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EXECUTIVE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

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					EXECUTIVE DIPLOMA
IN
EFFECTIVE
BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES
AND CONCEPTS OF
EFFECTIVE BUSINESS
COMMUNICATIONS
WHAT IS BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS
 Tool of interaction

 Social interaction

 Business interaction

 Bridge between people
PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION

 Life blood of every organization
 Means for internal communication
 External communication
 Valuable job requirement
 An essential for promotion
 A help for meeting personal requirements
 Develops right attitude
 Helps your company image
 Makes you capable and enthusiastic
 Prepares adequately
WHAT IS BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS?
 Art of transmitting
    information,
    ideas and
    attitudes from one person to another.


 The process of conveying a message from the sender to
  the receiver.
WHAT IS EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS

  Personal process
  Occurs between people
  Involves change in behavior
  Means to influence others
  Expression of thoughts and emotions through words &
   actions.
  Tools for controlling and motivating people
  It is a social and emotional process
Communication Process
                       Sent Message           Received
         Encoded
         Message                              Message



                      Communication




                                                         Receiver
Sender




                           Medium
                    (e.g., verbal, face-to-
                       face, or e-mail)



                                              Decoded
         Received
                                              Message
         Feedback        Feedback
ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE BUSINESS
COMMUNICATIONS
 It’s a creative art
 Convey the message and the objective of the message
 Choose the right media, channel and level
 Sender must have the right mind
 Receiver must be willing to receive
 Message must have all 7“C”s
 Understand receivers perceptions and emotions
 Understand receivers social background
 Understand receivers environmental influence
 Get the desired result
 Make the process successful communications
Communication Networks
                 Y Network                    All Connected
                                                  Network


 Decentralized
  Networks

Wheel Network                Circle Network      Centralized
                                                  Networks
Direction of Organizational Communication
 Downward
   From supervisor to subordinate
        Job instructions
        Information on organization policies
        Performance feedback
        Inform associates about the organization’s goals and changes

 Horizontal
    Between associates at the same level
    Facilitates coordination among organizational units
    May arise from integrating positions (boundary-spanning
     positions)
    360-degree performance feedback
Direction of
Organizational Communication
  Upward
    From subordinate to supervisor
        Grievance procedures
        Departmental meetings
        Participation in decisions
        And others
    Upward communication may be necessary to
      Monitor the effectiveness of decisions
      Provide information
      Maintain associate morale
      Ensure that jobs are being done properly
Interpersonal Communication
 Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or
 more active participants
   Formal vs. informal issues
       Informal includes spontaneous interactions
       Informal may reach more associates
       Informal can help build cohesion and friendship among
        associates
       Informal may include untrue rumors and gossip
Nonverbal Communication
  Communication that takes place without using
  language, such as facial expressions or body
  language
    Body language (kinesics)
      Facial expressions
      Use of hands, arms, legs and posture
    Paralanguage (How something is said)
      Tone and pitch of voice
      Use of silence

    Gestures
      Hand signals
      Shrugging one’s shoulders
Nonverbal Communication
  Nonverbal communication provides information
  about the
    Person’s attitudes
    Emotional state
    Mental state


  Nonverbal behavior may support or conflict with a
  person’s verbal communication
                     Communication Barriers
Communication               Communication               True
  message                      barriers             understanding




 Organizational Barriers                    Individual Barriers

• Information overload                  • Differing perceptions
• Noise                                 • Semantic differences
• Time pressures                        • Status differences
• Network breakdowns                    • Consideration of self-
• Information distortion                  interest
• Cross-cultural barriers               • Personal space
                                        • Poor listening skills
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
   Choice of wrong media , channel and level
   Prejudice between sender and receiver
   Mental block / closed minds
   Mental Filter
   Fallacy
   Perceptions
   Individual differences
   Attitudes and opinions Incorrect set of facts
   Sender’s credibility
   Personal appearance
   Facial expressions, Gestures and Postures
   Voice
   Silence , Smell and Touch
   Time
   Sounds and distractions
     Communication Barriers
                    Cultural Communication Differences

