Ppt on Lamp Technology

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					Skyscrapers

Skyscraper Chronology
       Compiled by J. Mitchell            Update                   1/7/2005

Year      Type    Item                    Architect               SF Rent     Height Stories Cost   FAR   City     Country    Significance
1850   Technology Permanent bath & WC                                                                              USA        First installed in white house - sewers critical
1854   Technology Safety Elevator         Otis                                                                     USA        Made passenger elevator acceptable
1871     Event Chicago Fire                                                                              Chicago USA          Made vast construction desirable
1874   Technology Radiator                Baldwin                                                                  USA
1879   Technology Incandescent Lamp       Edison                                                                   USA        Edison proudest of parallel circuit, system
1884    Building Home Life Insurance      Jenney                                                         Chicago USA
1888    Building Rookery                  Burnham & Root                                                 Chicago USA
1889    Building Tacoma                   Holabird & Roche                                               Chicago USA          Many innovations in construction
1889    Building Eiffel Tower             Eiffel                                                                   USA        Used Otis elevators, tallest structure
1891    Building Monadnock                Burnham & Root                                                 Chicago USA
1891    Building Wainwright               Sullivan                                       11              St. Louis USA
1895   Technology ASHRAE Lab                                                                                       USA        Lab at University of Illinois to develop heating
1896   Document Skyscraper Article        Sullivan                                                                 USA        First articulation of aesthetic of skyscrapers
1897    Building Park Row                 Robertson                             391      30              NY        USA
1902    Building Flatiron                 Burnham & Root                        285      23              NY        USA        Isolated when built - appeared very tall
1906   Technology Air Conditioning        Carrier                                                                  USA        Invention of system
1908    Building Singer                   Flagg                                 612      47              NY        USA
1909    Building Metropolitan Life        Le Brun                               700      50              NY        USA
1912    Building Grand Central Station    Warren and Wetmore                                                       USA
1913    Building Woolworth                Gilbert                               792      60              NY        USA        First clearly recognized as a wonder
1914     Event Word War I Start                                                                                    USA
1915    Building Equitable                                        1,200,000                           30 NY        USA        Reaction to it produced NY Setback rules
1916     Event Zoning Setback                                                                            NY        USA        Shaped future skyscrapers
1916     Event US Enters WW-I                                                                                      USA
1922     Event Tribune Competition                                                                       Chicago USA          Saarinen Design won 2nd place - big controversy
1925    Building Tribune Building         Hood                                                           Chicago USA
1928     Event Stockmarket Crash                                                                                   USA
1929    Building Chrysler                 Van Alen                             1,046     77              NY        USA
1930    Building Daily News               Hood                                                           NY        USA
1931    Building Empire State             Shreve Lam and Harmon   1,790,433 1,250       102           21 NY        USA
1950    Building UN Secretariat           Harrison                                                       NY        USA        First international style glass-walled tower
1951    Building Lever House              SOM                                                            NY        USA        Pilotis, well thought of
1958    Building Seagram Building         Van der Rohe                                                   NY        USA        Masterpiece
1969    Building John Hancock Center      SOM                                  1,127    100              Chicago USA
1971    Building World Trade Center       Yamasaki                             1,350    110              NY        USA
1973    Building Aon Center               Stone                                1,136     80              Chicago USA
1974    Building Sears Tower              SOM                                  1,454    110              Chicago USA
1990    Building Bank Of China            Pei                                  1,209     70              Hong Kong China
1992    Building Central Plaza            DLN                                  1,227     78              Hong Kong China
1996    Building Shun Hing Square         K.Y. Cheung                          1,260     69              Shenzhen China
1997    Building Petronas Towers (2)      Pelli                                1,483     88                        Malaysia
                                                                                                         Kuala Lumpur         Remarkable form - Enormus
1997    Building T & C Tower              C.Y.Lee                              1,140     85              KaohsiungTaiwan
1997    Building Baiyoke Tower II         Plan Architects                        997     85              Bangkok Thailand
1998    Building Jin Mao Tower            SOM                                  1,380     88              Shanghai China
1998    Building Citic Plaza              DLN                                  1,283     80              Guangzhou China
1998    Building The Center               DLN                                  1,148     79              Hong Kong China
1999    Building Burj al Arab Hotel       W.S. Watkins                         1,053     60              Dubai     UAE
2000    Building Emirates Office Tower    Norr Group                           1,163     54              Dubai     UAE
2004    Building Taipei 101               C.Y.Lee                              1,671    101              Taipei    Taiwan     Tallest building as of 12/2004


        Sources   Douglas - Skyscrapers: A Social History
                  http://www.emporis.com/en/




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Building Statistics
Wt Toyotoa Corolla CE                   2,600   lb
Area Suburban House                     2,000   SF
Lifetime Income Engineer      $     2,100,000
Height Suburban 2-Story                    30   ft
USS United States Length                  990   ft

Building                      Empire State      Comcast Tower      Pyramids
Bricks                            10,000,000
Cost                          $   35,000,000    $    465,000,000
Cost/SF                       $            20   $            375
Elevators                                  67
Exterior Metal lb                  1,460,000
Height Ft                               1,250               975                481
Radiators                               7,000
Rentable SF                        1,790,433           1,240,000               600
Site SF                                83,860
Stone CF                             200,000
Stories                                   102                57
Floor-to-Floor Avg                         12                17
Volume CF                         37,000,000                           89,000,000
Water CF/Day                           80,000
Weight lb                        616,000,000                       12,000,000,000
Weight/SF                                 344
Windows                                 6,500
Wire ft                           17,000,000
Workers Avg                             2,500                                 5,000
Workers Max                             4,000              4,500
Total Time to Build mths                   13                                 240
PersonHrs                          5,460,000                          200,000,000
Hrs/SF rentable                             3

Lifetimes to Pay for it                   17                221
Number of Toyotas - Wt               240,000                  0         4,620,000
Number of Houses - Area                  895                620               0.3
Number of Houses - Ht                     42                 33                16
Number of USS United States              1.3                1.0               0.5

				
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