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									Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                                        2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003




THEMATIC NETWORK: “IMPROVED QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN
        THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
                    PROCESSING INDUSTRY” ICA3-CT-2000-30004



2nd WORKSHOP:


                            “CANNING AS A TOOL IN FOOD PROCESSING
                                   FROM THE FIELD TO THE MARKET”
                           22-25 February 2003, Tel-Aviv (Israel) spain2.ppt - 1




Prof. Dr. María-Teresa Sánchez
Department of Food Technology
College of Agriculture and Forestry
University of Cordoba (Spain)




Financial support by the Commission of the European Union under MEDA programme is acknowledged.
Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                 2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003



1. THE CANNING FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INDUSTRY IN SPAIN

The process of modernisation of Spanish agriculture has drastically altered the role that this
sector used to play within Spanish economic activity as a whole. This role is now focused on
helping to sustain the demand of other industrial and services activities and in supplying a
powerful Spanish food industry, which has become a key sector of the Spanish economy as a
result of this development.

The EU food and drinks industry is the top-ranking branch of the manufacturing industry in
terms of production value and one of the most important in value added. Spain occupies a
relevant position.

The Spainsh cannery industry occupies an important position in the Spanish Food industry as a
whole, as may be seen in the adjoining tables and graphs. spain2.ppt - 2; spain2.ppt - 3;
spain2.ppt - 4; spain2.ppt - 5

1.1. How fruits and vegetables are canned?

The processing is rapid and highly mechanised.

Produce is harvested at its optimum maturity and nutritive value. While some fruits and
vegetables are hand picked much produce, including peas and tomatoes, is mechanically
harvested. All produce is then carefully inspected for q uality at the food canning plants.

The product is prepared with minimal, careful handling. Computer controls increase efficiency
and product quality. spain2.ppt - 6

Various unit operations are included in the slide spain2.ppt - 7

2. MAIN SPANISH CANNNG INDUSTRIES spain2.ppt - 8; spain2.ppt - 9

2.1. Tomatoes and products spain2.ppt - 10; spain2.ppt - 11; spain2.ppt - 12

During 2000/2001, an estimated 1,320,000 Metric tons of tomatoes were delivered to the
industry: 140,000 Metric tons were processed into whole peeled tomatoes; about 230,000 Metric
tons were processed under the category of "Others", with about 50 percent of this quantity made
into puree peeled tomatoes "tomate triturado"; and 950,000 Metric tons were processed into
tomato paste.

For the next few years an increase in exports of paste and canned tomatoes is expected due to an
increase in raw material availability.




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Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003




2.2. Canned deciduous fruits in Spain spain2.ppt - 13

Consumption of canned fruit in Spain is difficult to determine. Regarding trade, Spain’s canned
peach exports increased in 2000/01, while pear exports decreased. Spain's canned fruit imports,
minor in comparison with production and exports, remained at similar levels in 2000/01. As
Spain is a major producer and exporter of canned fruits, U.S. exporters have limited potential in
this market.

Spain’s 2000/01 canned peach production was estimated at 183,000 tons. A total of about
165,000 metric tons of fresh peaches was delivered to the canning industry during that marketing
year, reflecting the increase of fresh production. The Spanish fresh peach crop for the current
campaign is estimated at 1,044,575 metric tons, an 11 percent increase from last year. Fresh
peaches used for canning in Spain are the clingstone variety. spain2.ppt - 14; spain2.ppt - 17;
spain2.ppt - 18

No large increases in canned peach production are expected, as it is regulated by the demand.
The total EC processing threshold for peaches will be established at 504,594 metric tons and
104,378 for pears, of which 180,794 metric tons and 35,199 metric tons, respectively, will be
assigned to Spain.

EU Regulation 1237/2000, of June 14, 2000, fixed for the 2000/01 marketing year the minimum
price to be paid to producers for peaches and the amount of production aid for peaches in syrup
and/or natural fruit juice at 28,368 EUR/100 Kg net and 4,134 EUR/100 Kg. net, respectively.

The Spanish canned pear production in 2000/01 was estimated at 37,700 metric tons, slightly
below the previous year. An estimated 33,000 metric tons of Williams and Rocha pears were
delivered to the industry. spain2.ppt - 15; spain2.ppt - 19; spain2.ppt - 20

EU Regulation 1285/2000, of June 19, 2000, established for the marketing year 2000/01, the
minimum price to be paid to producers for Williams and Rocha pears and the amount of
production aid for Williams and Rocha pears in syrup and/or natural fruit juice at 35,552
EUR/100 Kg net, and 11,348 EUR/100 Kg net, respectively.