Communication        In the United States       Elsewhere
Eye contact          Direct                     In many Asian Countries, extended
                                                eye contact is unacceptable.
Time orientation     Punctual—”Time is Money”   Asian and Latin American cultures
                                                have longer time horizons; resolving
                                                issues is more important than being on
                                                time.
Answering questions Direct and factual          Many Asian cultures view being direct
                                                as rude and aggressive.
Self-presentation    Self-promotion rewarded    Many other cultures (e.g., Asian,
                                                Russian) find this rude.
Posture              Open body posture          In Japan, a closed body posture is
                     (e.g., arms relaxed)       preferred (e.g., crossed arms and legs)
Indicating “no”      Shaking one’s head from    In Bulgaria, the “no” signal means “I’m
                     side to side               listening,” rather than “I disagree.”
Overcoming Communication Barriers

 Individual actions
    Know your audience
    Select an appropriate communication medium
    Encourage feedback
    Regulate information flow and timing
    Listen actively
Overcoming Communication Barriers
 Stop talking.
   We talk more than we should without giving the other person a chance
  to respond. If thinking about what we will say when we talk, we cannot focus
  attention on the person we wish to listen to. Do not interrupt.
 Pay attention.
  Do not get distracted by thinking about something else. Make an active effort
  to pay attention when others are speaking.
 Listen empathetically.
  Try to take the speaker’s perspective. Mirror the speaker’s body language
  and give him or her nonjudgmental encouragement to speak.
 Hear before evaluating.
  Do not draw premature conclusions or disagreement. Listen before jumping
  to conclusions or judgment
 Listen to the whole message.
  Look for consistency between the verbal and the nonverbal messages. Try to
  assess the person’s feelings or intentions, as well as just facts.
 Send feedback.
  In order to make sure that you have heard correctly, paraphrase what was
  heard and repeat it to the person you were listening to.
PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE BUSINESS
COMMUNICATIONS
The 7c’s principles
 Completeness
 Conciseness
 Concreteness
 Clarity
 Courtesy
 Correctness
 Consideration
COMPLETENESS
 Answer all questions asked


 Give some extra when desirable


 Check 5 w’s-who-when-why-where-what


 Any other essentials
CONCISENESS
 Avoid wordy statements-


 Include only relevant statements-


 Avoid un necessary repetition
CONSIDERATION
 Focus on “YOU”


 Show reader benefit


 Say positive first


 Apply integrity
CONCRETENESS
 Use specific facts and figures


 Put action in your verbs


 Choose vivid images building words
CLARITY
 Choose short familiar words


 Write readable sentences


 Give examples where necessary


 Maintain appropriate readability
COURTESY
 Tactful, thoughtful and appreciative


 Avoid irritating expressions


 Apologize good naturedly
CORRECTNESS
 Use right level of language


 Check accuracy of facts


 Maintain acceptable writing mechanics


 Choose non discriminatory expressions
THE PLANNING PROCESS
FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION'S
 Know your purpose
 Analyze your audience
 Choose your ideas
 Collect your facts
 Organize your materials
 Select your approach direct or indirect
 Write- Edit, Revise and Present



                                            28
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
 Advantages of written communication
 Purpose of written communication
 Forms of written communication
 Approach to written communication
 Different types of letters
 Memorandums




                                        29
Communication - Information Richness and
Media Type
          High
        Richness

                        Face-to-face
                       communication
                    Verbal communication
                        electronically
                         transmitted
                    Verbal communication
                        electronically
                         transmitted
                     Impersonal written
                         commun-
          Low             ication
        Richness
Information Richness of
Communication Channels


 Low channel richness   High channel richness




 Routine                             Nonroutine
Communication Media
Face-to-Face: highest information richness.
     Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals.
     Provides for instant feedback.
       Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with
        informal talks to workers.
     Video Conferences: provide much of this richness.
       Reduce travel costs and meeting times.

Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: has
 next highest richness.
     Phone conversations, but no visual nonverbal cues.
       Do have tone of voice, sender’s emphasis and quick feedback.
Communication Media
 Personally Addressed Written Communication: lower
  richness than the verbal forms, but still is directed at a
  given person.
      Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it.
         Letters and e-mail are common forms.

