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NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 38

  • pg 1
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UTILIZATION OF UAV’s FOR
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH

A Summary and Synthesis of Workshop 2

                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                             Overview                                 Page 2
                                             Draft Vision Statement                   Page 3
                                             Missions: Overview                       Page 4
                                             Missions: Climate                        Page 5
                                             Missions: Land & Ocean Surface           Page 7
                                             Missions: Global Observations            Page 10
                                             Missions: Atmospheric Observations       Page 13
                                             Technology: Overview                     Page 16
                                             Technology: Platforms                    Page 17
                                             Technology: Instrumentation              Page 22
                                             Technology: Operations                   Page 27
                                             Technology: Data and Communications      Page 29
                                             Gaps, Roadmaps & Vision: Overview        Page 31
                                             Gaps & Roadmaps                          Page 32
                                             Ideas for Joint NASA/NOAA/DOE Programs   Page 35
                                             Ideas for Innovative UAV Uses            Page 36
                                             UAV-Enabled Global Observation System    Page 37
                                             Ideas for Next Steps                     Page 38


            Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                   Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                         2
Overview
What we have in common forms the basis of our collaboration - the focus
on the goals developed in our first workshop in San Diego. From there,
there is no limit to what we can do.

On December 7th and 8th, 2004, DOC/NOAA Forecast Systems
Laboratory (FSL), NASA Science and Aeronautics Research Mission
Directorates, and DOE Office of Science sponsored the second in a series
of workshops on the Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Global
Climate Change Research. Participants from NASA, NOAA, and the
Department of Energy gathered together with researchers, scientists,
engineers and industry representatives to build upon the work completed
in the first workshop.

This session began with a series of presentations about the program
objectives of the three agencies, about the requirements for a research
program, and about the current capabilities of UAVs. The group then
became familiar with the 11 science goals developed in the first workshop.
Participants expanded upon these missions, clarifying the observations
needed for each as well as when and where these observations would
need to take place.

The group then looked at the technology and operations as well as the
gaps and roadmaps needed to realize these goals. Finally we used a
current NASA RFI document to drive some of the groups to put an outline
together for a few of the goals while other groups looked at the next steps
in the collaboration to move the group to realizing the objective of a global
climate change observation system.

This document is a summary of the group’s work.




                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                   Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                  3
    Draft Vision Statement
  “UAV’s bridge the gap between Earth and space to understand and protect our planet.”


Elements of a Mission Statement                                Proposed Presentation Format for
• Economy and Early Warning (Climate)                           NASA/NOAA/DOE Collaboration
• Fill Critical Gaps in Earth Observing System
• UAV Critical Role in Integrated Global Observing System      Why is this important?
  (enabler and integrator)                                     • Vision: Drawn from CCSP, GEOSS, IEOS, IORS, USCOP
• US Leadership (opportunity to lead in aerospace and global   • Examples: Arctic, Hurricane Tracking and Prediction
  observation)                                                 • Compelling, visceral story that motivates the important of
• UAV’s as Available Capability for Monitoring                   climate change and prediction
• UAV’s can Deliver Unique Scientific Measurements
• Magnify the Value of Existing Investments (satellites)       How can we make a difference?
                                                               • Consistent with current administration climate thrust (but not
                                                                 uniquely linked to this administration)
                                                               • Magnify value of current investments (satellites, piloted
                                                                 platforms, ground observations)
                                                               • Address gaps in current capabilities (examples…)
                                                               • Provide new and unique capabilities (examples…)
                                                               • Current agencies’ programs and opportunities for
                                                                 collaboration and efficiency

                                                               How much will it cost?
                                                               • We will need to have some estimate of the cost and benefits
                                                                 from the proposed collaboration.




                       Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                  Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                      4
  Missions: Overview
Context
 In the first round of work, groups reviewed the focus
 areas identified in the first workshop: Climate, Land &
 Ocean Surface, Global Observations, and Atmospheric
 Observations. Out of these groups, small teams then
 delved into the science goals that had been defined
 under each focus area. For each science goal, the
 teams were asked to define what needed to be
 measured, when it needed to be measure, how often
 and for how long?




                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                       5
  Missions: Climate I of II
                          Science Goal: Understand and quantify sensitivities of climate to forcings
                          and feedbacks.

Forcings: solar, CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, O3

Feedbacks: clouds, H2O(v), albedo, aerosols, oceans, O3

Unique Requirements: insitu, sustained, systematic, diurnal, over
oceans                                                                    We want to make any use of UAVs with anything
                                                                          that's already in existence in addition to using the first
Integration with: ARM networks, satellites, models, ocean observing,      3 ARM sites. We agreed 20 km is critical to the
radiosonde, lidar                                                         measurements we want. We'd like to see 5 flight days
                                                                          taking place in each location for each of the 4
Spatial: ARM—arctic, mid-continent -100km + flexibility (access to        seasons. The flight days should be spread out over a
                                                                          few weeks. We designed our dream suite of
remote regions); Up to 20km (up and down to surface                       instruments. We got into an interesting discussion
                                                                          about accuracy. We agreed that we could address
Temporal: diurnal - min. 5/flight days across 3 weeks; full seasonal 4    more science if any of the instruments were improved
times per year; simultaneity                                              upon. We agreed that we could have progress in all
                                                                          these areas by adding to the instrument suite that
Instruments: H2O(v) insitu; TP; B.B. SW+LW; Particle Probe; Radar         was previously designed. We can do work in urban
                                                                          areas as well as in albedos.
(particle reflectivity); Lidar (small particle reflectivity); Microwave
radiometer (profiles); Infra-red spectrometer; Wind lidar; Dropsondes
(GPS, T,P,W); Electrification (field probes) mid-latitude

