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Ampholytes are used in SDS IEF Immunoelectrophoresis

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Ampholytes are used in SDS IEF Immunoelectrophoresis Powered By Docstoc
					Ampholytes are used in:                                      DOPA to Dopamine

SDS PAGE                                                     5 hydroxytryptophan to serotonine

IEF                                                          Glutamate to glutamin

Immunoelectrophoresis                                        Aspirin:

2 D PAGE                                                     Increases the Km and decreases the Vmax of
                                                             cyclooxygenase
There is a mixture of 5 proteins with pI of 3, 3.6, 4, 4.4
and 5 respectively. What should be the pH of buffer if       decreases the Km and increases the Vmax of
these proteins have to be separated on gel                   cyclooxygenase
electrophoresis
                                                             Increases the Km and does not affect the Vmax of
4                                                            cyclooxygenase

3.6                                                          Does not affect the Km and decreases the Vmax of
                                                             cyclooxygenase
4.4
                                                             Which of the following increases the level of metabolic
More than 5                                                  acids in human body?
Microarray analysis is useful in all EXCEPT:                 Thiamine deficiency
Genotyping                                                   Pyridoxine deficiency
Cancer marker                                                Methyl cobalamine deficiency
Diagnosis of point mutations                                 Biotin deficiency
Expression analysis                                           Most electronegative component of respiratory chain
                                                             is:

Hybridization technique is useful in all EXCEPT:             NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase

Southern blotting                                            Succinate : Ubiquinone reductase

Northern blotting                                            Ubiquinone: Cytochrome C oxidoredutase

Western blotting                                             Cytochrome C oxidase

Microarray analysis                                          Which inhalational agent causes maximum decrease in
                                                             Portal venous flow and hepatic arterial flow?
Which of the following techniques is NOT useful in
detection of carrier of point mutation?                      Halothane

PCR analysis                                                 Ether

ASO probe analysis                                           Enflurane

RFLP analysis                                                Isoflurane

DNA sequencing                                               Which of these is not an opioid agonist

PCR is useful in all EXCEPT:                                 Heroin

Diagnosis of infectious diseases                             Ketamine

DNA fingerprinting                                           Methadone.

Prenatal diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis                        Morphine

Commercial production of insulin                             Which of the following technique of regional anesthesia
                                                             is contraindicated in a 19 year old boy with Raynaud’s
Which of the following is WRONG regarding                    disease?
Decarboxylation of an amino acid to its amine:
                                                             Bier’s block ( IV regional anesthesia)
histidine to histamine
Brachial plexus supraclavicular block                       characteristic of bandl’s ring are all except:

brachial plexus axillary approach                           related to obstructed labour

Infraclavicular brachial plexus block                       arises due to focal myometrial spasm

Meralgia parasthetica is due to involvement of:-            ascends up as labour progresses

Sural nerve                                                 Which is the commonest neurological birth injury?

Med cutaneous nerve of thigh                                Erb’s

Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh                            Klumpke’s

Peroneal nerve                                              Brachial plexus injury

Which of these cause maethaemoglobinemia?                   Facial nerve palsy

Procaine                                                    One of the following is not correct in manning’s
                                                            biophysical profile:
Prilocaine
                                                            NST : >= 2 accelerations of >=15 beats /min of >= 15 sec
Lidocaine                                                   in 20-40 min.
Bupivacaine                                                 Fetal breathing: >= 1 episode of rhythmic breathing
Regarding flail chest all the following are true EXCEPT     lasting >= 30 sec in 30 min

At least fracture of three ribs at two places               Fetal movement: >= 3 discreet body or limb movements
                                                            in 30 min.
Should be intubated if pO2 less than 40% with 60 %
oxygen                                                      Amniotic fluid volume: single vertical pocket of > 5 cm.

It may not be evident in young Pt                           Which of the following is not used as a lactation
                                                            suppressor?
Should be treated with IPPV and fixation if condition
severe                                                      Bromocriptine

True regarding dexmedetomidine is all except:               Mixogen

Highly selective alpha 2 agonist acting at locus ceruleus   Oxytocin

Titrable sedation and sympatholysis                         Pyridoxine

No analgesic property                                       Anti-d prophylaxis should be given in all the following
                                                            except:
8 times more alpha2 selectivity than clonidine
                                                            medical abortions for 63 days pregnancy
True regarding ? cyclodextrins is all except:
                                                            amniocentesis at 16 weeks
Directly bind to steroidal non depolarizing muscle
relaxants                                                   intrauterine transfusion at 28 weeks

Do not act on receptors or ion channels                     manual removal of placenta

Efficacy of block reversal is maximum for Rocuronium        Which of the following perinatal infections has the
and least for pancuronium                                   highest risk of fetal infection in the first trimester?

Require anticholinesterases drugs along with them to        hepatitis B
prevent side effects                                        syphilis
CHEOPS scale includes all except :                          toxoplasmosis
Cry                                                         rubella
Touch position

Torso position                                              The most sensitive pregnancy test is:
Oxygen saturationhe
radioimmunoassay (b subunit)                             The white discharge which is frothy, associated with
                                                         small punctate strawberry spots on vagina is seen in:
radioreceptor assay
                                                         Candidiasis
ELISA ( membrane ELISA)
                                                         Trichomoniasis
Pregnancy colour test ( b hcg)
                                                         C. trachomatis vaginitis
Which of the following is not the sign of pregnancy
changes?                                                 Gardnella vaginitis

piskacek’s                                               Commonest cause of amenorrhoea is:

stallworthy’s                                            Pregnancy

palmer’s                                                 Lactation

hegar’s                                                  genital TB

One of the following is not associated with poly         PCOS
hydramnios:
                                                         Commonest cystic ovarian tumor is
cleft palate
                                                         Serous
amnion nodosum
                                                         Mucinous
chorangioma of placenta
                                                         Dermoid
thyroglossal cyst
                                                         brenner’s
Contra indications to breast feeding are all except:
                                                          Ca- cervix, which has extended to lower 1/3 of vagina,
Galactosemia                                             parametrium with hydronephrosis but has not reached
                                                         the lateral pelvic walls is
Rh incompatibility
                                                         IIa
Puerperal psychosis
                                                         IIb
Active pulmonary koch’s
                                                         IIIa
In face presentation, the commonest presentation is:
                                                         IIIb
LMA
                                                         Ca- ovary which has involved left ovary with peritoneal
LMP                                                      in implants of 3 cm and liver capsule is
RMA                                                      Ic
RMP                                                      IIc
The karyotyping of rokitansky- kuster- hauser syndrome
                                                         IIIc
is:
                                                         IV
45 XO
                                                         Most common symptom of gestational trophoblastic
46XX
                                                         neoplasia is :
46XY
                                                         Pain
47XYY
                                                         Bleeding
Hypothalamic amenorrhoea is seen in:
                                                         Breathlessness
ashermann’s syndrome
                                                         abdominal lump
stein levinthal’s syndrome
                                                         Choriocarcinoma mostly follows:
kallman’s syndrome
                                                         Abortion
sheehan’s syndrome
                                                         Normal delivery
Molar pregnancy                                          Ensuring use of accurate instruments.