      Cannot provide instant feedback to sender but can get feedback
       later.
         Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up.

 Impersonal Written Communication: lowest richness.
      Good for messages to many receivers. Little feedback is
       expected.
         Newsletters, reports are examples.
Written Communication
 Written communication are in forms of letters,
 reports, posters, newspaper , organization hand books.



 Effective written communication :
Principles of effective writing
 Clarity:
        It means one is trying to convey a message to mind of other.
        The clearly writing benefits to the sender and receiver by
         understand what both are trying to say.
        The message is important.

 Simplicity :
   It is not easy to write simple , in fact it is more difficult to be simple
    than to be complex.
   It means to the point , accurate.
   Avoid unnecessary use of jargons, length, spelling , sentence
    structure etc.
 Simplicity can be defined as :
    Being concise : use short, direct, simple statement to cover
     your points, and that too in well organized order.

    Being precise : to say something specific, be clear about it.


 Define problem:
    while writing letter one do not need to define everything, but
     only those words or thoughts that may not be clearly understood
     by reader.

    Being meaningful : they should convey the message, not merely
     the symbol of a sound.
    Promptness
     The communication should be at the right time , should not
      delay the reply.

    Knowledge of the subject
     Should know the policies of the firm.
     Should posses the knowledge of the past
       correspondence.

 Appropriate
     Vary the tone and language according to the need of the
      occasion and psychology of the reader.

 Accuracy, completeness
     All the facts and figures must be accurately mention.
     The message should be clear and un-ambiguous so as to
      accomplish the purpose.
Written Communication:
- form of letters, memoranda, briefs, reports or memos
   wherever oral communication is not feasible.

 Summary of issues
 Invitation
 Establish a formal basis of communication.
 Provide a source of historical data.
 Communicate corporate strategy and ideology.
 Official documentation to lend credibility to our utterances.
 Access a wider audience.
 Present information/data independently of interpersonal skills
 Business Correspondence
 What information should be included?
 How should it be presented most effectively?
 What is the purpose of the communication?
 Who else needs access to it?
 When should it be sent?
 How should it be sent?
 What type of response do we expect?
 What is the most appropriate format?
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
ADVANTAGES
   Planned effort
   Choice of right words, sentences and ideas
   Can be corrected, revised and edited
   Can apply all 7 C’s and correct language mechanics
   Can be retrieved or kept as a record
   Unambiguous
   Lasting Effect
   Legal advantages
   Permanent
   Formal and more professional

                                                         40
WRITTEN FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
   Direct and Indirect Request Letters
   Persuasive request
   Complaint letters
   Sales letters and unsolicited sales letters
   Writing Unpleasant letters
   Memorandums
   Recommendations
   Announcements
   Transmittals
   Refusing credits
   Rejection letters

                                                  41
           Persuasive Letter Example
To,
Mr. Smith,
XYZ Corp.

Respected Mr. Smith,

How long has it been since you and your spouse had a really good time?
How long has it been since you last took a week off to enjoy the more
beautiful things in life? How long has it been since you saw the sea, basked
in the sun during the day and gazed at the stars at night?

We thought it's been a long time too.

At ABC Cruise we are offering very few select people an offer to stay on
board our cruise for a week, in the lap of luxury like no other in this
world. We will pamper you and indulge your every little desire. We will
ensure that you and your spouse get a lovely time together and get a bit of
romance going! And that too at a 50% discount over our normal rates!

Hard to say no, isn't it?

Regards,

ABC Cruise Vacations.
Complaint Letter Sample
     Jim Smith,
     CEO, XYZ Company,
     North Avenue,
     New York.

     Mr. Smith,

     Subject: Complaint about a TV set purchased on (date)

     I would like to bring to your attention that the TV model (model) of
     XYZ company, serial number (serial number), which I purchased on
     (date) from (dealer) seems to have had a problem within a week of its
     purchase on (date).

     The problem, he claims, is that the LED backlights have internally
     burned. I was told at the time of the purchase that in case of any faults
     with the TV I shall receive free replacement/servicing of the TV. I
     contacted the dealer for the same, but he told me that I will have have
     to contact the chief executive of the company directly.

