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					                                  Teacher’s Notes for

              GREAT PARAGRAPHS, 2nd Edition

                                    Keith Folse
                          April Muchmore-Vokoun
                               Elena Vestri Solomon




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition     Chapter Notes          1
                                           Unit 1
                                  What Is a Paragraph?
       This unit introduces students to a paragraph and its four basic features, namely the
topic sentence, the interrelation of all the sentences to one topic and only topic only, the
indenting of the first line, and the concluding sentence. Some students may already be
familiar with paragraph writing, but students’ familiarity with paragraphs may vary
greatly.
       In Unit 1, students are not expected to learn to write a specific kind of paragraph,
but they are expected to recognize these four key features in several example paragraphs.
Having students complete this material gives the teacher a chance to see who knows
exactly how much about paragraphs from the very beginning of the course. In addition,
Unit 1 introduces students to the Building Better Sentences and Web practice activities
found throughout the text.




OBJECTIVES
   1. Understand what a paragraph is and looks like as well as how it relates to
       sentences and essays. (1-3; 13-19)
   2. Understand the importance of repetition of key words and use of present tense
       verbs in paragraphs. (3-4)
   3. Analyze a process paragraph. (4-7)
   4. Analyze a narrative paragraph. (7-8)
   5. Understand the use of ―I‖ and past tense in narrative paragraphs. (8)
   6. Become familiar with the four features of a paragraph. (9-11)
   7. Learn to analyze multiple paragraphs to compare the use of the four features in all
       four paragraphs. (12)
   8. Be able to use capitalization and end punctuation better by the end of this course.
       (19-20)
   9. Understand how to create and then correctly write a title in English. (20-21)
   10. Learn to identify the verb in a sentence without any difficulty. (22-24)
   11. Understand the importance of rewriting your work soon after it is written. (26)


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                                2
   12. Introduce Building Better Sentences and Web Activities found throughout the
        textbook (Appendix 5 pp 229-247)
   13. Combine sentences for sentence variety. (9, 21)




CHAPTER NOTES
        Unit 1 introduces students to the basics of the composition of a paragraph. The
unit introduces the four main features that every good paragraph has, namely: (1) a topic
sentence, (2) a single theme around which all the sentences revolve, (3) an indented first
line, and (4) a concluding sentence or statement.
        If your students are already familiar with the basics of paragraph writing, then
jump into the middle of unit 1 rather than starting with page 1.
        Most of the activities in this unit require students to read an example paragraph,
answer some comprehension and analysis questions about the paragraph, and then
consider how they might write a paragraph like this.


Activity 1, pp. 2-3
        As with all the paragraphs in the entire text, it is important for the teacher to ask
some pre-reading questions to (1) pique students’ curiosity about the upcoming topic, (2)
gauge how much English vocabulary they already know about the content of the
paragraph, and (3) prime the students for the material that they’ll be encountering very
soon.
        For this paragraph, potential questions include ―What do you call it when a person
can’t see?‖ ―How can blind people read books?‖ (Get some recent statistics from the
Web about the number of blind people in your area or in the country.).
        As you go over the questions following the paragraph, encourage students to ask
questions about vocabulary and content. Also, encourage (force?) students to write down
new vocabulary in some sort of vocabulary notebook. They should learn MANY
vocabulary items by the time they finish Great Paragraphs..


Writer’s Note, pp. 2 – 3



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                                3
        This Writer’s Note explains repletion of key vocabulary words as well as the
predominant use of present tense in factual paragraphs, i.e., explanations of things that
are always true. It is imperative that the teacher ask students about this concept every
time they see another example paragraph. Ask ―Why is this paragraph in present tense?
Or why aren’t the verbs here in present tense?‖


Activity 2, p. 4
        You may wish to have some students volunteer to write 1 or 2 of their sentences
on the board for everyone to see. Have other students take turns reacting to their
classmates’ sentences. Keep the pace moving!


Activity 3, p. 4
        Possible pre-questions include ―What is the easiest food you can think of to
make?‖ ―On a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being very easy and 10 being very hard, where
would rate cooking a steak? Cooking a turkey? Making a salad? Making a sandwich?‖
and/or ―Have you ever made egg salad? If so, how do you usually make it?‖


Writer’s Note, p. 6
        Some students may know this grammatical form as the ―command form.‖


Activity 4, pp. 6-7
        Students have a chance to write some of their unique ideas on paper. It’s ok if
they write as few as 4 steps but not more than 7. If it takes more than 7, you need to cut
down what you are planning. If you have fewer than 4, then your topic is far too simple.


Activity 5, pp. 7-8
        Prereading questions include ―How many of you have flown on an airplane?‖
―How many have flown more than 20 times? 10 times?‖ and ―Can you remember your
first flight? Tell us about it.‖


Writer’s Note, p. 8



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                             4
        This note simply reminds paragraph writers that narrative writing frequently uses
past tense and it is o.k. to use I in narrative writing but that this should be avoided in
other types of more academic writing.