De novo                                                  For clinical research purposes, HIV testing strategy used
                                                         is called-
Most common mode of spread in ca-cervix is :
                                                         Mandatory
Hematogenous
                                                         Unlinked-Anonymous
Lymphatic
                                                         Voluntary and confidential
Direct
                                                         Need-based
Transperitoneal
                                                         Which of the following is not an example of
Trans-stadial transmission is seen in all except-        Appropriate technology?
Indian Tick typhus                                       Nalgonda technique
Scrub Typhus                                             Double-pot method of chlorination
Yellow fever, in adverse conditions]                     Biogas Plant
Rocky mountain spotted fever                             Insecticide-treated bed net.
True about the death certificate in India is             Which of the following is not an example of
It is the basis for making policy decisions regarding    Appropriate technology?
allocation of finances to various health programmes.     Nalgonda technique
It is issued by the treating physician                   Double-pot method of chlorination
It is a legal requirement                                Biogas Plant
The cause of death is usually confirmed by autopsy       Insecticide-treated bed net.
All of the following are major criteria of US Surgeon    A safety margin of + 2 Standard Deviations is not
General’s guidelines for causation of non-infectious
                                                         incorporated for the RDA of –
diseases, except-
                                                         Energy
Replication of findings
                                                         Fats
Consideration of alternate hypothesis
                                                         Water soluble vitamins
Biological plausibility
                                                         Fat soluble vitamins
Strength of association
                                                         A screening test is used in the same way in two similar
Kappa coefficient is a procedure which can be used to-   populations, but the proportion of false positive results
Assess the validity of answers given by a group of       among those who test positive in population A is lower
patients                                                 than that among those who test positive in population
                                                         B. what is the likely explanation for this finding?
Assess the agreement, beyond chance, as regards
responses to two different sources                       The specificity of the test is lower in population A

Assess the correlation between blood pressure readings   The prevalence of disease is lower in population A
taken on the same patient by two different nurses
                                                         The prevalence of disease is higher in population A
All of the above.
                                                         The specificity of the test is higher in population A
Which of the following is not a method of control of
                                                         A TB suspect undergoes sputum smear microscopy and
confounding-                                             both his samples are found to be smear negative. He
Restriction                                              still has symptoms of cough and fever. The next step
                                                         should be-
Matching
                                                         Get an X-ray Chest done
Stratified analysis
Repeat sputum smear microscopy examination after a       All new TB cases known to be HIV positive are treated
week                                                     with

Prescribe broad spectrum antibiotics for 10 days         Category I regimen

Diagnose the patient as smear negative TB and start on   Category II regimen
RNTCP DOTS
                                                         Category III regimen
As per WHO guidelines for International Travelers’
Health, for a pregnant woman with an uncomplicated       None of the above
pregnancy, flying is permitted up to the end of the-     The following is the logo for-
28th week                                                Leprosy elimination
32nd week                                                Iodised Salt
36th week                                                Global Handwashing Day
37th week                                                Water conservation
 All of the following are common oral conditions         Which of the following is an objective of RNTCP?
reported to occur in HIV infected patients except
                                                         To achieve at least 70 percent cure rate of the newly
Candidiasis                                              diagnosed sputum smear-positive TB patients
Pseudomembranous hairy leukoplakia                       To detect at least 85 percent of new sputum smear-
Gingivitis                                               positive patients after the

Caries                                                   first goal is met

                                                         To achieve at least 85 percent cure rate of the newly
                                                         diagnosed sputum smear-positive TB patients
 Mass antibiotic treatment in trachoma is
recommended when the prevalence is more than             Both A & B
______ percent                                           ISMH comprises of:
5                                                        Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy
10                                                       Allopathy, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy
7                                                        Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
3                                                        Homoeopathy

Following obstetric practices will reduce the risk of    Allopathy, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
mother to child transmission except:                     Homoeopathy

Avoidance of early rupture of membranes

Conduct routine episiotomies                             All the following show serotonin syndrome, EXCEPT

Using non traumatizing suction cups on vacuum            Meperidine
extractors where possible                                Procarbazine
Avoid foetal scalp puncture                              Linezolid
A safe and effective drug in the management of           Paroxetine
Ascariasis in a pregnant woman is :

Praziquantel
                                                         The preferred drug to treat endometriosis is
Mebendazole
                                                         Danazol
Albendazole
                                                         Levonorgestrel
Pyrantel Pamoate
                                                         GnRh agonists
Nandrolone                                              Hypotension

if not treated, leads to rupture.                       Arrhythmias

Drug used to prevent progression of parkinsonism is     Which of the following drug is not used for alcohol
                                                        deaddiction?
Selegiline
                                                        Acamproset
Amantadine
                                                        Clonidine
Tolcapone
                                                        Bupropione
Ropinirole
                                                        Topiramate
Which of the following causes Torsades de pointes?
                                                        Which of the following will not cause decrease in tidal
Cisapride                                               volume of patient?
Fluconazole                                             NO
Azithromycin                                            Desflurane
Lignocaine                                              Morphine
Drug which has CSF entry is                             Sevoflurane
Tobramycin                                              The cardiotoxic local anesthetic is –
Cyclophosphamide                                        Prilocaine
Flucytosine                                             Procaine
Ofloxacin                                               Cocaine
Which of the following has antianabolic action?
                                                        Bupivacaine
Tetracycline                                            Which of the following is approved drug treatment in
Cisplatin                                               multiple sclerosis?