     I have attached a note from the dealer explaining the problem to you in
     better detail.

     I am writing this letter to you expressing the hope that you will reply as
     soon as possible with the possible course of action, whether you can
     service it or replace the TV altogether.

     Thanking You,

     John                                                                         43
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION TECHNICAL
APPROACHES
   Reader benefit
   Buffer
   AIDA formula
   Reinforcement of goodwill
   Proactive language
   Attention arrester
   Friendly ending
   Professionalism



                                  44
REPORT WRITING
 What is a report?
 Importance of report writing in business
 Different types of reports
 How to write a memo report
 How to write a formal report
 How to write letter report
 Elements of professional reports



                                             45
OTHER WRITTEN DOCUMENTS

 How to write an article?
 How to write Press release?
 How to write a mail shot
 How to write a summary?




                                46
Oral communication
 According to the University of Virginia, "oral communication is the
  effective interpretation, composition, and presentation of information,
  ideas, and values to a specific audience."

 Oral communication describes any type of inter-action that makes use
  of spoken words, and it is a vital, integral part of the modern business
  world.

 "Knowing the content of the functional areas of business is important,
  but to give life to those ideas—in meetings or in solo presentations—
  demands an effective oral presentation.“

 "The ability to communicate effectively through speaking as well as in
  writing is highly valued, and demanded, in business, " According to
  Herta A. Murphy and Herbert W. Hildebrandt
Oral communication: Significance
 daily to talk to friends,
 make business proposals
 legislation.


 Oral communication is used in business to make deals, sell
  products and train employees.
Types of Oral communication
 within an organization:
   staff meetings, personal discussions, presentations,
    telephone discourse, and informal conversation.


 outside of the organization:
    form of face-to-face meetings, telephone calls, speeches,
     teleconferences, or videoconferences.
Communication skills
 Conversation management skills are essential for small
 business owners and managers, who often shoulder
 much of the burden in such areas as client/customer
 presentations, employee interviews, and conducting
 meetings.
Effectiveness of Oral Communication
Oral communication to be effective, it should be:
 Clear
 Relevant
 Tactful in phraseology and tone
 Concise, and informative.

 Presentations or conversations that bear these
  hallmarks can be an valuable tool in ensuring
  business health and growth.
 Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business
 communication, on the other hand, can waste valuable
 time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy
 goodwill toward management or the overall business.
Oral Presentations
   Public presentation is generally recognized as the
   most important of the various genres of oral business
   communication.


   The first step in preparing a public speech or remarks
   is to determine the essential purpose/goal of the
   communication.


   Business presentations tend to have one of three
   general purposes: to persuade, to inform or instruct,
   or to entertain.
 Purpose is to include the main ideas in the
 presentation. These ideas should be researched
 thoroughly and adapted to the needs of the audience.

 Ideas should then be organized to include an
 introduction, a main body or text, and a summary or
 conclusion
 Introduction should grab the listener's interest:
 Establish the theme of the remainder of the presentation.
 Main body should concentrate on points of emphasis.
 Conclusion should restate the key points and summarize the
  overarching message that is being conveyed.


 Visual aids are an important component of many oral
  presentations.
 Whether they are displayed on chalkboards,
 dry-erase boards,
 flip charts, or presented using a slide projector,
 overhead projector, or computer program, visual aids should be
  meaningful, creative, and interesting in order to help the speaker
  get a message across.
 Once the presentation has been organized and the
 visual aids have been selected, the speaker should
 rehearse out loud and revise as needed to fit time
 constraints, cover points of emphasis, etc.
   A good oral presentation will include transitional
    phrases to help listeners move through the material, and
    will not be overly long or technical.


 Professional and gracious presentation is another
 key to effective communication
 Use the event as an opportunity to promote good
 will.
   Avoid complaints, criticism, or controversy.
   It will alienate the audience and destroy your
    credibility quickly.
   Instead, talk about what the audience wants to hear.
   Praise your host, honor the occasion, and compliment
    the attendees.
   Radiate success and optimism.“


 Oral presentations can be delivered (from an outline
 or notes); by reading from a manuscript; or from
 memory.
 The delivery of effective oral presentations requires a
 speaker to consider his or her
   vocal pitch, rate, and volume.
   It is important to incorporate changes in vocal pitch to
    add emphasis and avoid monotony.


