. (mouth = person)
God bless the hands that prepared this food. (hand = person3. Irony :Irony is
the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the
opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
Technically, it is about as proficient as most businessmen’s golf, as honest as
most politicians’ intentions, or as coherent as most books that get written.
(Para. 23)
Mr. Houghton was given to high-minded monologues about the good life,
sexless and full of duty. (Para. 20)
4. Hyperbole : It is the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration to
achieve emphasis. For instance
You could hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the
unnatural impediments. His body would reel with shock and his face go white
at the unaccustomed visitation. He would stagger back to his desk and
collapse there, useless for the rest of the morning. (Para. 19)
5. Simile: It makes a comparison between two unlike elements having at least
one quality or characteristic in common. To make the comparison, words like
“as”, “as... as”, “as if” and “like” are used to transfer the quality we associate
with one to the other.
e.g. They all came tumbling down like so many rotten apples off a tree. (Para.
31)
Man enjoys agreement as cows will graze all the same way on the side of a
hill. (Para. 24)
6. Metaphor : It is like a simile, also makes a comparison between two unlike
elements, but unlike a simile, this comparison is implied rather than stated.
e.g. He seems to me ruled not by thought but by an invisible and irresistible
spring in his neck. (Para. 20)
e.g. It took the swimmer some distance from the shore and left him there, out
of his depth. (Para. 29)
III. Sentence Paraphrase
1.I was not integrated, Forming a part of a harmonious group I was, if
anything, (on the contrary)disintegrated. (Para. 4)---The direct opposite of
“integrated”, and therefore means some kind of trouble maker. This is not the
way the word is normally used.
if anything
  a. 如果有什么(区别)的话
  b. 恰恰相反
e.g. I never had to clean up after him. If anything, he did most of the cleaning.
     I’m not ashamed of her. If anything, I’m proud.
2.The muscular gentleman contemplated the hindquarters of the leopard
in endless gloom. (Para. 9)
---The author expressed the boy’s viewing of the image of Thinker in a
humorous way to show that the thinking doesn’t make any sense to him3. His
spectacles caught the light so that you could see nothing human behind
them. There was no possibility of communication. (Para. 9)
---The teacher’s glasses caught the light and therefore the boy could not see
the teacher’s eyes. He could not have any eye contact. He could have any
communication with him. The implied meaning of this sentence is that they
could not communicate, not because of this but because of the teacher’s lack
of understanding of the boy.
4.On one occasion he headmaster leaped to his feet, reached up and put
Rodin’s masterpiece on the desk before me. (Para. 13)
Three parallel verb phrases are used to describe the sequence of his
actions5.to one’s feet 站起来
to leap to one’s feet 一跃而起 to rise to one’s feet 站起身来 to struggle to
one’s feet 挣扎着站起来 to stagger to one’s feet 蹒跚而立 to help sb. to one’s
feet 扶某人站起来 to pull sb. to his feet 把某人拉起来
6.Nature had endowed the rest of the human race with a sixth sense (A
keen intuitive (直觉的) power. Here the author means the ability to
think)and left me out. (Para. 15)---Everybody, except me, are born with the
ability to think.
7.You could hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the
unnatural impediments. His body would reel with shock and his face go
white at the unaccustomed visitation. He would stagger back to his desk
and collapse there, useless for the rest of the morning. (Para. 19)
--Note the humorous effect achieved through the use of the exaggeration and
formal style
8.Mr. Houghton was given to high-minded monologues about the good life,
sexless and full of duty. (Para. 20)
--Obviously in Mr. Houghton’s clean life, there is no place for alcoholic drink,
sex, and other worldly pleasures. This is, of course, ironical.
9.Yet in the middle of these monologues, if a girl passed the window, his
neck would turn of itself and he would watch her out of sight. In this
instance, he seemed to me ruled not by thought but by an invisible and
irresistible spring in his neck. (Para. 20)
---The author is ridiculing the contradiction between his high moral tone and
the working of his genes which compels him to turn his head toward young
girls.
