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Cadet Phase II Aerospace Dimensions Introduction to Flight

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Cadet Phase II Aerospace Dimensions Introduction to Flight Powered By Docstoc
					                       Cadet Phase I & II
             Aerospace Dimensions
                     Spacecraft (Module 6)

    Session 1:
          Chapter 1 ‘Unmanned Spacecraft’

    Session 2:
          Chapter 2 ‘Manned Spacecraft’

    Session 3:
          Chapter 3 ‘Living and Working in Space’

(ONLY for all Cadets that have not yet passed corresponding AE test, and Cadet Mentors)


                          Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   1
                Unmanned Spacecraft
   Satellites - An object that orbits around another
       Artificial Satellites - man-made device that orbits
        around the Earth (or other body)
          1st Artificial Satellite was the Russian ‘Sputnik’
          Several possible uses, such as communications, imaging,
          navigation, as selected by the user
         COMSATs - Communications Satellite, receive,
          amplify, remove errors and re-broadcast
          communications signals (e.g. TV Telephone)
          from one point on the Earth to another
           – Telstar 1 was the world’s first commercial
             communications satellite
                – INTELSAT - International Network of 109 nations
                  with 16 Satellites used for Voice and Television
                  communications
                – Deep Space Network (DSN) - 3 NASA Satellites dedicated to
                  providing communications service to Deep Space Probes


                      Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   2
                  Unmanned Spacecraft
        NAVSTAR, GPS - Global Positioning System
          – Constellation of Military/Civilian Satellites
            that provide for an accurate position fix
            anywhere on the Earth’s surface with a GPS receiver
          – Forerunner was ‘Transit’ which provided position
            information for Polaris Missiles
        LANDSAT - Imaging Satellites that are used to monitor
         the Earth’s surface (Natural Resource Satellites)
          – Primarily used for Environmental Monitoring,
            e.g. Crops or Urban Development
          – Closely related are
             Weather Satellites which
             monitor Earth’s atmosphere,
                                                                                        LANDSAT
GOES
             e.g. Tiros and GOES
        Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO)
          – Special NASA Satellite dedicated
            to observing the Sun, Visually, X-Ray,
            Ultraviolet and Gamma Rays

                         Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing       3
                Unmanned Spacecraft
   Space Probes - Similar to Satellites, but intended to travel
    between Planets, sometimes fly-by or enter orbit,
    and sometimes to land
      Essentially Robot Spacecraft, designed to collect information
       about distant worlds, and transmit
       it back to the Earth
      Ranger - Explored the Moon
       prior to the Apollo Missions
      Mariner - Explored Venus and
                              Mercury



                                Pioneer - Explored Jupiter and Saturn
                                Viking - Explored Mars, including a Lander
                                 which touched down on the planet’s surface
                                Voyager - Explored Jupiter and Saturn

                      Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   4
                    Unmanned Spacecraft
   Satellites as a System - All the parts that make them work, and the
    environment they must work in:
      People - Designers, Manufacturers, Launch Crew, Operators, Customers
      Space Environment - Hazardous: Vacuum, Micro-Gravity, Radiation,
       Solar Energy/Flares, Meteorites/Debris impact, Atmospheric Drag
      Sub-Systems -
         –   Structure - the physical body of the satellite, and its protection,
         –   Propulsion - Boosts Satellite into correct orbit AFTER initial Launch,
         –   Attitude Control - Minor position adjustments,
         –   Power - normally electrical power to work onboard systems,
         –   Thermal Control - Protection from Extreme Cold and Heat of Space,
         –   Mission Package - e.g. Imaging, Communications Relay
      Command and Control - Data (telemetry) to ground control, control
       instructions (propulsion, attitude and onboard systems
       activation/shutdown)
      Launch - The Vehicle used to get the satellite into orbit, presently, this is
       always a rocket

                           Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   5
                 Unmanned Spacecraft
   Orbits and Trajectories
      Copernicus’ ‘Heliocentric’ theory - Early theory that the Sun was
       the center of the Universe, and everything else revolved around it -
       WRONG! (but a promising start)
      Kepler’s 1st Law - ‘The orbit of each planet is an ellipse, with the
       Sun at the focus’
      Elliptical Orbits - A Satellites Altitude and
       Velocity vary, and the shape of the orbit
       can vary considerably, depending on the
       type of orbit desired
         – Lowest point is called the Perigee
         – Highest point is called the Apogee
      Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation - Explains the gravitational
       ‘pull’ between bodies
         – The forces of Gravity always act towards the center of the
            body, in our case, towards the center of the Earth


                       Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   6
              Unmanned Spacecraft
   Important Names (Quiz):


         Satellite                                              Navstar
         Orbit                                                  Landsat
         Apogee                                                 GOES
         Perigee
         Sputnik
         Comsat
         Intelsat


                      Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   7
                  Manned Spacecraft
   Project Mercury - America’s first manned space program
       6 manned flights over 2 years
       First flight - Lt. Cdr. Alan B. Shepard USN,
        15 minute, sub-orbital flight, on a Mercury Redstone
       Third flight (now using an Atlas rocket)
        - Lt. Col John Glenn USMC, 1st to orbit (3 orbits)
       Last Flight - Capt. ‘Gordo’ Cooper USAF, 22 orbits