 Speakers should be careful not to add extraneous
 words or sounds—such as "um, " "you know, " or
 "okay"—between words or sentences in a
 presentation.
 Nonverbal elements such as:
   posture, gestures, and facial expression are also
    important factors in developing good oral
    communication skills.

   "Your outward appearance mirrors your inner mood.
    "Thus good posture suggests poise and confidence;
    stand neither at rigid attention nor with sloppy
    casualness draped over the podium, but erect with
    your weight about equally distributed on each foot."
10 Principles For Better Oral Communication
 Design a dynamic format than a static one.
 Keep your outline clear and simple.
 Oral design should be oriented to time rather than
  space.
 Emphasize main ideas by placement and reiteration.
 Use carefully worded transitions as you move trough
  the presentation.
 Plan carefully for a combination of inductive and
 deductive movement.

 Use language best suited to the ear, not the eye.

 Plan the introductory segments carefully.

 Plan the closing segments of the design carefully.

 Plan the whole design from the audience point of
 view.
EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION
 The purpose
 Analyze the audience
 Organize data
 Research the data
 Rehearse the presentation
 Details of delivery




                              62
EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION
 Choice of the type of presentation
 The introduction
 The delivery of text
 The mechanics of the presentation
 The art of controlling the listeners
 Role of listeners
 The conclusion



                                         63
Week 4
Visual and Electronic Media of
Communication
                                 64
VISUAL COMMUNICATION
 What is visual communication?
 Advantages of visual communication
 Tools of visual communication
 How to use tools of visual communication effectively
 Creating impacts through tools of visual
 communication




                                                         65
Visualization Process
      Systematic approach to the

   selection of the most appropriate

   methods and media to deliver your

               message
Visualization Process
 Analyze your audience
 Establish objectives
 Develop presentation outline
 Determine visualization needs
 Evaluate the resources available
 Add variety
 No offensive images, phrases or music.
 Seating arrangements/room layouts are designed, so that
  everyone can hear or see what’s going on.
 Sufficient technical back-up.
 Do not use effects which could upset your audience (e.g.
 Loud bangs, flickering lights, strobe lights, fireworks)
 Simplicity and clarity rather than complexity and
  confusion.
 Always make reference to a visual.
 Don’t turn away from the audience to operate audio-
  visuals;
 Do not obscure visuals by standing in front of them
 Rehearse your presentation.


                                                         68
What Makes Good Visual
Communication?
 Clear                      Important

 Readable                   Interesting

 Says only one thing        Simple

 Stays on the subject       Accurate

 Reveal a product rather
 than image
                          Eg: Aerospace
   Flight control
    ◦ Stability: real-time differential
      feedback loops
   Positioning & navigation
    ◦ GPS, INS
   Instrumentation
    ◦ Data acquisition, display,
      processing, and archive
 Radar
 Communication
Audio or visual aids – enhances a good presentation
and increase effectiveness. It
 creates awareness
 encourages interest
 active participation
 achieving instant result/responses;
 describing in one image an entire proposal or
  concept
 complementing the spoken word

                                                      71
 Audio & Visual - Tools
 Electronic – Satellite link up    Flip Charts
 Slides                            White Board
 Transparencies                    Posters
 Video                             Handouts
 Overhead Projector                Physical object
 Film
Sources of Visual Media
   Commercially produced media

   Modify existing media

   Design and produce customized media
Is this a Good Visual?




   This text is too small to read effectively.
   The type style not appropriate.
   There are too many pieces of inf ormation on the
    visual and you can’t determine what the important
    inf ormation is that the instructor is trying to get
    across.
Principles of Effective Visual
Communication
       Simple

       Organized and compatible

       Legible and readable

       Appropriate graphics

       Consistent
Simple
      Visuals should be concise
         and functional

      Visuals should
         Highlight
         Clarify
         Condense
Techniques
    Use a horizontal format
    One concept per visual
    Use key words
    Separate points
    Use graphics instead of words
    MIB - Make it Big
    KIS - Keep it Simple
Organized and Compatible
       Logical sequence

       Media integral to lesson

       Visuals should reinforce
       verbal content

       Focus attention
Techniques
  Outline presentation
  Determine where visuals are essential
  When not in use, turn media off
  Use “builds” to sequence presentation
  Focus attention by “pointing”
  Incorporate pauses
  Use “transitions” between visuals
Legible and Readable
   Visuals should be readable to
       everyone in the room
Can You Read This?
   Is this line visible?
   IF IT’S ALL CAPS DOES IT HELP?