Special Cases: aerosols - urban volcanoes; albedo - polar

Priorities: clouds, H2O, aerosols, albedo




                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                               6
Missions: Climate II of II
                          Science Goal: Sources and sinks of CO2 & methane (quantify and
                          locate natural and anthropogenic)
 Observations                  Where? UAV                 When?          How Often?        • UAVs coordinated with surface and
 Required                      Observations                                                orbital assets and models
 Condintions of:               -regional - continental    Diurnal -      Sat. overpasses   • UAVs alone
 CO2, CO, CH4, O2, in ?        scale - over ocean and     monthly -
 layer                         land                       seasonal
                               -- vertical profiles (0-
 -land cover/land use          5km)
 change                        -- Amazon
                                                                                           We looked at where UAVs would have the
 -- surface temperature        biogeochemistry (?
                                                                                           most impact. We tried to understand
 (ocean/land)                  CH4)
                                                                                           processes and thought the most utility here
 -- winds                      -- Southern ocean                                           would be closer to the boundary layer. We
                               (south pacific)                                             would understand how things get into the
 -- ocean color
                               -- 3 ARM sites                                              troposphere. There's a list of potential
 -- atmospheric temperature
                               -Eastern pacific                                            campaigns in the short-term, over the next 5
 -- fossil sources             Upwelling Zones                                             years. We would focus on the Amazon, the
 -- parameters controlling     -- Arctic freeze/thaw                                       southern ocean, and the ARM sites, as well
 photosynthesis                line (Barrow ARM site)                                      as a couple of sites listed here. This all led us
 -- soil moisture                                                                          to a possible campaign is this unknown
                               -- Regional CH4
 -- snow, ice, water                                                                       source of methane. It's not confounded by
                               campaign — Amazon,
 coverage                                                                                  large diurnal cycles. We didn't get very far in
                               Tundra, Aglands (ie
                                                                                           the 'When' and 'How Often' categories. We
 -- CO2 (drop buoys)           rice), Geologic(?)
                                                                                           did talk about the North America campaign
                               -- Fossil source                                            and we'd like to get involved in some
                               campaign (?)                                                intensive campaign.
 Rationale: CH4 is easier to measure than CO2; UAVs can help in process studies; less
 natural variability; CH4 strong CHC; shorter residenc time /nd




                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                           7
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface I of III
                        Science Goal: How is the biosphere changing?

Types of Measurements                                         When                             Where
1. Multispectral (imaging) 1-20km                             1. Triggered episodic meas       1. Keep track of interfaces (coastal
2. Hyperspectral sometimes (imaging) 1-20km                   (minit?)                         zone; forest/tundra; sky Islands (desert
3. Florescense high resolution (temp/sp) triggered 200m       2. Scheduled eposodic            sandstorms); altitude change; irrigated
                                                              (seasonal/annual)                vs. arid; surface ocean temperature;
4. In-situ fluxes 30m
                                                              cal / val                        GPP, DOC, turbidity
5. DiAL 30m - 10km
                                                              3. Diurnal (fluxes, Ocean        Coral blocking
6. Laser (dobbler) for wind 30m - 10km                        Bio)                             Wetlands extent / change
7. Soil moisture u-wave (passive/active) 3-20km               4.




What                       Where                              When/how often/ duration/ synchrony

Land use / land cover      Global                             All year / seasonally / range to target) close to satellite pass (cal/val)
interface
Ecosystem condition        Specific ecosystems worldwide      Diurnal to seasonal (many synchronous measurements) (intensive
                                                              observation period simplified for monitoring)
                                                              All seasons
Event - triggered          Location of event (global reach)   Event duration (multi-parameter)
                           stressor, transport, receptors)    Response time important
                                                              Maybe pre-event if forecast




                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                  8
Missions: Land & Ocean Surface II of III
                     Science Goal: Decrease uncertainties in models (CO2 emission regions;
                     CH4 emission regions)
                     Understanding processes (regional variability; short-term variation)

                                                           The gas emissions from the surface have reactions to the climate
What: CO2; H2O; CH4                                        change. How does the natural emission of CO2 change in
                                                           response to the climate change? Is it positive or negative
From this: regions explored - typical for validation;      feedback?
extremes for exploration                                   One of the things you want to do is have prediction of these
                                                           processes. There are already models that can do this and we want
Observation Strategy: define boundary layer (ocean,
                                                           to decrease the uncertainties in these models. We want to pick
land, smooth, rough, wind speed)                           areas that are particularly sensitive to change.
Technology development: miniaturization; multiple          We agreed that understanding the processes are important for
sondes (or mini-UAVs); mini-gliders?                       understanding the scale. What you see from satellites is what is
                                                           really happening. To understand the detail, UAVs play a very
Fundamental Issues: intermediate scale between             important role. The regions typical for validation are where we
satellite and high flying aircraft and jeep; work on       want to start. The fundamental issues that emerge from our
natural laboratories (investigator-driver)                 discussion is that we need the intermediate scale between satellite
                                                           and aircraft so we can fill in the gaps of the picture we have right
                                                           now. We're looking for natural laboratories where we can do
                                                           investigative work to improve our understanding of the processes.




                  Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                              Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                               9
         Missions: Land & Ocean Surface III of III
                                     Science Goal: Characterization (shifts/changes) of frozen part (cryosphere)
                                     of water cycle earth surface (ocean & land) in response to climate change
                                     Objectives: Trending (baseline) - total frozen reservoir (global/annual change/regional); Measure
                                     surface area, depth, density; Understanding response & feedback (energy cycle - solar + current and
                                     drivers); Focus on bellweather areas (visually/active areas - reasonable time space - high rate of
                                     change)
Cryosphere




             Observations                                                                    Here is a pathway where we think about how UAVs play into
                                                                                             the mix. We suggest that UAVs be in areas where we need
             • Sea ice - arctic/antarctic (moderate variability) (5–10% of ocean)            frequent repeats and high resolution. We think that UAVs
             • Glacier - mountains/coastal (least variable)                                  will need long duration. They don't particularly high altitude.
             • Snow fields/pack - mountains (highly variable)                                We'll need to get into understanding of what drives the
                                                                                             changes we see. We need surface area depth and density.
             • Perma frost (frozen soil moisture) - interface to biology


    Topic                      Position              Altitude              When              How often             Duration       Coverage/resolution
    Sea Ice                    Arctic/antarctic      Sea Level             Seasonal          Monthly               FLT tracks     Continental scale - 1km
                               (polar)                                     (summer/winter)                         (Re TBD)
                                                                           to monthly
    Glacier (moves)            Mountains             Mountain top (20k     Seasonal          Monthly               FLT tracks     100m
                               (high latitude)       feet+)                (21cm /year)      (year/decade)         (Re TBD)
    Snow field (fixed)         Mountains             Mountain top          Annual            Annual                FLT tracks     100km
                               (high latitude)       (20k feet)            (thorough)?                             (Re TBD)
    Snow pack (melts           Mountains             Mountain top          Seasonally        Weekly                               1km
    annually)




                                  Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                  Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                              10
Missions: Global Observation I of III
                               Science Goal: Improve high impact weather forecasts
 We came up with the idea of CORTS. This stands for calibration for real time system. Using UAVs help in research mode to generate
 algorithms to calculate things like ice fluxes. You're using a UAV to calibrate a remotely sensed object, like radar and satellite to spread
 the knowledge over a wider area. You do that within an intensive observation period. This is not just for one UAV, but also for a swarm
 of them.