Activity 6, p. 9
        Students must write about something that happened to them, but it should be in
the form of a list of the events or steps in the thing that happened to them. The minimum
acceptable number of sentences is 5 and the maximum is 10.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 1, p. 9
        Take students to first two pages of Appendix 5 (229-230) and go through the
examples of sentence-combining strategies as a class. Many students need to see the
steps of combining on the blackboard before doing it themselves. Explain the importance
of sentence variety in writing and ask them to be conscious of the types of sentences they
are creating.
        While working on Building Better Sentences Activities, it is important that
students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is to see the combinations
that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student combinations match
the original.


Activity 7, 8, 9, pp. 10-18
        These three exercises provide extensive practice in identifying the four parts of a
paragraph. It is important to make sure that everyone knows the four features and can
analyze a paragraph to indicate whether or not the four features are there in that
paragraph.
        In these activities, students will work with seven paragraphs (#4-#10). You
should ask pre-reading questions to keep students interested. In addition, after students
have read and analyzed all of these paragraphs, ask them which they liked the most and
why as well as which they did not like and why not.
        You may wish to list the four paragraph features on a poster board or newsprint
and keep this in an easily seen area of the classroom for the remainder of this unit.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                              5
Building Better Sentences, Practice 2, p. 11
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 10, pp. 19-20
       Students work with basic capitalization and end punctuation rules.


Writer’s Note, pp. 20-21
       This writer’s note explains the basic issues in coming up with a good, clear, well-
written, and well-punctuated title for subsequent paragraphs and essays.


Activity 11, pp. 21-22
       You may want to have your students copy their work on separate sheet of paper
rather than use the book pages. However, if you do this, it is important then that you read
and comment on what you collect. For students who are good writers, this copying phase
can be omitted.


Language Focus, Writer’s Note, Activity 12, pp. 22-24
       All three of these deal with the importance of finding the main verb in a sentence.
When you are helping students analyze sentence, ALWAYS have them find the verb first
and work back from the verb.


Activity 13, pp. 24-25
       This is a copying activity.


Activity 14, pp. 25-26
       In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, develop a topic
sentence, and write a paragraph.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                            6
       Because this is the first writing assignment given to students, you may decide that
it is too soon for the students to write an original paragraph. In this case, you might want
to ask students to outline a paragraph, work in groups to create an outline, or give
students a specific topic to write about.


Peer Editing: Writer’s Notes and Activity 15, pp. 26-27
       Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #1 from Appendix 6. The introduction to peer
editing in Unit 1 explains what to expect (or not) in terms of Peer Editing.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Bring in extra paragraphs on overhead transparency sheets. Ask students to find
       the general topic and then the actual topic sentence.
   2. If your school has a school newspaper, you can avoid photocopying by picking up
       15 copies of the student newspaper and have students dissect it to find examples
       of good topic sentences or good concluding sentences. If there is an editorial
       page, the paragraphs there are more likely to be better crafted than those in the
       regular news stories. (Important: Very few paragraphs in the regular news stories
       will have good concluding sentences, and most will not even have any concluding
       sentence, let alone a good one.)
   3. Some editing formats do not indent the first lines of the first paragraph in a story.
       Have students find examples of this. (This happens with first paragraphs in
       textbook examples, but we have asked the typesetters for the GREATs to make
       sure that all paragraphs are indented.) I would make sure that the whole class
       sees one example of this and then verbalizes the rule and rational behind
       exception.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words).




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                               7
         Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher proficiency
level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to correspond
to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. An easy way to accomplish this
is to do the following:
1. Ask students to separate a piece of paper into two sections: the section on the left
   (approx. 2 inches wide) with the vocabulary word and the section on the right for the
   definition and a sample sentence.
2. In the left column, students will write the vocabulary word and what part of speech it
   is.
3. On the right side of the paper the student will write either a definition, a synonym, or
   a native language translation of the word.
4. Underneath the definition, the student will create a sample sentence using the word,
   but a BLANK SPACE will be used instead of the vocabulary word.
5. Explain to the students that this type of vocabulary journal can be used in different
   ways: a. by covering the list of vocabulary words vertically, students must look at the
   clues (definition and sentence) and recall the vocabulary word; b. by covering up the
   vocabulary word and the definition, students must use the sample sentence with
   context clues to recall the vocabulary word; c. by covering up the vocabulary word
   and the sample sentence, students must recall the vocabulary word by using its
   definition as a clue.




                               VOCABULARY JOURNAL


vocabulary word                               definition/synonym/translation
                                              sample sentence


1. routine, n.                                custom; habit
                                             My daily         is getting up, going to work,


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                               8
                                              and coming home to make dinner.


2. glamorous, adj.                            exciting attractiveness; stylish
                                              Movie stars usually have       lifestyles.


3. tasks


4.


5.


6.


7.