 Do you find this typestyle easy to read?
 This is readable type, the color is wrong.
 Does it help to underline a whole sentence or a paragraph
  of type?
 IF IT’S ALL CAPS DOES IT HELP?
 HOW ABOUT SCRIPT IN ALL CAPS?
 This is a san serif type, this is serif
Techniques
 No more than 3 typefaces (2 preferred)
 Minimum type size is 18 point
 Use a Gothic (sans serif) or Roman (serif) typeface of
  medium weight
 Use bold, italic or color for emphasis
 Select type color to contrast with background
 Space lines appropriately
Symbols
 Symbols are objects, characters, or other concrete
  representations of ideas, concepts, or other
  abstractions.
 Humans have the capacity to use symbols (words)
  to represent ideas, which are abstractions of the
  real event or object. Two levels of abstraction.
 Words of made up of letters, which are also
  symbols, and add another layer of abstraction.
Symbols
Characteristics of colors
  Brightness           Hue
  Quantitative       Qualitative
How to select a color or pattern
                2 colors :

                3 colors :
                             or
Interpreting color
 Red - color of fire and blood,
   associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power,
    determination as well as passion, desire, and love.

 Red - very emotionally intense color.
   enhances human metabolism, increases respiration rate,
    raises blood pressure.
   very high visibility, which is why stop signs, stoplights,
    and fire equipment are usually painted red.
Interpreting color
 Orange - combines the energy of red and the happiness of
  yellow.
    associated with joy, sunshine, and the tropics.
    represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity,
     determination, attraction, success, encouragement, and
     stimulation.

 To human eye, orange is a very hot color, gives the
  sensation of heat.
    orange is not as aggressive as red.
    Orange increases oxygen supply to the brain, produces an
     invigorating effect, and stimulates mental activity.
    orange is symbolic of strength and endurance.
Interpreting color
 Yellow- color of sunshine.
    associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy.


 Produces a warming effect, arouses cheerfulness,
  stimulates mental activity, and generates muscle energy.
  Bright, pure yellow is an attention getter, which is the
  reason taxicabs are painted this color.
    Overused, yellow may have a disturbing effect; it is known
     that babies cry more in yellow rooms.
    Yellow is seen before other colors when placed against black;
     this combination is often used to issue a warning.
Interpreting color
 Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth,
  harmony, freshness, and fertility.
 Has strong emotional correspondence with safety.

 Green has great healing power. It is the most restful color
  for the human eye; it can improve vision.
Interpreting color
 Blue - color of the sky and sea.

 Associated with depth and stability.

 Symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth,
  and heaven.

 Considered beneficial to the mind and body. It slows human
  metabolism and produces a calming effect.

 Strongly associated with tranquility and calmness.
Interpreting color
 Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red.
  Associated with royalty.

 Symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition.

 According to surveys, almost 75 percent of pre-adolescent
  children prefer purple to all other colors. Purple is a very
  rare color in nature; some people consider it to be artificial.

 Light purple is a good choice for a feminine design. You can
  use bright purple when promoting children's products.
Interpreting color
 White is associated with light, goodness, innocence,
 purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the color of
 perfection.

 White means safety, purity, and cleanliness. As
 opposed to black, white usually has a positive
 connotation. White can represent a successful
 beginning. In heraldry, white depicts faith and purity.
Interpreting color
 Black - associated with power, elegance, formality, death, evil, and
  mystery.

 Black is a mysterious color associated with fear and the unknown
  (black holes). It usually has a negative connotation (blacklist, black
  humor, 'black death').
 Black denotes strength and authority; it is considered to be a very
  formal, elegant, and prestigious color (black tie, black Mercedes).