10.Technically, it is about as proficient as most businessmen’s golf, as
honest as most politicians’ intentions, or as coherent as most books that
get written. (Para. 23)
--This ironical sentence shows that the author not only considers those people
incompetent, dishonest and incoherent, but also despises most businessmen,
distrust most politicians and dislikes most publications11. I no longer dismiss
lightly a mental process. (Para. 24)
---I no longer consider the way grade-three thinkers think unimportant
because they account for nine-tenths of the people and therefore have great
power. Now I know that ignorance, prejudice and hypocrisy are very powerful
enemies.
12. A crowd of grade-thinkers, all shouting the same thing, all warming
their hand at the fire of their own prejudices… Man enjoys agreement as
cows will graze all the same way on the side of a hill. (Para. 24)
--The author thinks that it is probably human nature to enjoy agreement
because it seems to bring peace, security, comfort and harmony.
13.It set me watching the crowds cheering His Majesty the King and
asking myself what all the fuss was about, without giving me anything
positive to put in the place of that heady patriotism. But there were
compensations. (Para.25)
---It made me watch people shouting in joy and support of the King and
wonder what this senseless excitement was all about although I did not have
anything good to replace this exciting or intoxicating patriotism. But I did get
something out of it.
14.She claimed that the Bible was literally inspired. I countered by saying
that the Catholics believed in the literal inspiration of Saint Jerome’s
Vulgate and the two books were different. Argument flagged. (Para. 26)
--“Both Methodists and Catholics believed that their Books are a true record
of the God’s divine plan.” The author used this example to defy Ruth’s
illogical opinion, therefore the argument became dull because Ruth didn’t
know how to respond to it.        15.That was too easy, said I restively since
there were more Roman Catholics than Methodists anyway; … (Para. 27)
---Here, the author pointed out Ruth’s logical error. The number of people
who hold a view is no proof of its validity.
16.I slid my arm around her waist and murmured that if we were
counting heads, the Buddhists were the boys for my money. She fled. The
combination of me arm and those countless Buddhists was too much for
her. (Para. 27)
---Note the author’s description of the contrasting combination of his intimate
action and strong defiant expressions, which eventually made Ruth withdraw
and give up as a grade-two thinker.
17. I was given the third degree to find out what had happened. I lost
Ruth and gained an undeserved reputation as a potential libertine. (Para.
28)
---The author lost his girlfriend and won a bad name even as a grade-two
thinker, satisfying himself by finding out deficiencies but not seeking for the
truth.
Note the effect of the author’s self-mockery.
18.To find out the deficiencies of our elders satisfies the young ego but
does not make for personal security. It took the swimmer some distance
from the shore and left him there, out of his depth. (Para. 29)
The author uses this metaphor to express the idea that grade-two thinking has
its limitations. It does not have anything positive to offer.
19.I came up in the end with what must always remain the justification
for grade-one thinking. I devised a coherent system for living. It was a
moral system, which was wholly logical. (Para. 31)
---According to the author, grade-one thinking must be based on a coherent
and logical system for living, in other words, a moral system, without which
you cannot prove yourself to be a grade-one thinker. Judging by the context,
this system probably refers to one’s world outlook and basic political beliefs
and moral principles.
20.Had the game gone too far? In those prewar days, I stood to lose a
great deal, for the sake of a hobby. (Para. 33)
---In those prewar days when many people were fully worked up to a political
frenzy, it was very dangerous to voice different opinions. You might lose
friends or your job.
21.Now you are expecting me to describe how I saw the folly of my ways
and came back to the warm nest… (Para. 34)
---Now you think I will tell you how I gradually saw my stupidity in being a
grade-two thinker and therefore decided to give it up and return to the
majority of grade-three thinkers.
22.But you would be wrong. I dropped my hobby and turned professional.