Amphotericin B                                          Interferone a

Oxymetholone                                            Interferone ß

Drug showing nitro reduction is                         Interferone ?

Prontosil                                               Infliximab

Cortisone                                               Which of the following statement is false regarding
                                                        flumazenil?
Chloral hydrate
                                                        It acts at barbiturate site of GABAA receptor
Chloramphenicol
                                                        It acts as BZD antagonist
Which of the following anti-epileptic agents prevents
degradation of GABA into neurons?                       It is used to reverse BZD anesthesia

Vigabatrin                                              None of above.

Progabide                                               Spina bifida occulta is characterized by:

Tiagabine                                               Lack of fusion of vertebral arches

Gabapentine                                             Covered by skin

Side effect of cocaine does not include –               Seen usually in lumbosacral region

Myocardial failure                                      Involvement of underlying neural tissue

Abuse potential                                         Features of right facial nerve damage is all except:
Malignant tumors rarely infiltrate it                      The right hepatic duct drains the quadrate lobe.

Mouth drawn upwards and to the right                       The ligamentum venosum connects the left branch of
                                                           the portal vein to the IVC.
Paralysis of all the muscles of face on right side
                                                           Regarding the inferior mesenteric artery all of the
Accumulation of saliva in the right cheek                  following statements are correct EXCEPT:
Injury to Femoral nerve just below the inguinal ligament   It arises from the aorta behind the uncinate process of
will result in all Except:                                 the Pancreas.
Paralysis of quadriceps muscles.                           It supplies the descending colon.
Inability to extend the knee while sitting.                The marginal artery receives contributions from its
Knee extension is compensated by Adductor muscles          branches.
while walking
                                                           It is the artery of the hind gut
Loss of sensation along thigh and dorsum of foot           All of the following are supplied by Ulnar nerve EXCEPT:
True statements regarding Pudendal nerve block are all
                                                           Dorsal interrossei
Except:
                                                           Palmar interrossei
Area anaesthetised is perineum except anterior part
                                                           Lumbricals
It is indicated at during the Ist stage of labour
                                                           Oppones digiti minimi
Bony landmark used is ischial tuberosity in perineal
approach

It does not abolish pain from uterine contractions
travelling through sympathetic fibers.
                                                           A child runs well and is able to walk up and down the
Following are the derivatives of mesonephric duct in       stairs, though one step at a time, and makes a tower of
males Except:                                              7 cubes. The child also helps his mother undress
                                                           himself. The most probable age of the child is
Vas deferens
                                                           6 months
Epididymis
                                                           12 months
Trigone of bladder
                                                           18 months
Rete testis
                                                           24 months
The following statements regarding muscles forming
posterior abdominal wall are true Except:                   A child's vocabulary contains 10-15 meaningful words
                                                           first at the age of
Quadratus lumborum is covered anteriorly by anterior
layer of lumbar fascia                                     8 months

Fascial sheath of Psoas major extends down into the        12 months
thigh as far as the lesser trochanter.
                                                           18 months
Transversus abdominis muscle does not form a part of
posterior abdominal wall.                                  36 months

Diaphragm contributes to the musculature of the            The early adolescent period generally including SMR
                                                           stages 1-2 of most secondary sexual characters
posterior abdominal wall.
                                                           generally lies in which age group?
Concerning the Liver the following statements are true
EXCEPT:                                                    8-10 yrs

The abdominal part of esophagus lies posterior to the      10-13 yrs
left triangular ligament.                                  14-16 yrs
The gastro- hepatic ligament is a part of the lesser       17-20 yrs
omentum.
A boy presents with scanty pubic hairs, only slightly       Paralytic poliomyelitis
pigmented and the scrotum demonstrates a pink color
with slightly altered texture in comparison to the          actors predisposing to venous thrombosis include all
previous year. The most probable sexual maturity rating     except:
of the boy's pubic hair is                                  Thrombocytopenia
SMR stage 1                                                 Polycythemia
SMR stage 2                                                 Dehydration
SMR stage 3                                                 Thrombophlebitis
SMR stage 4                                                 Paraproteinemias
Which of the following statement is untrue about            All of the following are associated with apoptosis except
pediatric diphtheria?
                                                            Polymyositis
A It was the first infectious disease overcome on the
basis of microbiology and immunology principles             Cancer of lung

Diphtheria toxin can be demonstrated by Elek test           Foregut development

The estimated minimum protective levels of diphtheria       Obstructive jaundice
antitoxin is 0.01-0.1 IU/ml
                                                            A 5 year old boy recovers from an episode of acute
The incubation period of the disease is 10-14 days          pharyngitis. This can be explained as due to

Which of the following cannot help differentiate            Bacteria can survive only for few minutes in human
diphtheria from exudative bacterial pharyngitis due to      body
Gp A streptococcus?
                                                            Neutrophils exhaust their granules contents
Pseudomembrane
                                                            Neutophils cannot sustain cytokines production
Relative lack of fever
                                                            Anti-inflammatory molecules are produced in body
Presence of dysphagia
                                                            Familial adenomatous polyposis, all true except:
Older age of presentation
                                                            May be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition
The empirical dose of antitoxin in cases of diphtheria is
                                                            Is pre-malignant
10,000-20,000 units
                                                            Occurs in severe ulcerative colitis
20,000-40,000 units
                                                            May cause electrolyte disturbance
20,000-1,20,000 units
                                                            May be asymptomatic
1,20,000-2,40,000 units
                                                             The left breast of a 39-year-old female is slightly
 The Olympian brow and Saber shins are signs of which       enlarged compared with the right. The skin overlying
congenital infection in childhood?                          this breast is thickened, reddish-orange, and pitted.
                                                            Mammography reveals a 3 cm underlying density. A
Congenital toxoplasmosis                                    fine-needle aspirate of this mass reveals carcinoma.
Congenital CMV                                              How is the gross appearance of the breast best
                                                            explained?
Congenital rubella
                                                            Venous thrombosis
Congenital syphillis
                                                            Lymphatic obstruction
 The commonest presentation of poliomyelitis in
children is                                                 Ischemia

Asymptomatic infections                                     Chronic passive congestion