 Black gives the feeling of perspective and depth, but a black
  background diminishes readability.

 When designing for a gallery of art or photography, you can use a black
  or gray background to make the other colors stand out. Black contrasts
  well with bright colors. Combined with red or orange – other very
  powerful colors – black gives a very aggressive color scheme.
Line Spacing
 Text is difficult to read when the lines are positioned too
  close together

 Too much space between lines make the

  though seem disconnected

 Text is most legible when the line separation is about 1
  1/2 times the
  letter height
Type Size
                  This is 12 point type

               This is 18 point type
            This is 24 point type
            This is 30 point type
        This is 36 point type
     This is 48 point type
   This is 60 point type
Appropriate Graphics
         Select graphic elements to enhance
         communication

         Graphics should not be used to
         simply be “cute” or to “take up space”
Techniques
 Separate or highlight information using
       shapes
       lines
       color

 Use graphs not of tables of numbers
 Use “clip art” sparingly
 Use cartoons with caution
 Allow for “white space”
Consistent
   Visuals should flow from one to another, giving a
   consistent look
   to the presentation.

   Information should be presented in
   a consistent and accurate manner.
Techniques
  Keep all backgrounds consistent
  Proof read everything - twice - then have someone
  else proof it!
  Preview presentation checking consistency in
  typefaces, colors, etc.
  Check other material used in lesson to ensure
  consistent information
  Create handouts
Before the Presentation
    Preview all media
    Check electronic presentation
    computer system in room
    Check visuals on room screen
    Check all equipment
    Check lighting and seating
    Have a back-up plan
During the Presentation
    Prepare audience

    Use media appropriately

    Make eye contact

    Require participation
    Observe reaction to presentation
      Verbal and non-verbal
After the Presentation
  Evaluate the presentation

  Determine ways to improve the presentation

  Make notes on how to revise the media

  Do it before you forget!
INTERVIEWS
   What is an interview?
   Why interviews are important?
   What are the different types of interviews?
   How do you prepare for an interview?
   What are the roles of an interviewer
   What are the duties of an interviewee?
   How do you conduct an interview?
   Elements of successful interviews



                                                  104
Interviews
 Two parties are involved - one-to-one interaction
 interviewer and interviewee
 Not uncommon for the interviewer side to comprise a
 panel.
 The purpose must be considered from both sides.
 The interviewer has “control” of the process.
 Responsibility on him/her to ensure that the process
 allows both parties to meet their objectives.




                                                         105
Types of Interviews
 Selection interviews – Recruitment or Promotion

 Appraisal – performance review, development

 Disciplinary – practice fair play, no prejudice

 Grievances – feedback session ,open dialogue




                                                    106
Conducting the Performance
Review Interview
 Do your homework.

 Select and understand the perspective of the interview.

 Relationship influences both parties and the nature of
 the interview.
Conducting the Performance
Review Interview
 Opening the Interview

   Climate and atmosphere are critical.

   Be prepared but flexible in opening the interview.
Conducting the Performance
Review Interview
 Discussing Performance
   Use all of your listening skills.
   Feedback is central in performance interviews.
   Develop a true dialogue with the interviewee.
   Enhance trust and cooperation to avoid conflict.
   Strive for a balance between praise and criticism.
   Be aware of potential biases.
   Know how to conduct performance interviews.
   Use question tools to gain and verify information.
Conducting the Performance
Review Interview
 Setting New Goals and a Plan of Action
    Focus on the future and not the past.
    The interviewee must be an active participant.
    Review the last period’s goals before going on to new
     ones.
    Do not make the goals too easy or too difficult.
Conducting the Performance
Review Interview
 Closing the Interview

   Close with the perception that the interview has been

    valuable for both parties.
Principles and Practice of Interviewing
 The process to be two-way – Preparation & Delivery
 Preparation
 Different interviews have its own purpose and aim.
 Important to identify the particular objectives.
 Job interview - knowledge, skills and attitudes
  required for it
 Structure the interview to achieve desired outcome
 Grievance interview - particulars of an individual case
 Gathering and organizing relevant information
 Thorough preparation based on salient points

                                                            112
Conduct of the interview
 Structured to be focused on the key points

 Avoid irrelevant discussion and time wasting.