There are no distinguishing trends in Spain’s canned fruit consumption, other than year-to-year
fluctuations reflecting changes in supply. Underlying demand remains stable, and consumption is
forecast to remain fairly stable in 2001/02. spain2.ppt - 16
2.3. Soups and complete meals canning spain2.ppt - 21

A wide range of SOUPS AND SNACKS AND PREPARED MEALS are canned in Spain.
Canned soup preparation is similar to preparing home- made soup. Meat is cooked in water and
stock and vegetables are added along with herbs, spices and flavouring. The soup may be
thickened with starch or flour.
3. JUICE PRODUCTION INDUSRY IN SPAIN spain2.ppt - 22; spain2.ppt - 23; spain2.ppt -
24
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Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                 2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003




An estimated 700,000 metric tons, about the same level as during the previous year, of fresh
oranges were delivered to processors in 1999/00, resulting in 45,500 tons of orange juice (65
Brix). Deliveries during 2000/01 were higher due to the higher demand for the final product.In
Spain, oranges are not grown specifically for juice production. Oranges for juice are primarily
those that have been rejected for fresh consumption. Like the orange production, most orange
juice plants are located in the Valencia region and some in Andalucia (2.9 kilograms of fresh
oranges yield 1Kg of single strength orange juice, 16 kilograms yield 1 Kg. of concentrated
orange juice.)
Orange juice exports during 2000/01 were similar to the previous campaign. About 50 percent of
the total tonnage imported was concentrated orange juice, and the remaining is "single strength,"
while a large percentage of orange juice exported, mainly to other EU countries, was "single
strength".

4. STANDARS AND REGULATION APPLICTION IN THE CANNING INDUSTRY
AND SAFETY OF CONSUMERS

Food canning is a long established and well understood technique which has served consumers
well for nearly 200 years. It produces shelf stable products that can be stored at ambient
temperatures.
How canning protects food: spain2.ppt - 25No chemical preservatives are needed in the food
canning process.
Standards, regulations and monitoring:

Manufacturers and retailers of processed foods, including canned foods must comply with
standards and regulations of the Spanish government and the European Union.In large food
manufacturing companies, like FOOD CANNERIES, there has been a trend to monitoring
quality systems developed by the company. Increasingly, these quality systems are being audited
by third party, certifying bodies to international standards such as the International
Organisation for Standardization (ISO 9000) series.spain2.ppt - 26
 The benefit for consumers is that, if a quality system is in place, corrective action can be
implemented at critical control points more effectively than final product checking either at
manufacturing or retail level.
What makes food canning so safe?

The simplicity of the canning process and the thoroughness of the heat sterilising process mean
that incidences of inadequate processing are extremely rare in the production of a billion cans of
food a year for human consumption in Spain.

The canning industry was one of the first to adopt the HACCP principles of food safety. H-A-C-
C-P stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. This is a preventative approach
identifying potential food safety hazards at various stages of food production, assessing the
related risks and employing resources at critical points for effective process control. HACCP,
often in concert with ISO 9000 certification of quality systems, helps ensure that canned foods
are safe. The degrees to which the canning process is controlled, records kept of parameters at
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Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                  2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003



control points and performance monitoring, all contribute to the assurance of safe product, all the
time.spain2.ppt - 27

So what could possibly go wrong with canned food?

Once canned food is produced, poor transportation or storage practices might cause problems
through denting or damage to the can seams. Resultant leaks could allow contamination to enter
the can and the contents to spoil. Poor handling and storage conditions may also result, over
time, in rusting of the outside of the can. Normally this is just unsightly but, in extreme cases,
may cause leakage.
Fortunately, steel cans are one of the most tamper-evident and safe forms of packaging.

MANUFACTURERS, RETAILERS AND CONSUMERS ALL PLAY A PART IN FOOD
SAFETY
Manufacturers' Responsibilities and Concerns

As with most processed food in Spain, canned food is sold under the names of the manufacturer's
or sometimes, a supermarket's brand. Each brand name has an image which reflects the standing
of the manufacturer or brand owner in the eyes of the consumer.

The consumer's expectations of the quality and distribution of their products is of vital concern to
each manufacturer and brand owner. Enormous damage is done to a brand name if it is
associated with food safety breaches.
Food safety is also in the hands of your retaile r

The Spanish Canning Industry recommends that you check canned foods before you purchase
them. Badly dented cans should be rejected and drawn to the attention of the management of the
retail outlet. Cans which have stained labels might indicate poor storage practices and a possible
leak - these should also be rejected.

5. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIAS FROM THE
CANNING FACTORIES

Recycling is a vital part of caring for the environment. spain2.ppt - 32
Steel is the most recycled product in the world on an industrial scale as well as in the home.

Steel scrap is a necessary component in the steelmaking process. Both steel and tin are able to be
reused an infinite number of times.

Steel can recycling makes good economic, as well as environmental, sense. It makes a
substantial saving on landfill space requirements and it helps conserve Spanish's resources.



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Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                                 2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003



Steel cans help save energy spain2.ppt - 33Because there is no need for refrigeration in the
transport and storage of steel food cans, less energy is used than with frozen foods and the many
fresh foods that must be kept refrigerated.

Using old steel cans to make new steel also preserves Spanish's energy and resources. For every
tonne of steel scrap recycled, around 1.5 tonnes of iron ore, one tonne of coke and half a tonne of
limestone are saved in the production of a tonne of steel.
Steel food cans should all be recycled spain2.ppt - 34
Once you've used the contents, food cans (including petfood cans) just need to be rinsed, not
scrubbed, for sanitary reasons before they are placed in the recycling crate or bin - there's no
need to remove the label.