  Measurements             Where should they          When?                     Frequency?                            Duration?          Taken
  Required                 be taken?                                                                                                     simultaneously?

  State variables          Fill in data voids         Ongoing                   Routine                               On-going           (BCWST)
                           Adaptively observed        1-5 days as required
  T, u, V, q, (p), (h)                                                          Model driven                          hours - 1 day      Best coincide with
                           Event driven contingency   Up to 60 minutes notice
                                                      as required               Event driven                          mins - hours       synoptic time

  Cloud properties         Calibration for real       IOP Intense               Correlated with other measurements I.e. radar, satellite
  (callibrate satellite    time system (CORTS)        observations              UAV swarms during IOPs
  & radar)                 -                          periods
  Liquid/ice                                                                               Altitude Sensor & Mission Dependant
                           possibly operational
  concentrations

  Precipitation            CORTS




                                                                                           Forecast Improvement
  Land surface             CORTS

  Ocean surface            CORTS (long)




                                                                                                                                                Cost
  properties

  Ice properties           CORTS

  Aerosols                 CORTS
                           Events

  O3 - as an               CORTS                                                                                  20k    40k       60k
  indicator of P.V.        Events                                                                                   UAV Altitude (ft)




                          Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                       Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                         11
Missions: Global Observation II of III
                               Science Goal: Improve prediction of climate variability and change


              • resolution                                                      • sustained
Where                                  What                            When • weekly updates for
              • distribution
                                                                                verified profiles
              • regions
                                                                                • hourly for cloud          We're looking to put 200-400 global
                                                                                • seasonal variability
                                                                                                            station points as a good start. We talked
State:                                 State parameters (time and      •Pseudo-random, diurnal              about having them above the surface.
•Tropopause to surface                 geospatial)                     seasonal                             We see them at 300 m intervals above
        –Including boundary layer      Temperature, pressure,          •Goal - 8/day - 1/wk                 the surface. There is a special case of
•300m intervals                        (water vapor)                   •Duration: 4yr minimum (demo) -      aerosols. It probably would be more
        –30m for B.L.                                                  multi-decade (operations)            concentrated in industrial areas.
•Pseudo-distribution                                                                                        We talked about what kind of time
         (200 - 400 points)                                                                                 resolution and we had a goal of taking 8
Below cloud cover                      Aerosols: optical               •(start) revisit every 72 hours      measurements a day and could cover the
Satellite queing                       profiles/profile scattering     every grid point                     diurnal cycles.
Industrial regions (200 point geo)     Need to capture effects of                                           We felt the UAVs offer a lot to this kinds
Courser sampling (100m - 500m          aerosols on clouds/             •For clouds diurnal in the tropics   of system, especially in the vertical
                                       precipitation (particle size,
                                                                                                            measurements. It might take 4 years to
UAV roles:                             distribution, macro view        Gaps:                                do a demo phase to put this system
•Anchoring satellite measurements      Trace gases: O3, CH4, CO2       •Atmospheric only
                                       ( 1ppm accuracy)
                                                                                                            together. We're planning the system for
•Gap filling                                                           •Radiative budget (longwave,         five years from now.
                                       Water vapor: upper              shortwave)
                                       tropospheric measurement
                                                                       •Correlation with modelers and
                                       Clouds: life cycle,             instruments in 5 years
                                       coverage, optical depth,
                                       albedo/reflectivity, vertical
                                       profile




                       Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                     Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                     12
Missions: Global Observation III of III
                           Science Goal: Critical physical processes: storms, climate change
                           trends                                                                                               We want UAVs
                                                                                                                                which can fly long
What?                          Where?                              When?                             Why?/Why UAV?
                                                                                                                                distances, which
Info for global climate                                         Diurnals 12 months                   Small scale measurements   preclude manned
models                                                                                               Long platforms             missions. Mars
                                                                                                                                covers thousands
                                2008                     2018 Continuous - need (10)                 Long distance
                                                                                                                                of kilometers in
                                                                cycles
      Aerosols - in situ                                                                                                        range. The
                                  Arctic         10km - s awe place                                                            vertical question
  2008
                                                 10km - lead                   1000’s km                                       is important to
            Clouds                                                                                                              that extent we're
                                                                                Transects                                       looking at
                                 Geo sat tracks                                 100m scale                                      something like 50
Precipitation                                                                    =OP -50mb                                      millibars in
                                                                 Why not now?          curtain                                  resolution to go
          Radiation                                                                                                  uAV        after the aerosol
         (short/long)                                                                                                           question.
Winds                                                                                                                           We want to do
                                                                 Need to reduce risk
                                    UAV                          to instrument?                                                 that over time for
                                                                 Cost of ???                     2008 2009             t,x      about 10 years. In
     Temperature/time
                                                                                                  2x day / 10yrs                the Pacific, we'd
                                                                                                                                still be going for
     H2O                        Next                         Data systems                                                       vertical
                O3
                                                                                                                                movement over
                                 Pacific                                       sensors                                          long spatial
                 Merging of
      CO2        data                                                                                                           scales.
                                    Warm pool - N. of
                                    Australia
2008/2015

Everything                     Everywhere                       All the time




                        Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                   13
Missions: Atmospheric Observation I of III
  Science Goal: Quantify change in the chemical composition of the atmosphere
 What Observed                       Where?           When?         How Often?       Duration?   Taken
                               Lat              Alt                                              simultaneously?

 Air quality          Midlat            0-40k ft      All year      Daily
 (surface to BL)                                                    Hourly events

 Strataspheric        Polar          tropopause       All seasons    Weekly         Profile     No
 Ozone                Midlat          -> 30km
                      Tropics

 Tropospheric         Polar          tropopause       All seasons   - daily          Profile     No
 Ozone                Midlat          remote &                                       Dial
                      Tropics          polluted

 Long-lived gases     Polar          surface          All seasons   Weekly           Profile     No
 C02, CH4, N20        Midlat          lower strat
 Herb? - HFCs         Tropics          (25km)

 Water vapor          Polar          upper trop       All seasons   Weekly           Profile     No
                      Midlat          lower strat
                      Tropics
 Reactive gases       Polar          surface                                                     State variables
 NOx, SOx, CO         Midlat          lower strat
                      Tropics

 Highly reactive      Polar          polluted &       All seasons   intermittent
 OH, HO2, NO, NO2     Midlat          remote trop
                      Tropics

 Aerosol size,        Polar          polluted &       All seasons   Daily - weekly   Profiles    No
 number,              Midlat          remote trop
 composition          Tropics

 Radioactive fluxes   Polar          upper trop       All seasons   intermittent     Profiles    No
                      Midlat          lower strat
                      Tropics

                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                       Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                 14
Missions: Atmospheric Observation II of III
                        Science Goal: Figure out the role of aerosols in global warming

                                                                                   Possibly using dropsondes to create
                                                                                   profiles to measure the chemical in the
                                                                                   atmosphere. There is a whole different
                                                                                   chemistry in carbonaceous aerosols. These
                                                                                   could be distributed in a number of
                                                                                   platforms. This could be focused around the
                                                                                   boundary layer.
                                                                                   The last group included aerosols like
                                                                                   volcanic eruptions. Again, for these we
                                                                                   need to get in close to the source, so of
                                                                                   course the UAVs will be key. These would
                                                                                   be smaller UAVs.