(Para. 35)
---But you guessed wrong. I did not drop my hobby of thinking ( here, we can
say he might give up the hobby of grade-two thinking). Instead I went further
and became a professional thinker.
I. Word Study
1. Acquaintance
n. a. (CN) a person whom one knows
  b. (UN) knowledge or information about something or someone
        n. acquaintanceship
v. acquaint: to come to know personally; to make familiar; to inform;
Examples:
Mrs. Bosomley has become merely a nodding acquaintance.
Few of my acquaintances like Sheila.
The guide has some acquaintance with Italian.
He has a wide acquaintanceship among all sorts of people.
Examples:
Let me acquaint you with my family.
You must acquaint yourself with your new duties.
Please acquaint us with your plans.
Expressions:be (become, get) acquainted with:
I am already acquainted with the facts.
make sb.’s acquaintance (make the acquaintance of sb.):
So pleased to have made your acquaintance.
2. anguishv. (vi.) to feel or suffer anguish
          n. agonizing physical or mental pain; torment
          a. anguished
Examples:She was in anguish over her missing child.anguished cries
3. bulgev. to curve outward; to swell up; to stick out
       n. a. a protruding part; an outward curve or swelling         b. a sudden,
usually temporary increase in number or quantity
Examples: His pocket was bulging with sweets.
           The baby boom created a bulge in school enrollment.
4. protrude
v. to push or thrust outward; to jut out
Examples:
Helen’s teeth protrude too far.
The policeman saw a gun protruding from the man’s pocket.
Nails protruded from the board and had to be removed for safety.
5. conferv. a. to bestow (e.g. an honor) 授予
  b. to invest with (a characteristic) 赋予;使带有
     c. (vi.) to meet in order to deliberate together or compare views 协商
Examples:
The government conferred a medal on the hero.
Diplomas were conferred on members of graduating class.
The engineers and technicians are still conferring on the unexpected accident.
6.award
  v. a. to grant as merited or due
    b.to give as legally due
Examples:
Martin Ruther King Jr. was awarded the peace Nobel Prize of 1964 for
advocating nonviolence policy in the movement for civil rights.
He was awarded his damages in the shipwreck by the court.
7.contemplatev. a. to look at attentively and thoughtfully
           b. to consider carefully and at length;
           c. to have in mind as an intention or possibility
Examples:
She stood contemplating her figure in the mirror.
The young surgeon contemplated the difficult operation of kidney transplant.
She is contemplating a trip to Europe, but she hasn’t planned it yet.
8.contemptn. scorn; a feeling that sb. or sth. is not important and does not
deserve any respect
Example:
I feel nothing but contempt for such dishonest behavior.
Expressions: be beneath contempt; bring into contempt
                hold in contempt; in contempt of
contemptible: deserving of contempt; despicable 卑劣的,可鄙的
contemptuous: manifesting or feeling contempt; scornful 鄙视的;看不起;
鄙视的
Examples:
It was contemptible of him to speak like that about a respectable teacher!
It was a contemptible trick to tell lies and play on an old friend!
He was contemptuous of Britain’s army.
Seeing I failed to understand, he gave me a contemptuous look.
exaltv. a. to raise in rank, character, or status       b. to glorify, praise, or
honor
           c. to increase the effect or intensity of
     exalted
  a. excited; noble; exaggerated
Examples: Complementary colors exalt each other.
            He was exalted to the position of president.
            The retiring professor is exalted by his colleagues.
            an exalted dedication to liberty
            He has an exalted sense of his importance to the project.
10. heady a. Try to translate the following phrasesheady liqueur / the
heady news of triumph
a heady outburst of anger/ a heady current
heady tactics /too heady to reason with
11.hustlevt. a. to convey in a hurried or rough manner
     b. to cause or urge to proceed quickly
     c. to gain by energetic effort
      vi. to work or move energetically and rapidlyExamples:
The police hustled the prisoner into a van.
Mother hustled the children off to school lest they should be late.