Abortive poliomyelitis                                      Chronic inflammation

Non-paralytic poliomyelitis
In patients with emphysema due to a1-antitrypsin         complains of severe headache and nuchal rigidity is
deficiency, the molecular mechanism responsible for      noted on physical examination. Examination of the
the accumulation of a1-antitrypsin in hepatocytes is     peripheral blood and CSF reveals gram negative
                                                         diplococci within the neutrophils. A well known
Excessive hepatic synthesis of a1-antitrypsin            complication of this disorder is hemorrhage into the
Retention in the endoplasmic reticulum because of
                                                         Adrenal cortex
poorly folded a1-antitrypsin
                                                         Anterior pituitary
Decreased catabolism of a1-antitrypsin in lysosomes
                                                         Brain stem
Inability to metabolize a1-antitrypsin
                                                         Pancreas
Impaired dissociation from chaperones
                                                         Sub-arachnoid space
Which of the following statements about auto-immune
thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in pregnancy is true:     Raju, a 4-year old boy, presents with history of seizures.
                                                         On examination there is hypopigmented patch of his
Platelet production is depressed in the bone marrow      face. There is mental retardation also. What is the most
Bleeding time may be normal because of the presence      likely diagnosis
of in the circulation of young hyper-active platelets    Pityriasis alba
Peripheral destruction of antibody coated circulating
                                                         Von Recklinghausen’s disease
platelets may result in normal platelet levels
                                                         Indeterminate Hansen
Caesarian section always prevents fetal hemorrhage
                                                         Tuberous sclerosis

                                                         An infant was brought by his mother with complaints of
Concerning urinary sediment which one of the following   asymptomatic recurrent blistering over occiput,
is correct?                                              buttocks, and legs and back of 2 months duration.some
<100 white cells per ml is normal                        of the blisters spontaneously healed of their own.
                                                         Mucosa nails and hair were normal. Most likely
Cystine crystals are often found in normal urine         diagnosis-

Hyaline casts consist of Tamm-Horsfall protein.          Epidermolysis Bullosa

Oxalate crystals in the urine suggest renal disease      Pemphigus vulgaris

Red cells always indicate renal tract disease            Miliaria

                                                         Neonatal lupus erythematosus

                                                          A 15 yr old male has multiple vesicular lesions , present
                                                         unilaterally over the Upper trunk, lesions are showing
Commonest type of pancreatic malignancy is:
                                                         severe burning sensation since last night. He is also
Ductal adenoca                                           sleeping on the floor for last few days.most likely
                                                         diagnoses
Insulinota
                                                         Herpes zoster
Adenosquamous ca
                                                         insect bite reaction
Squamous cell ca
                                                         scabies
Most characteristic lesion in asbestosis is
                                                         dermatitis herpetiformis
Pleural plaques
                                                         A mentally retarded child aged 12 yrs has multiple,
Pleural effusion                                         painless, discharging shiny white Lesions around the
                                                         anus –likely diagnosis
Pleural thickening
                                                         Lupus vulgaris
Pleural calcification
                                                         Carcinoma
 A 22 year old man is hospitalized with fever, shaking
chills and widespread cutaneous hemorrhages. He          Condyloma lata
Haemorroids                                                Decompression of the stomach or intestine

Following are risk factors for abdominal aortic            Gastric lavage
aneurysm except
                                                           evacuation of gastric contents in the initial management
Family history                                             of upper GI bleeding or toxic ingestion

Young age                                                  Measurement of gastric secretion, volume, or pH

Male sex                                                   following are examples of serosal gastrostomies except

Peripheral vascular disease                                The Stamm or standard open gastrostomy

Which nerve(s) are in least danger of being injured        Laparoscopic gastrostomy
during a mastectomy?
                                                           Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
Thoracodorsal nerve
                                                           Janeway-type gastrostomy
Long thoracic nerve
                                                           All are advantages of full thickness grafts except
Intercostobrachial nerve
                                                           Less contracture
Lateral and medial pectoral nerves
                                                           Color/texture match more similar to normal skin
A 39-year-old woman is referred to you with increasing
symptoms of dysphagia, which started with solids 2         Potential for growth
years ago and now has progressed to liquids. She has       Doesn’t requires well-vascularized bed
lost 15 Kg in the past 8 months. In addition, she is
awakened at night by a worrisome choking sensation         All are major phases of ‘take’ of graft except
and coughing spells. Occasionally, she feels that her
                                                           Plasmatic imbibition
food backs up into her throat. The patient denies fever,
chills, and night sweats. Past medical history is          Neovascularization -growth of new blood vessels into
significant for asthma and a bleeding stomach ulcer 5      the graft from the host bed
years ago, for which she underwent a resection. Her
physical examination is only remarkable for severe         Inosculation -anastomosis between graft and host
halitosis. Auscultation of the lungs reveals no wheezing   vessels
or rhonchi. The heart tones are normal, with no
                                                           Organization
murmurs. The esophageal manometry identifies an
elevated resting pressure and a failure to relax upon      NOTES cholecystectomy access route include all except
swallowing of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The
most probable diagnosis is                                 Trans gastric

Carcinoma                                                  Trans rectal

Stricture                                                  Transvaginal

Achalasia                                                  Transumblical

Diffuse esophageal spasm                                   All are the common management options for a common
                                                           bile duct stone detected during laparoscopic
The most common indication for nasogastric and             cholecystectomy cholangiogram except
nasoenteric intubation is
                                                           Laparoscopic basket retrieval
Decompression of the stomach or intestine
                                                           Inject drugs for dissolution of stone
Gastric lavage
                                                           Postoperative ERCP
evacuation of gastric contents in the initial management
of upper GI bleeding or toxic ingestion                    Laparoscopic or open common bile duct exploration.