 Observation                 Location          Temporal             Simultaneous   Instruments

 Marine               Coastal margin           Routine monitoring   Profiles       Mass spec
 S                    I.TC2 - Tropical         Weekly                              spectrometer
                                                                                   s
                                                                                   Isotopes
 Urban                Industrial (localized)   Routine                             Lidar(s)
 C                    20-60k ft profiles       Weekly                              Doplar lidar
                      (mixed layer)
 Events               Localized                Episodic (on                        Dropsondes
        • volcanoes                            demand)
 S                    60k ft profiles
        • wildfires
 C      • dust




                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                   Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                 15
 Missions: Atmospheric Observation III of III
                               Science Goal: Role of water vapor & cloud-radiative feedback
                               (predictability and climate control)
We subdivided the topic into three major areas. We subdivided even further under one of these. We expanded the scope of it a bit. The blue
comments are from the initial discussion. The red comments are about the instruments. The green comments are from visitors who came by. We
appreciate those and tried to incorporate them as much as possible.


What?                        Where?                When?               How Often?          Duration?             Simultaneous?          How? (instrument)
H2O Concentration            Vert: Surf to lower   Uniform sample +    6 hour sampling     Storm: week           Temp; U, V, W,      Mixing ratio (2%)
•Ice                         strat (20km)          targeted            (background)        Climate: long         Turbulence;         (laser hygrometer)
                                                   observation (e.g.                                                        (INS/GPS
•Mixed phase                 Horiz: Everywhere                         1 hour              duration profiling    Pressure )          All-weather carole
                             conc. on oceanic      monsoon)            (event driven)      (12-24 hrs)                       (BAT)   (king)
•Liquid
                                                                                                                (0.1C
•Water vapor/flux                                                                                               accuracy)

Cloud Characterization       •global (%cover)      Uniform sample +    6 hour sampling     •Days to week         Temp; U, V, W,         Satellite obs
•Cloud extent                10’s of km            targeted                                •Frequent             Turbulence;            In situ
•Cloud types                 •Subgrid scale        observation         1 hour (event       measurements          Pressure               Remote sensors
•Microphysical properties    (1km) (10’s m u                          driven)             over extended         UAV: help to             - radar
                             physics               (% cloud cover -                        time period           bridge between           - lidar
                                                   might not be                            •Spacial              more extensive
•Cloud profiles (temp,                             adequate                                sampling over a                              All weather capable
phase)                       •Cloud (10’s of                                                                     radar and satellites
                                                   characterization                        long path                                    (instrument miniatures
                             meters)               )                                                                                    & power c?)

Cloud radiometric            Representative        Periodic            Sample life cycle                         Same                   Broadband & specially
properties                   cloud types           (seasonal)          of cloud type                             Satellite and          resolved vis & IR
                             Above and below                                                                     surface                (radiance and
                             clouds                                                                              measurements           irradiance)
Satellite                    Global                Periodic            IOP                 Hours to days         Satellite              INS/GPS
H2O & winds                  Via focused UAV       (seasonal)                                                    observations           Laser/hygro
cal/val                      observations                                                                        (as above)




                            Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                          Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                     16
  Technology: Overview
Context
 In the next round of work, each team pored over the
 science goals defined in the morning to discover the
 requirements for a specific technology: Platforms,
 Instrumentation, Operations and Data &
 Communications.
Assignment
 Look across the science goals and each observation
 (there may be several observations within each goal),
 and identify any solutions that may be required for the
 technology that you have been assigned. Also note any
 special capabilities or properties needed. Finally,
 identify/document any assumptions you’ve made.




                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                               Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                             17
Technology – High Altitude Platform
Issues                                                            State of the Art
Performance                                                       Global Hawk 60,000 ft    36 hours
•    40,000ft +                                                   Altair      50,000 ft    32 hours
•    Ceiling
•    Vertical Profiling                                           Innovative Concepts
•    Payload (mass, volume, power)                                Helios      100,000 ft   12 hours – week
•    Range                                                        Zephyr      50-100k ft   weeks - months
•    Endurance
•    Cruise Speed
•    Payload Environment (stability, thermal,
     vibration)
Lifecycle Cost
Deployability – no significant runway limitations
Operability
•    All Weather
       •Icing
       •Turbulence
       •Crosswinds (landing and take off)
•    Autonomy
•    Global Airspace
•    Over-the-Horizon Command & Control
•    Reliability (MTBF > 20-50k hours)
Environmental - propulsion




                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                       18
Technology – High Altitude Platform
  Missions                                      Altitude     Endurance         Repetition   P/L           Speed
                      Sensitivity to            20km         24 hours
        Climate

                      Forcings
                      CO2 Sources & Sinks                    24 hours
                      Chemical                  30km         Week-months
        Atmospheric




                      Composition
                      Role of Aerosols          18.5km
                      Water Vapor & Cloud       20km         24 hours –                     Stable        <100 knots
                      Radiative Feedback                     week                           platform
                      Climate Variability &     Surface –    Week-months       72 hours     ―Dropsonde‖   Long range
                      Change                    20km                                        class
        Global




                      High Impact Weather                                                                 ―DASN &
                      Forecasts                                                                           Loiter‖?
                      Critical Physical
                      Processes
  Ocean & Land




                      Models & Predictions      20km         24 hours
    Surface




                      Cryosphere                N/A
                      Responsive
                      Feedback
                      Gas