We hustled to get dinner ready on time.
impedimentn. a. a fact or event which makes action difficult or impossible
    b. an organic defect preventing clear articulation
Examples:
The main impediment to development is the country’s huge foreign debt.
He has an impediment in speech. 他讲话口吃。
13.hinder: to hold back, as by delaying (implying stopping or prevention)
The travelers were hindered by storms throughout their journey.
hamper: to hinder by or as if by fastening or entanglingA suit and an overcoat
hampered the efforts of the accident victim to swim to safety.
14.impede: to slow by making action or movement difficult
Sentiment and eloquence serve only to impede the pursuit of truth.
obstruct: implies the presence of obstacles that interfere with progress
A building under construction obstructs our view of the mountains.
block: to complete obstruction that prevents progress, passage, or action
A huge snowdrift is blocking the entrance to the driveway.
dam: suggests obstruction of the flow, progress, or release of something, such
as water or emotion
They dammed the brook to form a swimming pool15.bar: to prevent entry
or exit or prohibit a course of action
         Mounted troops barred access to the presidential palace.
16.. integratev. a. to make into a whole by bringing all parts together; to unify
   b. to join with something else; unite
disintegrate: to become reduced to components, fragments, or particles
Examples:
Many suggestions are needed to integrate the plan.
The teachers are trying to integrate all the children into society.
The extracted case was so old it just disintegrated when a worker picked it up.
17.muscular
 a. a. of, relating to, or consisting of muscle
 b. having well-developed muscles
 c. having or suggesting great power; forceful or vigorous
Examples:
a muscular build 一副强壮的体格;muscular contraction 肌肉的收缩
muscular advocacy groups 有力的拥护团体
proficient
a. having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art,
vocation, profession, or branch of learning
  n. an expert; an adept
Examples:
A proficient surgeon is the product of lengthy training and experience.
She is proficient at/in figure skating.
stampede
  v. to (to cause to) flee in panic or to act on mass impulse n. a. a sudden
frenzied or headlong rush or flight
      b. a mass impulsive action
Examples:
Rumors of a shortage stampeded people into buying up food.
a herd of stampeding cattle
a stampede of support for the candidate 纷纷支持那个候选人

II. Phrases and Expressions 1.at the time
at a time 在······时候 at all times 在任何时候,经常 at one time 一度,曾经
at the time 那时候 at times 有时候 at the same time 尽管如此,            同时 at the best
of times       在最有利的时候 2.do away with
They have done away with corporal punishment in our school. 废除体罚
The city has decided to do away with overhead wires. 消除高架线
They agreed that privileges must be done away with. 取消特权
The robbers did away with their victims. 干掉受害者
It is about time all this obsolete machinery was done away with. 处理掉旧机
器 3. few and far betweenExamples: In Nevada the towns are few and far
between.
             Really exciting games are few and far between.
  Places where you can get water are few and far between in the desert.
as far as 就······而言;只要;一直走到                    by far 最······,······得多
far and away 无疑地(和 adj. adv.最高级连用 far and near 到处,四面八方
far and wide 到处,各处 so far, so good 到目前为止,一切顺利。so far from
非但不,相反······no fewer than 有······之多,至少有 not a few 不少,相当
多 quite a few (a good few) 好些,相当多 the few 少数(有特殊要求的)
人
We searched _____ for the missing child.
____; I hope we keep on with such good luck.
He is ____ the best-prepared candidate for the Presidency.
They should be concentrated in one place ____ this is reasonable.
There were ____ 500 people present.
____ readers wrote letters of commendation to the magazine.
____ taking my advice, he went and did just what I warned him against.
Keys:       far and near/far and wide/So far, so good/far and away/as far as/no
fewer than/Not a few So far from
4. for (one’s) moneyaccording to one’s opinion, choice, or preference
依照某人的意见、选择或偏好
Example:For my money, it’s not worth the trouble.