 Welcome – greetings and introductions, establishing
 rapport and relaxing the participants.
   Particular points include:

   putting the interviewee at ease by

       explaining the purpose of the interview

       explaining, if appropriate, about taking notes.


                                                          113
 Ask – questions to seek information in relation to the
 objectives of the interview.

 Consider questioning techniques:

   using questions prepared in advance,

   using open questions (which encourage developed

    responses and further discussion), working from
    relatively general and easy ones to more specific and
    difficult ones

   listen and probe the interviewee’s responses.

                                                            114
 Supply – provide full and honest responses to questions
 Points include:
    Backing up assertion with examples wherever
     possible;
    Being reasonably concise, particularly in the case of
     the interviewer (the interviewer should only do 20 –
     30% of the talking).

 Parting - ending the interaction on a positive and
  cordial note, with a clear idea of what has happened and
  what will happen next.
    Particular points include:
    Summarizing conclusions, where appropriate;
     Identifying when, what and how any action arising
     from the interview will be communicated.

                                                             115
The Role of Meetings
 Main functions:
 Avenue for a dialogue between members
 Exchange of information, views and opinions
    generating ideas or solutions to problems
    monitoring and evaluating performance or progress
    making policy and other decisions.


 The Organization of Meetings
    Before – the planning of what will happen
    During – the conduct of business during the course of the
     meeting itself
    After– wrapping up, records of the meeting.

                                                                 116
 Preparation for meetings
 Meetings have to be planned but ensure is it really
  necessary,
 Must have an agenda.


 The conduct of business
 A structured discussion governed by rules of procedure.
 Chairperson – controls the meeting
 Committee secretary/clerk – takes care administration and
  minutes

 Work after meetings
 Preparation of the record of the meeting
 Follow up on the actions
                                                              117
ELECTRONIC MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION
 The new era of communication
 Tools of electronic media of communication
 The impact of these tools on business
  communication
 Future developments of the electronic media
 How has computer taken control of business
  communication



                                                118
 Sample Memo: Writing a memo is a relatively simple and
  informal task. Some things to and tips to consider when
  writing and considering the format of a Memo:
 How much information do you need to convey?
 Who do you need to communicate with?
 The content of a memo includes information such as:
   Times, dates and places to meet
   Reminders
   New basic information
   Requests for confirmation, information or feedback
 Don’t use a memorandum format for lots of information
 Use this format to communicate with your colleagues or co-
  workers
 You have now learnt how to write a business memorandum
Sample Memo Format / Template

Sample Memo Format / Template

TO:
FROM:
DATE:
SUBJECT:

First Sentence:
Reason for the memo

Second Sentence - Main Body:
Any Instructions or information

Closing Sentence
What is required of the reader e.g. Confirmation, answers or feedback


Sample Memo Format / Template
TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES
 The purpose
 Successful calls
 Telephone Techniques




                         121
MEETINGS
 Definition
 Purpose and kinds of meetings
 Importance of written and oral communication
 Authorization of committee
 Leadership responsibilities
 Participant responsibilities




                                                 122
MEETINGS
 Planning steps before meetings
 Procedures during the meeting
 How to write minutes
 Examples of minutes




                                   123
The Role of Meetings
Main functions:
 Avenue for a dialogue between members

 Exchange of information, views and opinions;

 • generating ideas or solutions to problems;

 • monitoring and evaluating performance or progress;

 • making policy and other decisions.


                                                         124
The Organization of Meetings
 Before – the planning of what will happen
 During – the conduct of business during the course of
  the meeting itself
 After– wrapping up, records of the meeting.


Preparation for meetings
 Meetings have to be planned but ensure is it really
  necessary,
 Must have an agenda.


                                                          125
The Conduct of business
 A structured discussion governed by rules of
 procedure.
 Chairperson – controls the meeting

 Committee secretary/clerk – takes care

    administration and minutes
Work after meetings
 Preparation of the record of the meeting
 Follow up on the actions

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