                                                            = Capability unique to UAV’s


                            Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                          Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                      19
 Technology – Mid-Altitude Platform
Assumptions                                                       General Capabilities Needed
•   25,000-30,000 ft
•   Can use heavier instrument suites                             UAV-Unique
•   Robust                                                        •    Robustness for turbulence
•   Dropsondes critical capability                                •    Long endurance – trans-oceanic & loitering
•   Quick-look data                                               Flight Characteristics
•   Multi-use or tailored                                         •    Structure similar to regional aircraft
Others                                                            •    Slow speed & high resolution
•   Rapid response                                                Command & Control
•   Loitering                                                     •    Distributed basing for global coverage
•   Cal/Val                                                       •    ―Over the horizon‖ communications
•   Gap filling                                                   Payload
                                                                  •    Large & reconfigurable (i.e. antennae)
Missons                                                           •    Variable size for specific missions
                                                                  •    Tailored aircraft specific to mission & grid
High Impact Weather
•   Autonomy
      • Tailored mission
      • Quick-look data is key here
      • Diurnal fire monitoring
•   Command & Control – rapid response
Atmospheric Composition
•   Flight characteristics – variable short/fast
    climb rate
Cryosphere
•   Flight characteristics – de-icing for
    polar/cold environments


                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                              20
      Technology – Low Altitude Platform                                                                                    = Capability unique to UAV’s

Missions < 25,000 ft                                 Existing           Flight Char-         Command           Endurance          Range
                                                     Platform           acteristics          & Control
                    Sensitivity to Forcings          P-3, Twin Otter,                        LDS, Satellites   5 days for         1000 km
      Climate




                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      3 weeks
                    CO2 Sources & Sinks              P-3, Twin Otter,   Ship Launch,         LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
                                                     C-130              Vertical Profiling   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
                    Chemical Composition             P-3, Twin Otter,   Vertical Profiling   LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
      Atmospheric




                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
                    Role of Aerosols                 P-3, Twin Otter,   Vertical Profiling   LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
                    Water Vapor & Cloud              P-3, Twin Otter,                        LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
                    Radiative Feedback               C-130                                   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
                    Climate Variability & Change     P-3, Twin Otter,                        LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
      Global




                    High Impact Weather              P-3, Twin Otter,   Ship Launch          LDS, Satellites   Up to many         Process – 100’s of km
                    Forecasts                        C-130                                   & Autonomous      diurnal cycles     Monitoring – 1000’s of km
                                                     Radiosonde
                    Critical Physical Processes      P-3, Twin Otter,   Hand Launch          LDS, Satellites   5 days for         1000 km
                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      3 weeks
                    Models & Predictions             P-3, Twin Otter,   Ship Launch          LDS, Satellites   5 days for         1000 km
Ocean & Land




                                                     C-130                                   & Autonomous      3 weeks
  Surface




                                                     Ships, Buoys
                    Cryosphere Responsive            P-3, Twin Otter,   Ship Launch          LDS, Satellites   5 days for         1000 km
                    Feedback                         C-130                                   & Autonomous      3 weeks

                    Gas


                                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                   Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                 21
         Technology – Low Altitude Platform
  Missions < 25,000 ft                                  Payload                Autonomy              Multi-use vs.     Coverage       Data
                                                                                                     Unique Mission    Issues         Storage
                       Sensitivity to Forcings          Small-to-large scale   Stringent Operation   Standardization   Short & long   Large
         Climate




                                                        In situ & remote       Procedures                              ranges         Capacity

                       CO2 Sources & Sinks                                     Operation in NAS      Multi-use
                                                                               System

                       Chemical Composition                                    Stringent Operation   Standardization
         Atmospheric




                                                                               Procedures

                       Role of Aerosols

                       Water Vapor & Cloud
                       Radiative Feedback

                       Climate Variability & Change
         Global




                       High Impact Weather
                       Forecasts

                       Critical Physical Processes
   Land Surface




                       Models & Predictions
     Ocean &




                       Cryosphere Responsive
                       Feedback


                       Gas


Interfaces: Other systems; Vehicles (formation flying & mother/daughter); platforms, instruments, ground systems, science systems


                                        Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                      Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                      22
  Technology – Remote Sensing Instrumentation
Focus          Measures                                      Remote Sensors
Areas
                                                                          Hyperspectral – multi-angle, polarmetric spectrometer
               Aerosols < 100m(?)                                         (aerosol properties)
               (OD, SSA, Size, Distance, Concentration,
               Composition)
                                                             Passive      Narrow band radiometer? (CO2?)
               Trace Gasses – Vertical + Column
               (CO2, CH4, O3, H2O, N2O CFC’s, gradients in
                                                                          Hyperspectral Spectrometer (ocean color, vegetation type)
               flux)

Climate,       Clouds > 100m(?)
               (OD, particle microphysics, cloud state                                     Infrared – H2O, CO2, Winds
Atmospheric,
               variables)
& Global                                                                                   Visible – clouds, ice surface, aerosols,
               State Variables                                            Lidar
                                                                                           ocean color, canopy structure
               (T, W, P, RH)
                                                                                           UV – O3, winds
               Radiation
               (Albedo, flux)
                                                                                           Measurable – atmospheric ice (?)
               H2O
               (Gas profiles, rain)                          Active                        S Band – Precipitation
               Ice – SA, Depth, Density
                                                                          Radar            C, Ka, L, P Band – ice sheets, canopy
Ocean &        Vegetation Type - % land cover                                              levels
Land Surface                                                                               Long-wave – ice depth
               Coastal T, NPP, DPC, TSS
               Sea Salinity, Soil Moisture                                                 Doppler – cloud structure
                                                                          Laser            Chlorophyll, vegetation stress (?)
                                                                          (pemp probe?)




                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                      Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                         23
Technology – Remote Sensing Instrumentation




          UAV ? Mission Design Issues
          •   Cloud, aerosol and gas issues cannot likely be completely address by
              remote sensors. (Ocean and land issues probably can.) We need to
              device a coordinated fleet mission.