I wouldn’t give him my dog for love or money. 1.无论如何,           不管以任何代价
After years of struggle and dependence, air transportation is in the money1.非
常有钱,有利可图
Dick’s uncle died and left him money to burn. 1.大量的钱
It is a bit expensive, but you get your money’s worth. 1.花钱值得
to put money on outcome of a race1.为······打赌
5.in the fleshin the person, presentExamples:
I have corresponded with him for some years,but i have never met him in the
flesh.
He is nicer in the flesh than in his photograph.
flesh and blood:血肉之躯
Those sorrows are more than flesh and blood can bear.
The author doesn’t give his characters any flesh and blood.逼真的形象
make one’s flesh creep: 使人毛骨悚然
His story made my flesh creep.
thorn in the flesh: 肉中刺
The guerrilla band was a thorn in the flesh of the invaders.
6.lag behindto fail to keep up a pace; to straggle
Examples:The elder people and children always lag behind when we go for a
walk.
Don’t let a single classmate lag behind.
He wondered darkly at how great a lag there was between his thinking and his
actions. 他暗暗惊讶于自己在思想和行动上有如此大的差距 7.make forto
have or cause to have a particular effect or result; to help promote; to go to a
place or rush forward
Examples:small details that make for comfort
Thoughtfulness makes for closer relationships.
This book makes for very enjoyable reading.
The convoy made for the open sea.
As soon as it started to rain we turned round and made for home.
8.nothing butExamples:Don’t have him for a friend: he’s nothing but a
criminal.
He had nothing for supper but a little piece of cheese.
Nothing but roses meets the eye.
nothing doing 毫无,决不 nothing if not 极其,极端 nothing like 没有什么
能比得上 nothing less than 不亚于, (强调其多、    完全                其大 nothing more than
仅仅,只不过(强调其少、其小)nothing much 非常少,没什么 nothing of
the kind 哪里,不行 “Let’s go for a boat ride!” “Nothing doing!”He was
nothing if not clever.
There’s nothing like a holiday to make one fell rested.
Studying that lesson should take nothing like four hours.
That’s nothing less than a miracle. (=no less than)
The drops didn’t get very big, and the earth received nothing more than a
drizzle. (=no more than)
“Anything interesting happening?” No, nothing much.
“I’m sorry to cause you trouble.” “ My dear friend, it’s nothing of the kind.”.9.
on… occasion
He talked about his work on every occasion.
She was invited to the Master’s room on several occasions.
On occasion, we feel like celebrating and have a party.
On one occasion, he landed in a deserted car park.
out of one’s depth 水深过头;超越自己的能力;理解不了的
Examples:Jack was not a good swimmer, add nearly drowned when he drifted
out beyond his depth.
I am out of my depth when it comes to natural science.
in depth 广泛地;彻底地
a study in depth of the poems
explore a subject in depth
an in-depth study
11. not think well of :not think much of 看轻
think better of sb. 对某人印象好;看重某人 think better of sth. 改变······念
头;打消主意 think highly of 看重;器重 think well of 重视 think little of 看
轻;看不起              think poorly of 不放在眼里;轻视
think nothing of 轻视;认为无所谓;认为没什么了不起
12. stand by
a. to remain uninvolved; to refrain from acting
b. to remain loyal to; to aid or support
c. to keep or maintain
d. to be ready or available to actExamples:He stood by me through all my
troubles.
The police are standing by to control the crowd if it is necessary.
You should always stand by your promises.
