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Ppt for Marketing Strategies in Travel N Tourism

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					Economic Significance of College
Baseball as a Tourism Attraction:
          A Pilot Study

          A N T H O N Y W. D I X O N
                           Introduction



 Sport tourism:
   “All forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity,
    participated in casually or in an organized way for non-commercial
    or business reasons that necessitate travel away from home and work
    locality” (Standevan and DeKnop, 1999, p. 12)
                      Introduction


 Three types of sport tourism:
   Active

   Passive/Event

   Nostalgia
                       Introduction

 Primary motivation for hosting sporting events is the
  anticipated economic impact.

 U.S. event sport tourism generated $27 billion in 2001.


 In 2001, 38% of U.S. adults attended a sport event as
  spectator or participant, while on a trip of 50 miles or
  more.
                          Introduction

 Future research:
   Active and passive client profiles (Kurtzman & Zauhar, 1995)

   Examine aspects of sporting event spectators (Getz, 1998)

   Collegiate sporting event spectators and significance as tourism
    attractions (Irwin & Sandler, 1998)
   Lack of research on U.S. college sporting events and as a community
    tourism attraction (Gibson et al., 2003)
                              Purpose

 Why college baseball?
   32 of top 40 college universities with highest attendance (x=104,742)
    are in South Region


 Statement of Purpose:
   The purpose of this research is to determine whether college baseball
    is a tourism attraction and estimate the economic impact of the
    activity.
                  Research Questions

 RQ1: Is college baseball a tourism attraction?


 RQ2: Is there a difference between weekday and weekend
  game spectators?

 RQ3: What are expenditure patterns of non-local
  residents?

 RQ4: What is economic impact of college baseball
  spectators on the local economy?
                         Methods

 On-site sampling
 Systematic sampling with a random start
 Research assistants systematically collecting email
  addresses
 Participants sent link to online questionnaire
 N = 347
 Response rate = 52.3%
                                 Findings


 Total sample:
     70% of respondents non-residents of study region
     64% of these respondents were non-students and non-residents
     36.5% of these respondents stayed overnight
     Attendance = 140,040
     Estimated non-resident attendance = 98,168
     Average travel distance to stadium was 61 miles
     Financially responsible for 1.6 people
     Age = 41
     71.4% college or graduate educated
     52.9% had annual household income $75,000 or above
     61.5% male; 38.5% female
                                 Findings

 Weekday games:
   60% non-residents of study area

   50.9% of these respondents were non-students/residents

   12.3% of these respondents stayed overnight

   Estimated attendance = 34,120 non-resident/student
       Overnight = 4,197
       Sport excursionists = 29,923

     Average travel distance was 33 miles
     Financially responsible for 1.43 people
                                      Findings

 Weekend games:
   82% non-residents of study area*

   73% of these respondents were non-students/residents*

   51.6% of these respondents stayed overnight*

   Estimated attendance = 64,075 non-resident/student
       Overnight = 33,063
       Sport excursionists = 31,012

     Average travel distance was 93 miles*
     Financially responsible for 1.84 people*


  * Significant at .05 alpha level.
                                               Findings

Average expenditures of non-local residents in study area.

                                                   Total   Weekend    Weekday
Retail                                            $12.93     $21.09     $4.32*
Eating/drinking                                    24.57      35.96     11.34*
Accommodation                                      18.96      32.90      3.51*
Game (tickets, concessions)                        20.89      29.68     11.17*
Recreational activities (golf, fishing, etc)        2.01       2.00       2.17
Entertainment                                       0.36       0.64       0.08
Auto-gas/service                                   20.50      24.70      16.25
Other                                               0.40       0.60       0.21
Total                                            $100.62    $147.57    $49.05*
                                                  N=347      N=154      N=193
* Significant at .01 alpha level.
                      Findings

 Economic impact of Clemson Baseball (2008)
   Non-resident spending: $6,828,320

   Direct: $5,146,960

   Indirect: $1,105,016

   Induced: $698,046

   Total: $6,950,016

   Jobs: 105
                             Application

 Tourism organizations
   Develop relationship with University Athletic Departments

   Market local attractions

   Additional activity available to potential visitors

   Initiate strategies to covert day trippers to overnight visitors

 Local businesses
   Develop relationship with University Athletic Departments

   Sponsorship or other marketing activities

 Local government
   Foster relationship with University Athletic Departments
                              Application

 Significant economic impact
   Sport tourism as economic development strategy

   Justify public subsidies to support promotion of college baseball

   Expenditure patterns:
      Athletic departments can use to increase sponsorships
      Local businesses can use to develop more effective marketing strategies
       to target potential customers
                           Conclusion

 Results indicate college baseball may be tourism
 attraction.
    Weekday games mainly entertainment activity of local residents
    Weekend games have large number of visitors staying overnight and
     day trippers
 College baseball does provide significant economic
  impact on local economy.
 Encourage communication between local government,
  university athletic departments and tourism organizations.
Questions

				
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