          •   Passive sensors are typically small mass/volume – they can use HALE

          •   Active sensors are typically larger mass/volume. Most science questions
              requiring active remote sensors do not need high altitude – they can use
              LALE or MALE)




        Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
               Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               24
                Technology – In Situ Instrumentation
                                                                                 Instruments Required for Physical Sampling



                                 Chrometograph
                                 Gas
                                                 Spectrometer
                                                 Mass
                                                                (Optical)
                                                                Spectometry
                                                                              Spectrometer
                                                                              Ion Mobility
                                                                                             etical Sensors
                                                                                             Microeletcromagn
                                                                                             Tube
                                                                                             Navigation/Pitot
                                                                                             Intertial
                                                                                             Collection
                                                                                             Filtering/ Physical

                                                                                                                   Radiometers
                                                                                                                                 Sensors
                                                                                                                                 Microphysics
                                                                                                                                 Cloud
                                                                                                                                                Nephelometers


                                                                                                                                                                Imagers


                                                                                                                                                                          Extratometer (??)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Heating/ Cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                              Evaporative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 FSSP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mirror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cryogenic/ Chilled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Spectrometer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cavity Ringdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Vox
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Aerosol Hydration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field Mills


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dropsondes
                Various
                Chemical             X               X             X              X           X             X                                                                                                                                                                                      ?
                Species
                Water
                                                                   X                          X                     X                                                                                                        X                                                                     X
Sampled Items




                Vapor/ RH

                Aerosols             X               X             X                                        X                                    X                         X                       X             X                               X                   X
                Temperature
                & Pressure                                                                    X                                                                                                                                                                                                    X
                Cloud
                Microphysics                                                                                X                        X           X              X          X                       X             X
                & Properties
                Winds &
                Turbulence                                         X                                 X                                                                                                                                                                                             X
                Radiative
                Field

                Isotopes                             X                                                      X
                Electric Field                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       X
                                                 # of sensors is application-dependant.                                            Sensor type is UAV Platform-dependant.


                                                 Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                                              Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 25
                           Technology – In Situ Instrumentation (Adaptation I of II)
                                                                                                                                     Instruments




                                              Gas Chrometograph


                                                                    Mass Spectrometer

                                                                                        (Optical)
                                                                                        Spectometry
                                                                                                      Spectrometer
                                                                                                      Ion Mobility
                                                                                                                     cal Sensors
                                                                                                                     Microeletcromagneti
                                                                                                                     Tube
                                                                                                                     Navigation/Pitot
                                                                                                                     Intertial
                                                                                                                     Collection
                                                                                                                     Filtering/ Physical

                                                                                                                                           Radiometers

                                                                                                                                                         Sensors
                                                                                                                                                         Cloud Microphysics

                                                                                                                                                                              Nephelometers


                                                                                                                                                                                              Imagers


                                                                                                                                                                                                        Extratometer (??)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Evaporative Heating/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FSSP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mirror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cryogenic/ Chilled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Spectrometer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Cavity Ringdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Vox
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Aerosol Hydration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Field Mills


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dropsondes
                        Size                   X                     X                                                              X                         X                X              X          X                        X                                                                                                  X
UAV Adaptation Issues




                        Power                  X                     X                     X                                        X                         X                X              X          X                        X                X                                                  X
                        Mass                   X                     X                     X                                        X                         X                X              X          X                        X                                                                    ?                             X
                        Remote /
                        Autonomous Ops         X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X       X                 X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X                X             X
                        Telemetry                                                                                                                                                             X                                                                                                                                      X
                        Access to Clean Air
                        Stream                 X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X                         X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X
                        Field of View                                                                                                       X                 X
                        RFI / EMI              X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X       X                 X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X                X
                        Icing                                                                                                X      ALL INSTRUMENT PROBES




                                                                  Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                                                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  26
                          Technology – In Situ Instrumentation (Adaptation II of II)
                                                                                                                                      Instruments




                                               Gas Chrometograph


                                                                     Mass Spectrometer

                                                                                         (Optical)
                                                                                         Spectometry
                                                                                                       Spectrometer
                                                                                                       Ion Mobility
                                                                                                                      cal Sensors
                                                                                                                      Microeletcromagneti
                                                                                                                      Tube
                                                                                                                      Navigation/Pitot
                                                                                                                      Intertial
                                                                                                                      Collection
                                                                                                                      Filtering/ Physical

                                                                                                                                            Radiometers

                                                                                                                                                          Sensors
                                                                                                                                                          Cloud Microphysics

                                                                                                                                                                               Nephelometers


                                                                                                                                                                                               Imagers


                                                                                                                                                                                                         Extratometer (??)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Evaporative Heating/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FSSP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Mirror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cryogenic/ Chilled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spectrometer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cavity Ringdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vox
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aerosol Hydration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Field Mills


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dropsondes
                        Speed                                                                                                        ALL INSTRUMENT PROBES
UAV Adaptation Issues




                        Condensation            X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X       X                 X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X                X             X
                        Environment
                        (Pressure/Temp)         X                     X                     X             X                          X                                                                                                                                               X                  ?
                        Servicing               X                                                                                    X                                                                                                                                                                 X                              X
                        Long Flight Duration                                                X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         X
                        Cost – Devel.           X                     X                     X             X            X             X                                                                                                                                               X                                                X
                        Cost – O&M                                                          X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         X
                        Data Storage/
                        Processing              X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X       X                 X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X                X             X
                        Instrument/UAV
                        Platform Comms.         X                     X                     X             X            X      X      X       X                 X                X              X          X                        X                X            X                   X                 X                X             X




                                                                   Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                                                                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                          27
    Technology – Platform Operations
Terms
•   C3 = BLOS (oth), LOS (20km radius)
•   Avail = Sorty rate, deployability (local, regional, global
        • Intensive Observation Period (IOP)
•   Fleet Size/Mix = platform collaborations                              Reach    Sort & Gen       Fleet SME/Mix
        • Mother/daughter = ―local‖ ops                                            Rate Avail (?)   Collaboration
        • Formation Flight = ―Local Ops‖
        • ―Local‖ = LOS                                                   LOS      Upon Demand      Small platforms/ to
•   OnBoard = IMM – Intelligent Mission Management
                                                                 Local                              many

    (cont. management), Level of Autonomy
                                                                 Region            10P
•   Ground Station = dedicated GCS with data ―network‖
•   IA Collaboration =                                           al
        • Ops - contract vehicles/ FLT services – ―low‖                   BLOS     Hi Cont         Few/many
        • R&D – joint NASA/NOAA/DOE – ―oftens‖/high
                                                                 Global
               •(e.g. NASA operates platform)
•   Air Space – ―File & Fly‖ (globally, equivalent to piloted)
•   Affordability =
        • ACQ = f(capability)
        • OPS = $400/hour
        • Multi A/C per operator




                        Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                    Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                         28
    Technology – Integrated Observing Operations
Integrate ground, sub-orbital and orbital                    How does UAV integration differ from existing
   observation systems                                         field operations?
•   Weather Forecasting: event-driven vs. continuous         •   Safety and regulatory issues not uniformly settled or
       • Fill data voids (routine) – 4D sounding over            addressed globally
          ocean and high latitudes                           •   Integration with manned aircraft (safety)
       • Bases should be distributed appropriately (100’s    •   Extended UAV endurance – 24-7 if possible
          of observations per day)                           •   24-7 staff on ground
       • Launch UAV’s on regular schedule, adjustable        •   Satellite data link – SMB/s
          tracks, from surface to thousands of meters        •   Extensive onboard storage
•   Severe Weather – Surge of extra vehicles                 •   Hazardous conditions ok away from people
                                                             •   Proactively address safety/regulation as NASA:
                                                                 UNITE/ACCESS 5
Consistencies Across Focus Areas
•   Long Endurance
•   Remote and/or dangerous areas
•   Similar data types
       • State quantities
       • Chemical compounds
       • Link satellite and surface data
       • Measure similar parameters