Measurement of gastric secretion, volume, or pH            All are correct statements except

                                                           most common agents of biliary sepsis are Escherichia
                                                           coli and Klebsiella
The most common indication for nasogastric and
nasoenteric intubation is
Portal vein formed by the Superior mesentric vein and       Silicon indwelling catheter
splenic Vein sees highly regulated blood flow with its
multiple valves.                                            CIC

K-Ras gene is mutated in 90% of pancreatic cancer           Urethral dilatation
patients                                                    Main motor supply of urinary bladder comes from
Estrogen is associated with hepatic adenoma                 T10-L1
Most common cause of late failure (24 months and            L1-L5
beyond) of reversed saphenous vein grafts?
                                                            L2,3,4
Atherosclerosis.
                                                            S2,3,4
Trauma
                                                            Aberrant renal artery
Thrombophlebitis
                                                            Should always be divided if it causes pressure effect on
Cardiac failure                                             ureter
A patient with a history of radiation exposure as a child   Is more commonly found in males
was found to have an enlarged lymph node on physical
examination. The lymph node is removed, and there is        Always causes hydronephrosis
normal-appearing thyroid tissue in the lymph node.
                                                            Usually supplies lower pole
What is the diagnosis?
                                                            BPH arises from
Papillary thyroid carcinoma
                                                            Transition zone
Ectopic thyroid tissue
                                                            Peripheral zone
Follicular thyroid carcinoma
                                                            Central zone
Goitre
                                                            Median lobe
Best management for a 3 cm calculus in renal pelvis
with hydronephrosis                                         Investigation of choice so see obstructive nature of
                                                            pelvicalyceal dilatation
ESWL
                                                            USG
PCNL
                                                            IVP
DJ stenting
                                                            Whitekar test
Pyelolithotomy
                                                            Diuretic renal scan
Horseshoe kidneys all except
                                                             A patient with BPH with moderate symptoms is best
Fused at lower poles
                                                            treated by
Isthmus lies at S3 level
                                                            Wait and watch
Pelvis and ureter anterior
                                                            Tamsulosin
Usually asymptomatic
                                                            Finastride
Main motor supply of urinary bladder comes from
                                                            TURP
T10-L1
                                                            Which of the following corneal dystrophies is most
L1-L5                                                       painful ?

L2,3,4                                                      Lattice

S2,3,4                                                      Posterior Polymorphous

Best management of a Neurogenic bladder                     Macular

Foleys catheter                                             Reis – Bucklers
The best surgery to correct unilateral severe ptosis :      Verbigeration is

Sling on affected eyelids                                   Repetition of words

Sling on both eyelids                                       Repetition of sentences

Everbusch operation                                         Repetition of examiners words

Blaskowikz operation                                        Repetition beyond the point of relevance

The pharmacological test to diagnose Adies pupil is         Which of the following is included under Axis-II of DSM-
using pilocarpine eye drops in the concentration of :       IV?

0.1%                                                        Amnestic disorder

0.2%                                                        Substance use disorder

1%                                                          Personality disorder

2%                                                          Sexual disorder

                                                            After heavy intake of cannabis, a 23yr old man
                                                            developed delusion of reference, persecution and third
Which of the following glaucoma medication has              person auditory hallucinations. All these symptoms
hypertrichosis as a prominent side effect in Indian
                                                            subsided within four hours. Most appropriate diagnosis
patients ?                                                  for this patient would be
Pilocarpine                                                 Cannabis induced psychosis
Brimonidine                                                 Paranoid schizophrenia
Latanoprost
                                                            Cannabis intoxication
Dorzolamide
                                                            Brief psychotic disorder
Which of the following surgery on muscles would be
                                                            29 yrs old female after being scolded by her boss,
first considered to correct Right esotropia ?               started remaining sad. She would ruminate that every
Right MR recession                                          boss in this world is a bad person. Which cognitive error
                                                            this lady has developed?
Right LR resection
                                                            Selective abstraction
Left MR recession
                                                            Personalization
Left LR resection
                                                            Overgeneralization
Mutton fat Keratic precipitates are a feature of uveitis
associated with :                                           Arbitrary inference

Ankylosing spondylosis                                      All of the following are the Piaget’s stages of intellectual
                                                            development except
Toxoplasmosis
                                                            Stage of sensorimotor development
Vogt Kayanagi Haradas disease
                                                            Stage of concrete operation
AID
                                                            Stage of formal operation
Which of the following methods of examination is best
for detecting an intraocular foreign body in the vitreous   Stage of integrity development
with a co-existing total cataract in that eye ?             All of the following are the objective measures of
Magnet                                                      personality assessment except

Indirect Opthalmoscopy                                      Minnesota-Multiphasic personality inventory

Laser Interferometer                                        16 personality factor questionnaire

Ultrasound B scan                                           Eysenck personality questionnaire

                                                            Sentence completion test
All of the following are the types of degenerative        Cabergoline
dementia except
                                                          Pegvisomant
Pick’s disease
                                                          Lanreotide
Parkinson’s disease
                                                          Conivaptan
Progressive supranuclear palsy
                                                          Which of the following is a short acting insulin?
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
                                                          Insulin Detemir
All of the following are the features of pseudoseizure
except                                                    Insulin Glulisne

Nocturnal seizures are uncommon                           Insulin Glargine

Stereotyped aura is not seen                              NPH Insulin

Affected by suggestion                                    25 years old man who was on insulin therapy for the 10
                                                          years stops taking insulin. 2 days later he is brought to
Self injury is common                                     medical emergency with severe pain abdomen &
                                                          vomiting. He is dehydrated & has a fruity smell on
National trust is not for the benefit of children with    breath. Which of the following is not an appropriate
Dyslexia                                                  step in his management?

Autism                                                    Blood glucose estimation

Cerebral palsy                                            IV infusion of Normal Saline

Mental retardation                                        Regular Insulin10 units subcutaneously

Auto-Inhibition is a phenomenon seen with the use of      Urine ketones measurement

Lithium                                                   Liraglutide is useful in which of the following disorder?