You can’t stand by and allow such a thingIII. Word Building
1. Prefix—hind-located at or forming the back or rearExamples:
hindquarters n. 后腿,臀部
hindlimb (hind legs a.) n. (动物或昆虫的)后肢,下肢
hindsight n.枪的表尺,后瞄准器;后见之明,事后聪明
       I now know with hindsight that I did him a
       terrible wrong. 我事后才明白我完全冤枉了他。
hindmost a. 最后面的, 最后部的 2. Suffix— -ette
a. small; diminutive 表示小的,小型的
b. female 表示女性的
c. an imitation or inferior kind of cloth 表示仿造品或衣料质地较差的
a. kitchenette 小厨房                     novelette 中或短篇
luncheonette 小餐馆                  launderette 自动洗衣店
b. usherette 女引座员                       drum majorette 鼓乐
   bachelorette 未婚女子
c. leatherette 人造革 3. Derivative:
  orate: orate v. to speak in a formal, pompous manner
oration n.
  a formal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion; a speech
delivered in a high-flown or pompous manner
orator n.
one who delivers an oration; an eloquent and skilled public speaker
oratory n.
the art of public speaking; eloquence or skill in making speeches to the public;
public speaking marked by the use of overblown rhetoric
4. Suffix— -fer-fer:from Latin: ferre = to carry 携带
fertile 肥沃的,多产的                                afferent 传入的
defer 推迟,延期,听从,服从                              proffer 提供
efferent 传出的,输出管                               infer 推断
offer, differ, refer, suffer, transfer, prefer
IV. Grammar 1.ParallelismI . The method of expressing ideas of equal
importance in
      the same or similar grammatical form is called PARALLELISM.
Parallel constructions: listing, contrast,   choice, comparison
all shouting the same thing, all warming their hands at the fire of their
prejudices —two absolute constructions (listing)
not by thought; by an invisible and irresistible spring in his neck. —two
prepositional phrases (contrast)
To be or not to be, that is a question. —two infinitive phrases (choice)
Crawling up down a mountain is sometimes harder than climbing up. —two
participle phrases. (comparison)
1.For further information, you can either consult an encyclopaedia or surf the
Internet. —two verb phrases (choice)
2.In the past ten years people, especially old people, have been concerned
more about their health than about their income. —two noun prepositional
phrases (comparison)
3.The unemployed man wanted a job rather than welfare. —two nouns
(contrast)
4.Many things cannot be learned in the classroom, such as planning one’s time,
working on one’s own and managing one’s affairs. —three participle phrases
(listing)
2. The Use of ComplementNext to her, crouched the statuette of a leopard,
ready to spring down… —adjective phrase as subject complementYou could
hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the unnatural
   impediments. —past and present participles as object complementIt took
the swimmer some distance from the shore and left him there, out of his depth.
—prepositional phrase as object complementMore examples:Tired and sleepy,
I went to bed.
Lincoln was born a poor farmer’s boy and died President of the United States.
People are just born what color they are.
As a true friend he stood by me to the end.
John wears his hair very long.
Can I have this parcel weighed here?
I called this robbing Peter to pay Paul.
As the main eating implement, the Chinese use chopsticks every day.
Part Five Extension

I. Oral Work
Retell the story about how the author lost his girlfriendGive a brief description
of the three grades of thinking with your own illustrationsII. Quiz
Quiz 1
  Indicate if each statement is True (T) or False (F) according to your
understanding of the text.1.The author’s grade-three thinking is mainly
shown in his ignorance when he was a child.2. To the headmaster, the three
statuettes meant love, nature and thought respectively.
3. The author was glad that the pious lady personally taught him a great truth
in thinking.
4. The author thought that grade-three thinkers were numerous and mustn’t be
overlooked5. Because of grade-two thinking, the author became separated
from other people who were grade-three thinkers.
6. Grade-one thinkers are persons of reason and logic.7. When the author grew
up, he did not have the hobby of thinking any more.
8. To the author, the three statuettes meant three levels of
thinking.1.T2.T3.F4.F5.F6.T7.F8.F
Quiz 2
1. The safari hunter was nearly _____ to death by a herd of elephants.
    A. stampeded       B. trampled     C. trod   D. stamped
2. She felt that she was too ______ with problems to be able to study properly.
    A. burdened      B. tired      C. grieved    D. disturbed
3 The roof ______ under the weight of the snow.
    A. fell    B. submerged      C. collapsed    D. descended
4. Juvenile _______ is becoming a very difficult problem for society to
overcome.