                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                            29
Technology - Data
                          Weather                   Chemistry                   Climate Change           Episodic
                          Forecasting               (Mid-term)                  (Long-term)              (IOP)
                          (Short-term)
Standards                       Start with existing standards for A/C           Depends on Instrument    Survey existing
                                                                                                         standards
                                       WMO, BUFR or EOS

Scientific Uses           Weather forecasting       GCM trends                  Transport and process    Varies
                                                                                models
                                                                                Long-term trend models
Processing                Sustained                 RF to target for adaptive   < 3months
                          Timely: < 3hours          measurements
                                                    Reas.: < 3months
Integration                USP Community Formats – spatial & temporal tagging
End User                  Data Assim. Centers       GCM Community                                        Survey End Users
                                                    Chemists                                             Expand End Users
                                                    Not yet for regulators
Archiving                 Level 0 data need         Quality-controlled data     Metadata are critical    Survey End Users
                          to be archived                                        Long-term stability      Expand End Users
                                                                                NMO Best Practices


                  Must survey end users for standards, storage and archiving needs.
                  Learn from the past – there is never sufficient funds allocated for data acquisition
                  analysis and archiving
                  Downloading data from remote locations



                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                30
 Technology - Communications
 End           Access      Timeliness      Range          Data          Scenarios
 Users                                                    Volume        •   Weather Prediction
                                                                              • Low bandwidth and volume
 Operational               Real time       Long           Low
 Modeling                                                                     • Real time
 Centers                                                                •   Researchers / Disaster Management
                                                                              • Real Time
 Public        Security    Real time –
                           Days                                               • Med-High bandwidth
                                                                        •   Researchers / Model Developers
 Model                     Days – Months   Medium         High                • Very high data volume
 Developers                                                                   • Not real time

 Researcher    Security    Real time –     Medium         High
                           Days


 Disaster      Security    Real time       Short –        Medium
 Managers                                  Medium

 UAV                       Real time       Short - Long   Low
 Operators


Standards – There are no new data from UAV’s. Standards are in place.
Bandwidth – Some tradeoff between bandwidth and on-board processing
             There are limitations to bandwidth based on telemetry.




                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                             Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                     31
  Gaps, Roadmaps & Vision: Overview
Context
 In the final two rounds of work, teams focused on a
 variety of topics. Several groups worked to identify
 technology gaps and to develop roadmaps to address
 those gaps. Other teams worked on the vision for a
 joint program, innovative uses for UAV’s, developing
 responses to an RFI based on the work of this session,
 and next steps. The output of the last two rounds is
 represented in the following slides.




                    Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                               Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                                            32
    Gaps & Roadmaps – Platform
                                                              ―We considered the gaps for airframes/platforms. We looked at in situ
                                                                   vs. remote, large vs. small, fast vs long. It takes more people to
                                                                   fly a UAV than it does a manned vehicle. All of these things add
                                                                   cost to ownership.
Overarching Issues                                            A big multi-use UAV where you can trade out instruments will be a
•   Cost per hour                                                  lower cost situation. Finding a common instrument interface is
       • =mass/endurance, utilization                              very important and probably a gap we need to think about.
       • # people                                             If you have a unique mission where things are integrated into the
•   Availability                                                   payload, it's better to make lots of them and be able to use and
                                                                   lose them. Environmentally you may not be able to lose them as
       • Other demands                                             much as you might want.
       • Basing OPS                                           The cost per hour of use will vary with the mass divided by the
                                                                   utilization of the unit. The longer it flies the less time there is to
                                                                   work on it. The higher utilization of the unit, the longer the
Gap – Atmospheric Chemistry                                        amortization. The big problem is the availability. ―
Consolidated Regional Survey
•   Altitude: 0 – 5km                                         Gap – Data Relay / Hurricane Monitoring
•   Payload: 250kgm (remote) / 5-40kgm (In situ)              •   Altitude: >20km
•   Speed: ~50-100 knots                                      •   Payload: 200kgm (Data link & dropsondes)
•   Range: Local                                              •   Speed: Maintain station 99.9%
•   Duration: 1-5 days                                        •   Range: Global / +/- 30 degrees latitude
•   2-ship pair?                                              •   Duration: Continuous
Gap – Carbon Cycle                                            •   Low Cost: ~ $100 / flight hour
•   Altitude: 20m – 5km
•   Payload: 100kgm                                           Gap – Polar
•   Speed: 100-200 knots                                      •   Altitude: 1-18 km
•   Range: 10,000km                                           •   Payload: 500-1000kgm (remote) / 25-30kgm (In situ)
•   Duration: multi-day                                       •   Speed: 100-400 knots
•   All-weather – Icing & Turbulence                          •   Range: 10,000km - ?
•   Maneuverable for terrain avoidance                        •   Duration: Months!



                     Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                      33
Gaps & Roadmaps – Instruments

    Sensor Type        Currently               Needs to be           New Technology
                       Exists                  Re-engineered
                       Cloud Lidar             Water Lidar           Wind Lidar
                       Ozone Lidar             Temperature Lidar
                       Aerosol Lidar           Precipication Radar
    Active Remote      Cloud Radar             Vegetation Lidar
                       SAR
                       GPS*
                       NADIR (Microwave)
                       NADIR (???scoptical)
    Passive            Scanning (??roptical)
    Remote             Radiative Flux




    In Situ




              Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                     Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                              34
    Gaps & Roadmaps – DataComm
Requirements                                                     Assumption: Enough on-board storage
•   AC control OTH/LOS – Redundant                               Consideration: Some countries may not want data publicly
•   Telepresence                                                    available (e.g. Eastern Europe, Asia, China)
       • Instrument control
       • Data Download (Not necessary to encrypt)
             •Instrument health
             •Target opportunities / Phenomenology




Gap              Never        Polar region >   Commercial    Consistent       On-board       BLOS RF Link    BLOS RF Link
                 enough       200kbps          Standard                       processing &
                 comms                                                        bandwidth
                                                                              management