Carbamazepine                                             Diabetes Insipidus

Paroxetine                                                SIADH

Clozapine                                                 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

35 years old woman presented with history of polyuria     Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
& polydipsia. 24 hours urine output is 4 litres & urine
                                                          Which of the following is not useful in a patient of
osmolality is 170 mosm/kg. Which of following is the
                                                          Myxedema coma?
least likely diagnosis?
                                                          L-Thyroxine
Pituitary Diabetes Insipidus
                                                          Saturated Solution of Potassium Iodide
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
                                                          Hydrocortisone
Primary Polydipsia
                                                          IV Tri-iodothyronine
Diabetes mellitus
                                                          Radio-active iodine therapy is given in which of the
Which of the following hormone deficiency occurs last     following thyroid malignancy?
in a patient with hypopituitarism?
                                                          Follicular carcinoma
Growth Hormone
                                                          Lymphoma
ACTH
                                                          Anaplastic carcinoma
FSH
                                                          Medullary carcinoma
TSH
                                                          Jod Basedow effect is seen as a result of exposure to
Which of the following is not useful in a patient with
                                                          which of the following?
acromegaly?
                                                          Selenium
Iron                                                    Hitting on soles with stick

Iodine                                                  Use of electric current for torture

Aluminium                                               Patient present with spiral fracture of the lower third of
                                                        the humerus. On closed manipulation, he develops
Primary dentition is complete by:                       signs of radial nerve palsy. This is called-
One & half years                                        Allis sign
Two & half years                                        Galeazzi sign
Three & half years                                      Thurston-Holland sign
Four & half years                                       Holstein – levis sign
As per the Railway Act, child is not punishable up to   Treatment of choice in 65 yr old female with impacted
2 years                                                 # neck of humerus is

5 years                                                 Triangular sling

7 years                                                 Arm chest strapping

12 years                                                Arthroplasty

Entry wound shot from 40-60 cm is characterized by      Observation

Abrasion collar                                         In a new born child, abduction & internal rotation
                                                        produces a click sound. It is known as
Abrasion rim
                                                        Ortolani sign
Tattooing
                                                        Telescoping sign
Cruciate appearance
                                                        Mc Murray’s sign
Death occurs faster in
                                                        Lac man’s sign
Fresh water drowning
                                                        Raised anterior superior iliac spine in adduction
Salt water drowning                                     deformity of hip can be leveled by

Near drowning                                           Tilting the pelvis

Warm water drowning                                     Abducting the normal limb

Bullet that fragments on impact is called               Adducting the normal limb

Duplex bullet                                           Adducting the affected limb

Dum dum bullet

Frangible bullet

Soft point bullet                                        If twitch duration is 10 ms, then summation of
                                                        contraction will occur at frequency greater than
All are different type of strangulation except:
                                                        10 Hz
Throttling
                                                        100 Hz
Bansdola
                                                        1,000 Hz
Burking
                                                        10,000 Hz
Garroting
                                                        All are true about pressure diuresis mechanisms of
Bastinado is
                                                        kidney except
Pulling of hair
                                                        It can determine the long term set point
Standing on one leg in sun
It can be demonstrated in isolated kidney                 Posterior epistaxis usually occur after 40 yrs.

Its feedback gain in infinite                             A 70 years old male presented with conductive deafness
                                                          in left ear. His left tympanic membrane appears dull. On
It is important in day to day BP regulation               examination he has 3 cm enlarged cervical lymph node.
Point at which respiration can not be inhibited           On tympanometry, type B tympanogram is seen. Which
voluntary is called                                       of the following is most likely diagnosis?

Saturation point                                          Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Breaking point                                            Tuberculosis

Herring breuer reflex                                     CP angle tumor

Breath holding time                                       CSOM

Sudden loud sound produces more damage than               Which of the following is true about branchial anomaly
prolonged loud sound because                              It is mostly due to second branchial system anomaly
Basilar fibers are more sensitive to sudden sound         Branchial sinus excision is not always indicated
Sudden sound carries more energy                          Cyst is more common than sinus
There is a latent period before attenuation reflex can
                                                          None of the above.
occur
                                                          6 year old child with recurrent URTI with mouth
Pressure rise in endolymph is much more during sudden     breathing and failure to grow with high arched palate
loud sound                                                and impaired hearing is:

                                                          Tonsillectomy
 Damage to which area of cerebral cortex is likely to
                                                          Grommet insertion
cause the greatest degree of loss of intellectual
capabilities in right handed person                       Myringotomy with grommet insertion

Frontal lobe                                              Adenoidectomy with grommet insertion

Left posterior superior temporal gyrus                    A patients ABG values are as follows – pH 7.28, PCO2 =
                                                          70mmHg and HCO3 = 36, the condition is:
Right posterior superior temporal gyrus
                                                          Respiratory acidosis with metabolic alkalosis
Left sensory association area
                                                          Respiratory acidosis with metabolic acidosis
Right sensory association area
                                                          Respiratory acidosis with metabolic alkalosis
True about Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is all except
                                                          Respiratory alkalosis with metabolic acidosis
Bimodal age distribution
                                                          A patient of type I DM presented with acute
Nasopharyngectomy with BL neck dissection is              gastroenteritis, ABG shows pH = 7.28, PCO2 = 18.4,
treatment of choice                                       HCO3 = 8.5, Sodium = 127, Potassium = 3.3, Chloride –
EBV is implicated as etiological agent                    101. The diagnosis will be:

Squamous cell carcionoma is most common                   Metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis
histopathological type                                    Metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis

                                                          Metabolic alkalosis with respiratory alkalosis
Which of the following statements regarding epitaxis is   Metabolic acidosis with respiratory acidosis
untrue:
                                                          For the detection of AFB in sputum, the minimum
Anterior epistaxis is more common.                        concentration of bacilli in the sputum should be:
Woodruff’s plexus appear to originate from posterior
                                                          100/ml
pharyngeal wall and venous in origin.
                                                          50000 / ml
In young persons venous bleeding is more common.
5000 / ml                                                   Fibrillary glomerulopathy

1000 / ml                                                   Which of the following is not true regarding MAC?

A patient of chronic left lung abscess with generalized     Usually occurs in patients with CD4+ < 50
edema, hypoproteinemia, hepatosplenomegaly without
renal failure but ¯ urine, diagnosis is                     Most commonly presents with fever and weight loss

Amyloidosis                                                 MC finding on CXR is b/l lower lobe miliary shadows