    A. negligence      B. crime C. delinquency D. offence
5. The current spirit of _____ among the various departments of the university
have led to a number of interdisciplinary publications which might not
otherwise have been written.
    A. competition      B. patriotism     C. cooperation D. futility
6. Ben derived a lot of ______ from his boss’s apology.
    A. comfort      B. ease    C. gratification     D. satisfaction
7. His criticism injured Jenny’s ______. So she is feeling sad now.
   A. divinity B. indignity C. ego            D. mind
8. Hundreds of people ______ on the playground for watching the Dragon
Lantern Show.
   A. contrived     B. conformed       C. conferred      D. converged
9. Beware of the cream on the floor. An elderly lady ______ and fell down
there just not.
   A. spilled B. slipped C. slid           D. split
10. She had been educated in England, which accounted for her ______ in the
English language.
A. efficiency     B. proficiency C. effectiveness          D. effectuality
11. A sweet smile is a figurative expression, but sweet coffee is a ______ one.
    A. literal   B. literary C. literate       D. illiterate
12. I missed the last bus. I could do nothing but ______ in the village for the
night.
   A. staying    B. stayed C. to stay D. stay
13. International football matches do not always make ______ better
understanding between countries.
   A. up B. for          C. into    D. out
14. Cambridge can look very attractive ______ of year.
A. at the same time      B. at one time C. at this time        D. at times
15.There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, ______ a
sudden loud noise.
A. being there      B. should there be C. there           D. there having been16.
______ for the timely investment form the general public, our company would
not be so thriving as it is.
   A. Had it not been      B. Were it not C. Be it not        D. Should it not be
17. According to one belief, if truth is to be known it will make itself apparent,
so one ______ wait instead of searching for it.
 A. would rather        B. had to     C. cannot but D. had best18. The school
board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers ______ for.
        A. be demonstrating            B. demonstrate
        C. had been demonstrating             D. have demonstrated
19. We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style
______ in a personal one.
 A. rather than B. other than         C. better than     D. less than
20. The business of each day, ______ selling goods or shipping them, went
quite smoothly.
   A. it being  B. be it C. was it               D. it was
D AC C C D C D B B A D/C B C B                  AD CAB

Quiz 3 1. I had an _________ desire to run away. (resist)
2. I believe he has never ___________ explained how he came to be in
such a condition. (satisfy)
3. The senator was known for his ______. (orate)
4. An electronic sound system represents the _________ of thousands of
components. (integrate)
III. Writing “The world we have created is a product of our thinking; it
cannot be changed without changing our thinking.”—Albert EinsteinWrite an
essay about 200 words to expound your opinions on this quotation. Try to
support your idea with examples and draw a natural conclusion to your essay.
IV. Listening Lab 1. “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill,
that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any
friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”
—John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address2. “I’ve tried to offer leadership to the
Democratic Party and the Nation. If, in my high moments, I have done some
good, offered some service, shed some light, healed some wounds, rekindled
some hope, or stirred someone from apathy and indifference, or in any way
along the way helped somebody, then this campaign has not been in vain.”
—Jesse Jackson, 1984 Democratic National Convention Address
3. “We have seen the state of our Union in the endurance of rescuers, working
past exhaustion. We’ve seen the unfurling of flags, the lighting of candles, the
giving of blood, the saying of prayers—in English, Hebrew, and Arabic.”
—George W. Bush, 9-20-01 Address to the Nation on Terrorism4. “... and that
government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from
the earth.” —Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address (here delivered by Jeff
Daniels)5. “We have petitioned and our petitions have been scorned. We have
entreated and our entreaties have been disregarded. We have begged and they
have mocked when our calamity came. We beg no longer. We entreat no more.
We petition no more. We defy them.” —William Jennings Bryan

				
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