         Project Gemini - 2 man capsule, with a
          more powerful Titan II rocket
             10 flights in total
             missions lasted for several days
           1st docking of two spacecraft achieved
           invaluable data for ‘long’ duration space-
            flight
                     Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   8
                       Manned Spacecraft
   Project Apollo - Powerful new ‘Saturn’ rockets
    intended to ‘put a man on the moon’
       3 man crew
       included Command Module and Lunar Lander
       Apollo 1 - terrible disaster killed 3 astronauts
       Apollo 11 - July 20th 1969, successfully landed two
        men on the Moon (Aldrin and Armstrong) while
        astronaut Collins orbited in the command module
          Neil Armstrong was the first to walk on the surface
       Apollo 13 - near disaster following an explosion
                         in space, but the crew survived due
                         to incredible skill and ingenuity of
                         both the 3 man crew and the ground
                         support team
                         - they never landed on the Moon,
                           but used their Lander as a ‘Lifeboat’
                          Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   9
                    Manned Spacecraft
   Project Skylab - manned orbiting Laboratory
       launched May 1973
       used Apollo-Saturn equipment
       size of a 3 bedroom house
       missions lasted up to 84 days
       crew of 3
       Proved a crew could survive in space for at least 3 months
   Project Apollo-Soyuz - US and Soviet spacecraft docking
    while in orbit
       occurred July 1975
       craft remained
        docked for 2 days
       unprecedented US/Soviet
        cooperation during Cold War
                       Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   10
                     Manned Spacecraft
   Space Shuttle (Orbiter) - partially reusable, manned US
    launch system
       First flight to space in April 1981,
        astronauts John Young and Bob Crippen
       Combined Liquid and Solid rockets provide
        propulsion for launch
       reentry is un-powered, relying on the
        aerodynamic shape of the orbiter to glide
        to a runway landing
       Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis
        and Endeavor have flown in space
           Columbia and Challenger were both lost,
           with the tragic loss of all crewmembers
       Discovery deployed the
        ‘Hubble’ Space Telescope in April 1990

                        Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   11
                    Manned Spacecraft
   Soviet (Russian) Space Program -
    main competitor to US Program
       Worlds first satellite in space (Sputnik) 1957
       Worlds first man in space (Yuri Gagarin) 1961
       Worlds first space-walk (Alexei Leonov) 1965
       Worlds first space station (Salyut 1) 1971
                                 Most recent and largest Soviet/
                                  Russian space station was Mir,
                                  which actually docked with the
                                  US Space Shuttle and
                                  hosted astronauts from
                                  several countries
                                  including the US
                                 The workhorse of the Soviet/Russian
                                  space program was and is the Soyuz
                       Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   12
                Manned Spacecraft
   Important Names (Quiz):


     Mercury                                      Apollo-Soyuz
     Gemini                                       Space Shuttle
     Apollo
     Skylab




                  Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   13
             Living and Working in Space
   Space Stations - A home and workplace in Space
       Salyut and Mir - starting in 1971, the Soviet Union launched a
        series of Space Stations called ‘Salyut’, with each new station an
        improvement on the last
           Mir replaced Salyut, initially about the same size, but later
           enlarged with a series of ‘Modules’
          Aestronauts/Cosmonauts from many countries visited Mir,
           including the United States
     Skylab - US Space Station launched in 1993, used mainly for
      scientific experiments
     Spacelab - a European
      research ‘module’
      carried in the payload
      bay of the Space
      Shuttle, a temporary
      facility that flew
      several times
                         Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   14
             Living and Working in Space
   Living and Working on Space Stations
       Microgravity (virtual weightlessness) exists on Space Stations
       Normal Air, and Heat inside, so spacesuits are replaced by t-shirts
       Sleeping Bags, Toilets, Exercise Machines and a Galley for the Crew
       Extravehicular Activities (EVA) - ‘Spacewalking’ outside the
        station/vehicle
           First Spacewalk by Aleksie Leonov in 1965
           Space is a VERY hostile environment
       Spacesuits - provide protection, air and heat/cooling
           Evolved from suits developed for
            high altitude pilots
           Balance of protection vs flexibility
       Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) -
           Backpack that allows astronauts to ‘fly’
            in space outside the Space Shuttle
           Developed by NASA, first used in 1984
                         Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   15
               Living and Working in Space
   The Future in Space
       Space Stations - Bigger,
        better, collaborative
          Alpha (ISS) -
             International project,
             started in Nov. 1998
            US and Russia shares
             responsibility for
             launching components
            US launches and recovers crew (combined US Russian)
            Russia provides most resupply flight, emergency escape vehicle,
             and garbage disposal
            Other countries will become steadily
             more involved, providing modules and crew
       Launch Vehicles - Cheaper, Flexible, Reusable
          X-37 - Unmanned technology demonstrator,
           tests ideas for eventual shuttle replacement
                          Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   16
          Living and Working in Space
   Important Names (Quiz):


       Space Station Alpha                                       EVA
       Mir                                                       MMU
       Salyut                                                    Spacesuit
       Skylab
       Spacelab




                  Dr. R.A. Bartholomew   -   Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing   17

				
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