                                                            Prior infection with M. tuberculosis increases risk of
Ca Lung
                                                            MAC
Bronchiectasis
                                                            In your workup of a 50-year old male with anemia, you
Chronic cor pulmonale                                       are asked to order tests for vitamin B12 and folate.
                                                            What is the most important reason for ordering the
 Investigations performed in an admitted patient reveal
                                                            tests for these nutrients simultaneously?
the following Blood Glucose 108 mg/dl; Blood Urea
nitrogen 56 mg/dl; Serum Na+ 140meq/L; Serum K+ 5.5         They are both absorbed similarly.
meq/l calculate the plasma osmolality of this patient?
                                                            Therapy for one also treats the other.
309 mOsm/Kg
                                                            The peripheral blood smear appears the same for both
299 mOsm/Kg
                                                            Aplastic anemia may result from lack of either.
327 mOsm/Kg
                                                            Neurologic injury must be avoided
317 mOsm/Kg
                                                            Tumor lysis syndrome is least likely to occur in:
A 45 year old coal mine worker presents with cutaneous
nodules, joint pain and occasional cough with dyspnea.      Burkitt’s lymphoma
His CXR shows multiple small (1-4 cm) nodules in            Lymphoblastic lymphoma
bilateral lung fields. Some of the nodules show
cavitation and specks of calcification. Most likely these   Follicular lymphoma
features are diagnostic of:
                                                            Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
Sjogren’s syndrome
                                                            The best markers to detect B-All cells after treatment
Caplan’s syndrome                                           will be

Silicosis                                                   CD13, CD 33, CD 117

Wegener’s granulomatosis                                    CD19, CD 10, CD 34

A 20 year old woman presents with bilateral conductive      CD3, CD 7, CD 34
deafness and hemoptysis. CXR shows a thin-walled
                                                            CD11c, 25, 103
cavity in the LLZ. Investigations reveal TLC 14000/mm3,
red cell casts in urine and serum creatinine 3mg%. what      RCUD (Refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia)
is the most probable diagnosis?                             includes all except:
Henoch Schonlein purpura                                    Refractory anemia
PAN                                                         Refractory neutropenia
Wegener’s granulomatosis                                    Refractory thrombocytopenia
Disseminated TB                                             Refractory pancytopenia

                                                            All are major criteria for diagnosing multiple myeloma
                                                            except:
HIV associated nephropathy is commonly a type of:
                                                            Plasmacytoma
Membranous glomerulonephritis.
                                                            Hypogammaglobulinemia
Immunotactoid glomerulopathy.
                                                            BM Plasma cells >30%
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Bence Jones proteinuria > 1g/day                            Persistent ketonuria indicates poor response to therapy

Which of the following is not involved in pathogenesis      After initiating insulin infusion , hyperkalemia is
of SLE                                                      commonly observed

Estradiol                                                   During DKA, b-hydroxybutyrate : acetate is in the ratio
                                                            of 8 : 1 as compared to 3 : 1 in normal subjects
EBV
                                                            All of the following are characteristic features of
UV – light                                                  tricuspid atresia except
HCA – B 27                                                  Left axis deviation
 A 2-year old child with seborrhic rash over trunk &        Rt ventricular hypoplasia
scalp. O/E hepatosplenomegaly lymph nodes. &
osteolytic bone lesion. On biopsy cell are S-100 & CD 1a.   Diminished pulmonary vascularity
E/M is likely to show
                                                            Splitting of S2
Dense core cytoplasmic granules
                                                            An 11 month old child is brought to the emergency with
Elongated & distended lysosome, with lipids in stacks of    c/o high grade fever since morning & 1 episode of GTCS.
bilayer                                                     On examination, he is febrile with discharge from left
                                                            auditory canal with no other focal deficits. What would
Zebra bodies                                                be your next step?
Bierbeck granule                                            Start local treatment with ear drops immediately
A 22-year-old male with respiratory distress, due to a
                                                            Perform LP & decide accordingly
lymphoma involving mediastinum. The malignant
lymphocytes, will show cell markers, characteristic of      Order for a neuroimaging immediately to look for cause
                                                            of drowsiness & seizures
B Lymphocytes
                                                            All of the above
T lymphocytes
                                                            All of the following neoplasms are commonly seen in
Macrophages                                                 HIV positive children except
Langerhans cells                                            Non hodgkin’s lymphoma
Most common lymphoma to complicate rheumatoid               Leiomyosarcoma
arthritis is
                                                            Kaposi sarcoma
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
                                                            Primary CNS lymphoma
Follicular centre cell NHL
                                                            A 5 day old full term male infant was severely cyanotic
Peripheral T cell NHL                                       at birth. PG E infusion was started initially & later
Mantle zone NHL                                             balloon atrial septostomy was done which showed
                                                            improvement in oxygenation. The most likely diagnosis
A 23 year woman, with myalgia, pleural effusion and         of this infant is
arthralgia, without joint deformity over course of
several years. The best lab screening test to diagnose      TOF
her disease will be                                         TGA
Lymphocyte count                                            Truncus arteriosus
ESR                                                         Tricuspid atresia
ANA                                                         Which of the following statements is false regarding HIV
Anti CCP                                                    infection?

Which of the following statements is true regarding         The incubation period of HIV-1 infection in children is
DKA?                                                        generally shorter after perinatal infection compared to
                                                            adult HIV-1 infection
Insulin infusion to be stopped as soon as blood glucose
approaches 250 mg/dl irrespective of acidosis
Children who are considered infected in utero with HIV       Explanation : pI is that pH at which the net charge on
usually have extremely slow progression of disease           the molecule, be it protein or amino acid, is zero. At pH
                                                             below its pI the protein or amino acid is protonated and
CNS involvement by HIV is more common in pediatric           hence positively charged. At pH above its pI the
patients as compared to adults.                              molecule is deprotonated and hence negatively
Kaposi sarcoma is rare manifestation of HIV infection in     charged. In electrophoresis the pH of the medium
children                                                     should be higher than the pI so that the proteins are
                                                             negatively charged and move to the anode



                                                             Microarray analysis is useful in all EXCEPT:

                                                             Genotyping

                                                             Cancer marker
Ampholytes are used in:
                                                             Diagnosis of point mutations
SDS PAGE
                                                             Expression analysis
IEF
                                                             Correct Answer : 3
Immunoelectrophoresis
                                                             Explanation : In Microarray analysis there are thousands
2 D PAGE                                                     of immobilized DNA sequences on a microscope slide or
                                                             chip. A sample of DNA or RNA is applied on the chip.
Correct Answer : 2
                                                             Hybridization results in development of color or
Explanation : Isoelectric focusing is an Electrophoretic     fluorescent spot. This is helpful in determining the
method to separate proteins on the basis of their pI. For    presence of gene variations or mutations (genotyping),
this a mixture of ampholytes is run in the gel to create a   or to determine the patterns of mRNA production (gene
pH gradient followed by the run of mixture of protein to     expression analysis), analyzing thousands of genes at
be separated. Every protein will have a zero net charge      the same time. For genotyping analysis, the cellular
at its pI and will not move in the electric al field. Each   sample is genomic DNA. For expression analysis, the
protein will move to the place having its pI and thus get    entire population of mRNA molecules from a particular
separated according to its pI. SDS PAGE separates            cell type is converted to cDNA and labeled with a
proteins purely on the basis of size. It uses molecular      fluorescent tag. This mixture is then exposed to a gene
markers for this purpose Immunoelectrophoresis is a          chip, which is a glass slide or membrane containing
general name for a number of biochemical methods for         thousands of tiny spots of DNA, each corresponding to a
separation and characterization of proteins based on         different gene. The amount of fluorescence bound to
electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies. All            each spot is a measure of the amount of that particular
variants of immunoelectrophoresis require                    mRNA in the sample. DNA microarrays are often used to
immunoglobulin, also known as antibodies reacting with       determine the differing patterns of gene expression in
the proteins to be separated or characterized. Two-          two different types of cell—for example, normal and
dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or      cancer cells
2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis
                                                             Hybridization technique is useful in all EXCEPT:
commonly used to analyze proteins. Mixtures of
proteins are separated by two properties in two              Southern blotting
dimensions on 2D gels.
                                                             Northern blotting
There is a mixture of 5 proteins with pI of 3, 3.6, 4, 4.4
and 5 respectively. What should be the pH of buffer if       Western blotting
these proteins have to be separated on gel
                                                             Microarray analysis
electrophoresis
                                                             Correct Answer : 3
4
                                                             Explanation : Hybridization means annealing of DNA to
3.6                                                          DNA or DNA to RNA based on the Watson crick base
4.4                                                          pairing rules i.e. Adenine always base pairs with
                                                             thymine and guanine always base pairs with cytosine.
More than 5                                                  For detection of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA this
                                                             phenomenon is very useful. In southern blotting a
Correct Answer : 4
                                                             specific cDNA or RNA oligonucleotide probe will
hybridize with a specific DNA sequence. In northern
blotting a specific cDNA oligonucleotide probe will
hybridize with a specific RNA sequence. In microarray
analysis thousands of DNA sequences of RNA sequences
are detected by hybridization on a microchip with
thousands of immobilized oligonucleotide sequences.
Western blotting is for analysis of proteins and hence
hybridization has no role.

Which of the following techniques is NOT useful in
detection of carrier of point mutation?                       Which of the following is WRONG regarding
                                                              Decarboxylation of an amino acid to its amine:
PCR analysis
                                                              histidine to histamine
ASO probe analysis
                                                              DOPA to Dopamine
RFLP analysis
                                                              5 hydroxytryptophan to serotonine
DNA sequencing
                                                              Glutamate to glutamine
Correct Answer : 1
                                                              Correct Answer : 4
Explanation : A point mutation can be detected by DNA
sequencing. It can also be detected by using a synthetic      Explanation : Amino acids are converted to their
allele specific oligonucleotide probe which is                respective amine forms by decarboxylation e.g.
complimentary to the sequence where mutation is               Histidine ? Histamine Tyrosine ? Tyramine Tryptophan?
likely. RFLP analysis can detect a point mutation if the      Tryptamine 5 – Hydroxy Tryptophan ? 5 – Hydroxy
mutation results in generation or abolition of restriction    Tryptamine (Serotonine) DOPA ? Dopamine Glutamate
site changing the length of restriction fragment. PCR         ? GABA Glutamine is not amine, its Amide form of
analysis is only for amplification of a specific DNA          Glutamate
sequence.

PCR is useful in all EXCEPT:
                                                              Aspirin:
Diagnosis of infectious diseases
                                                              Increases the Km and decreases the Vmax of
DNA fingerprinting                                            cyclooxygenase
Prenatal diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis                         decreases the Km and increases the Vmax of
                                                              cyclooxygenase
Commercial production of insulin
                                                              Increases the Km and does not affect the Vmax of
Correct Answer : 4
                                                              cyclooxygenase
Explanation : PCR is a technique of amplification of a
                                                              Does not affect the Km and decreases the Vmax of
desired sequence of DNA in a short span of time. This
                                                              cyclooxygenase
amplified sequence is then analyzed by southern
blotting to finally come to a conclusion. It is useful in     Correct Answer : 4
amplifying and analyzing single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNP) using specific primers and helps in       Explanation : Aspirin is a non competitive irreversible
DNA fingerprinting. It can be useful in diagnosing            inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase. Hence it has no effect on
infectious diseases by Amplifying and analyzing DNA of        Km but decreases the Vmax.
causative agent. It is also useful in prenatal diagnosis of
cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive
genetic disease resulting from mutations in the cystic
fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)
gene. The most common mutation is a three-base                Which of the following increases the level of metabolic
deletion that results in the loss of a phenylalanine          acids in human body?
residue from the CFTR protein. Because the mutant
                                                              Thiamine deficiency
allele is three bases shorter than the normal allele, it is
possible to distinguish them from each other by the size      Pyridoxine deficiency
of the PCR products obtained by amplifying that portion
of the DNA                                                    Methyl cobalamine deficiency
Biotin deficiency

Correct Answer : 3

Explanation : Thiamine deficiency results in lactic
acidosis, pyridoxine deficiency causes xanthurenic
aciduria and biotin deficiency causes propionic
acidemia. All these increase the metabolic acid levels.
Methylcobalamine deficiency causes homocysteinuria
which is not a metabolic acid. However
Adenosylcobalamine deficiency causes methyl malonic
aciduria which is metabolic acid.

Most electronegative component of respiratory chain is:

NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase

Succinate : Ubiquinone reductase

Ubiquinone: Cytochrome C oxidoredutase

Cytochrome C oxidase

Correct Answer : 1

Explanation : Respiratory chain components are
arranged in an order of increasing redox potential from
electronegative to electropositive so that electron
moves in a particular direction. Complex I: NADH
Dehydrogenase (NADH – Q oxidoreductase) (most
electornegative) Complex II: Succinate Dehydrogenase
(Succinate – Q reductase) Complex III: Q cytochrome c
oxidoreductase Complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase
(most electropositive)

				
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