                 LOS/BLOS     TRDSS            MIL STD?      DOD UNET         Packeteer      Global Hawk     Global Hawk
Technology                    Inmarsat         FIPS 140-1    ARDEM
Today                         Iridium                        CDL


                 Bandwidth    Global           Security /    System           Adaptive       Link Quality    Fault-Tolerant
                 Constraint   Connectivity     Information   Architecture &   (Comm          •Reliability    Networking
                                               Assurance     Standards        management)    •Error rate
Issue                                                        Defined
                                                                                             •Availability
                                                                                             •Integrity




                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                    35
    Ideas for NASA – NOAA – DOE Joint Efforts
Joint Program Science Goals                                     Observations
•   Weather – Improve 1-14 day forecast                         •   Weather
•   Climate                                                            • Adaptive Observations in NE Pacific
•   Demo of Platform and Sensor Capability                                  • Model-driven
•   Emergency Response (DHS, Wildfire)                                      • Fast response (24 ours)
                                                                            • Consistent with THORPex
Approach                                                               • Hurricanes
•   Multiple platform types                                            • Arctic – adaptive observations
       • Aerosond                                               •   Climate
       • Hale ROA                                                      • Arctic
       • Test Dallgater concept (?)                                         • Full Atmosphere Characterization
•   Cooperation with International Organizations                                    • All weather
       • e.g. THORPex & IPY                                                         • Eulerian and Iangrangian
•   Comparison to Satellites (e.g. things satellites do not                 • Surface Characterization
    do well)                                                                        • Area, Depth, Density of ice
•   Joint Campaigns with multiple platform capabilities                             • Snow/water equivalent
                                                                                    • Openings, free water
Roles                                                                  • Carbon
•   All 3 agencies have complementary roles                                 • Tundra, High Latitude, Inaccessible
        • NASA – Technology provider & developer                                Areas
        • NOAA – Operational user                               •   Emergency Response
        • DOE – Research use                                           • Plume characterization
        • All – Instruments, science & mission
           requirements




                       Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                   Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                    36
    Ideas for Innovative Uses of UAV’s
Contingency Deployment                         Space Environment                     Peer to Peer Transmission
•   Urban emergencies                            Monitoring                            Strat.
•   Natural disasters                          •   Planetary missions
•   Adaptive Observations                      •   Extreme upper atmosphere          Ruggedized Platforms
                                                   sampling                          •   De-icing
Multi-use Systems                                                                    •   Thunderstorm Penetration
•   Combined missions                          Surface Sampling – UAV                •   Adaptable aerodynamics
       • Border surveillance
                                                 Lands VSTOL
       • Communication relay                                                         Interactive Mission
                                               •   Ice/Water
       • Weather surveillance                                                        •   Requests
                                               •   Landsurface
•   Education mission monitoring                                                     •   Queued priorities
    (Cameras & web page)
       • Outreach                              Inflight Refueling
                                               •   Extended Missions                 Intelligent Phenomenological
                                               •   Fleet Support                        Monitoring
Miniaturization / Cost
                                                                                     •   Fronts
  Reduction                                                                          •   Plumes
                                               Tethered Platforms
•   Instrumentation
                                               •   Fixed urban obs with vertical
•   Flight platform – frangible (?)
                                                   crawler                           Power Alternatives
    (size)
                                               •   Environmental remote sensing      •   Soaring exploitation
                                                                                     •   Piezio electric
UAV Ensembles
                                               Data Processing on UAV
•   Swarms
                                               •   Transmission efficiency
•   Parent/Child
•   Sampling upward – deploying
    inexpensive rocket sonde
•   Dispersive platforms (break
    apart, come together)
•   Deployment from piloted aircraft


                       Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                      Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                      37
    UAV-Enabled Global Observation System
Suggested Approach                                            Relationship to National Priorities
•   Systems engineering approach                              •   Climate change science program
•   Proof of concept demos                                    •   Global Earth Observation System (GEOSS)
•   Mixed platform approach                                   •   OSTP R&D Guidelines
•   Develop CBNOPS                                                   • HS
•   Integrate with satellites & ground demo                          • Network & Info technology
•   Integrate with other US agencies and international               • Namu
    agencies                                                         • Climate & water **
                                                                     • Hydrogen fuel cells
Potential Benefits
•   Risk reduction to CCSP                                    Relationship to Existing Programs
•   Allows science unavailable from satellites or instead     •   Vehicle systems programs
    of satellites                                             •   VPDO
        • Increases the value of satellites                   •   Access 5/UNITE FAA
                                                              •   DOD UAV roadmap
Performance Capability Objectives
•   Safe & efficient                                          Relationship to Exploration Vision
•   Grid-based sustained measurement system                   •   Tech spinoff to PFV
•   Data and ops needs to be networked with ground,                  • 100k vehicle similar to Mars
    UAV’s and satellites                                             • On-board data/science processing
•   System needs to be able to support vertical profiles             • Autonomy
       • 0-100,000ft
       • Dropsondes, MEMS                                     Technology Gaps
       • Altitude change                                      •   Communication bandwidth over the poles
•   Long endurance > 24hours                                  •   Sensors sized to fit in UAV’s (size, mass, power)
•   Deployable – world wide coverage                          •   Robust UAV’s (icing and storm penetration)
•   Flexible & adaptable observations                         •   Propulsion & Power
•   Complementary platform & solutions (hi & low speed)       •   Autonomy
•   Global airspace operations


                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004
                                                                                                                          38
     Ideas for Next Steps
Get Senior Management Buy-In for a FY07                       Other Ideas for Next Steps
    New Initiative
1.    Establish IPDO-like organization to capture             •    Get Senior Management buy-in
      resources                                               •    Get Science Committee buy-in
2.    Vision statement – function of societal/economic        •    Get INO buy-in
      impact
3.    Mission needs statement                                 •    Identify high level requirements
4.    Identify and include stakeholders                       •    Prioritize science needs as a function of scientific
5.    Recruit advocates                                            impacts
                                                              •    Identify stakeholders
                                                              •    Identify capabilities
                                                              •    Develop technology gaps and roadmaps
                                                              •    Risk assessments
                                                              •    Identify barriers
                                                              •    Perform analyses of alternatives
                                                              •    Perform proof of concept demos & pilot projects
                                                              •    Define success criteria

                                                              •    Establish milestones & project structure
                                                              •    Training and marketing
                                                              •    Create joint organization
                                                              •    Identify and coordinate existing efforts that
                                                                   contribute to our goals
                                                              •    Stoke the energy!




                      Utilization of UAV’s for Global Climate Change Research
                                 Workshop 2 – Boulder, Colorado – December 7-8, 2004

								
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