The contents of your recycling bin are collected from the kerbside and the steel cans and other
materials are taken by the truck to Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs). There, the steel cans
are magnetically separated from the other recyclables. The cans are compressed into bales ready
for transport to steelworks.

The tin coating used to protect against corrosion is removed in some cases before the steel is
reused. All the steel cans are then combined with other steel scrap and melted in a furnace to
make new steel which is then used to make new steel products.
The recycling of cans is shown in the slide spain2.ppt - 35; spain2.ppt - 36
6. LEGISLATIVE AND LEGAL MATTERS CONCERNING TO THE CANNING
INDUSTRY IN SPAIN

The main legislation and the standards of the canning industry sub-sector are: ; spain2.ppt - 37

REGULATION (EC) NO 2200/96 ON THE COMMON ORGANISATION OF THE
MARKET IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES.
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/43 EC, 14 JUNE 1993 ON THE HYGIENE OF
FOODSTUFFS, for instauration of HACCP and manual of good practices for food
manufacture in farms and industries.•THE PACKAGING AND PACKAGING WASTE
MANAGEMEN. DIRECTIVE 94/62/EC, 20 December de 1994, (Doce l n.° 365, of 31-12-
1994).
SPANISH LAW 11/1997, of 24 of April, OF THE PACKAGING AND PACKAGING
WASTE MANAGEMENT (BOE n.° 99, of 25-04-1997).

Other legislation and standards: spain2.ppt - 38
DIRECTIVA 2001/112/CE del Consejo, de 20 de diciembre de 2001, relativa a los zumos de
frutas (fruit juices) y otros productos similares destinados a la alimentación humana(DO L nº
10 de 12 de enero de 2002).

DIRECTIVA 2001/113/CE del Consejo, de 20 de diciembre de 2001, relativa a las confituras,
jaleas y "marmalades" de frutas, (jellies and marmalades) así como a la crema de castañas
edulcorada, destinadas a la alimentación humana (DO L nº 10 de 12 de enero de 2002).


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Thematic Network ICA-CT-2000-30004                               2 nd WORKSHOP, February 2003



Real Decreto 2420/1978, de 2 de junio, por el que se aprueba la Reglamentación Técnico-
Sanitaria para la elaboración y venta de conservas vegetales. (canned vegetables) (BOE nº
244 de 12 de octubre y corrección de errores en BOE nº 267 de 8 de noviembre).

Resolución de 1 de agosto de 1979, de la secretaría de Estado para la sanidad, por la que se
aprueba la lista positiva de aditivos autorizados para uso en la elaboración de conservas y
semiconservas vegetales (aditives) (BOE nº 249 de 17 de octubre y corrección de errores en
BOE nº 308 de 25 de diciembre).

Orden de 21 de junio de 1983 sobre características y formatos de envases de conservas
vegetales, zumos vegetales y derivados y platos pre parados cocinados esterilizados. (BOE nº
155 de 30 de junio).

Orden de 13 de febre ro de 1984, del ministerio de Economía y hacienda, por la que se dictan
normas de calidad para exportación de conservas y semiconservas vegetales. (BOE nº 54, de 3
de marzo de 1984 corrección de errores en BOE nº 78, de 31 de marzo de 1984).

Real Decreto 1412/1994, de 25 de junio, por el que se autoriza la elaboración de néctares de
frutas sin adición de azúcares o de miel. (BOE nº . 216 de 9 de septiembre).

Orden de 21 de noviembre de 1984 por la que se aprueban las normas de calidad para las
conservas vegetales. (BOE nº 287, 288 y 289 de 30 de noviembre, 1 y 3 de diciembre y
correcciones de errores en BOE nº 9, 10 y 11 de 9, 10 y 11 de enero de 1985). spain2.ppt - 39

Real Decreto 1044/1987, de 31 de julio, por el que se regula la elaboración de zumos de uva en
armonización con la normativa comunitaria. (BOE nº 207 de 29 de agosto).

Orden de 27 de abril de 1988, del ministerio de Relaciones con las cortes y de la secretaria del
gobierno, por la que se aprueban los métodos oficiales de análisis de zumos de uva (BOE nº
110, de 7 de mayo de 1988).

Orden de 29 de enero de 1988 de ministerio de Relaciones con las cortes y de la secretaría del
gobierno por el que se aprueban los métodos oficiales de análisis de zumos de frutas y otros
vegetales y sus derivados. (BOE nº 31, de 5 de febrero de 1988 y corrección de errores en BOE
nº 95, de 20 de abril de 1988).

Real Decreto 670/1990, de 25 de mayo, por el que se aprueba la norma de calidad para
confituras, jaleas y mermelada de frutas, cre ma de castañas y mermelada de frutas. (BOE
nº 130 de 31 de mayo y corrección de errores en BOE nº 224 de 18 de septiembre).

Real Decreto 1650/1991, de 8 de noviembre, por el que se aprueba la Reglamentación Técnico-
Sanitaria para la elaboración y venta de zumos de frutas y de otros productos similares. (BOE
nº 278 de 20 de noviembre).



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