Paragraph 1, p. 2
       1. special
       2. run (your fingers across a system)
       3. characters
       4. pattern
       5. (Braille) gets (its name from ….)
       6. yet (= but)
       7. effective


Paragraph 2, p. 4
       1. easiest
       2. delicious
       3. cool
       4. a bowl
       5. a fork
       6. creation


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition    Chapter Notes                                              9
Paragraph 3, p. 7
       1. although
       2. flew
       3. afraid
       4. wonder
       5. to be like (What is that like?)
       6. crowded
       7. turn (a color)
       8. entire
       9. meal
       10. even
       11. details


Paragraph 4, pp. 10-11
       1. at some point (= at some point in time)
       2. whether or not
       3. allow
       4. a pet
       5. responsibility
       6. take care of
       7. in addition
       8. compassionate
       9. on the other hand
       10. hurt
       11. might do something
       12. shed
       13. require
       14. in brief
       15. be divided
       16. a variety of



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition     Chapter Notes      10
       17. reasons


Paragraph 5, p. 13
       1. typewriters
       2. allow
       3. major
       4. fluid
       5. correction fluid
       6. fix
       7. effort
       8. research
       9. convenient
       10. several
       11. sources
       12. useful
       13. however
       14. obtain


Paragraph 6, p. 14
       1. several
       2. inaugural speech
       3. develop
       4. pneumonia
       5. term
       6. less than
       7. a pension
       8. ironic


Paragraph 7, p. 15
       1. valuable
       2. industry / industries



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes   11
       3. products
       4. cotton
       5. tobacco
       6. battles
       7. revolution
       8. fought
       9. War Between the States
       10. seaport
       11. distinct


Paragraph 8, p. 16
       1. victory
       2. controversial
       3. sports figure
       4. took away
       5. athlete
       6. professional
       7. reverse (a decision)
       8. a ruling
       9. achieve, achievements


Paragraph 9, p. 17
       1. skip
       2. extremely
       3. prepare
       4. uncomfortable
       5. stomach
       6. be concerned about
       7. avoid
       8. fatty (foods)
       9. scrambled eggs



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition     Chapter Notes   12
       10. fried sausage


Paragraph 10, p. 18
       1. incident
       2. trembling
       3. humor


Paragraph 11, pp. 21-22
   1. increase
   2. the number of
   3. residents
   4. public
   5. funding
   6. result
   7. facilities
   8. services
   9. current
   10. however
   11. (be) concerned
   12. handle
   13. conservationists
   14. environmental
   15. damage
   16. Everglades
   17. decreasing
   18. supply
   19. positive


Paragraph 12, pp. 24-25
   1. vary
   2. method



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   13
   3. exist
   4. appropriate
   5. amount
   6. culture
   7. each other
   8. disinterested
   9. behavior
   10. farther
   11. apart
   12. close
   13. might
   14. aggressive
   15. a universal language




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   14
                                           Unit 2
                       Developing Ideas for Writing a Paragraph


       The main goal of Unit 2 is for writers to learn how to come up with lots and lots
of ideas for a writing topic and narrow that topic down to one that is suitable for a
paragraph. To accomplish this purpose, the main focus in Unit 2 is on
BRAINSTORMING ideas.


OBJECTIVES:
   1. Learn how and why of brainstorming. (28-34)
   2. Improve subject-verb agreement accuracy. (35-37)
   3. Add variety to sentence patterns. (37)
   4. Write an original paragraph that started from an original general idea that was
       narrowed down to a more specific topic by brainstorming potential subtopics and
       questions about the topic. (37)


CHAPTER NOTES:
       One of the hardest things for many writers is coming up with an idea for a topic.
Some students can come up with the general topic but need a great deal of assistance in
narrowing down their chosen topic. The material and activities in Unit 2 will teach
students to brainstorm. This improves their ability to ask questions about a topic, which
in turn improves their ability to answer those questions, which in turn provides
information for sentences that can become the backbone of a good paragraph.


Introducing Brainstorming, p. 28
       The unit opener activity on p. 28 is an easy, structured way to get students to
understand what brainstorming is. You may want to ask them what BRAIN is and then
what a STORM is. Ask them if they can make the connection between the meanings of
these two words separately and the new term BRAINSTORMING.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           15
Activity 1, p. 29
       This activity is similar to the unit opener on brainstorming. Follow the directions.


Writer’s Note, p. 30
       This note discusses the why behind the concept of brainstorming. (In contrast, the
unit opener and Activity 1 focused more on the how of brainstorming.)


Activity 2, p. 31-33
       There are three topics for this brainstorming activity. It is not necessary to do all
three. If two of these will suffice for your students, we suggest that you try to choose the
two topics that are the most relevant and meaningful to your group of students.


Activity 3, p. 34
       This activity is important because it asks students to use printed material as their
base for brainstorming (unlike the visual/pictorial prompts found in Activity 2).


Language Focus, p. 35-36
       Subject-verb agreement is one of the most basic yet error-filled grammar points
for composition writers. The most common student errors are discussed.
       We suggest bringing in other sentences on an overhead transparency to provide
further examples.


Activity 4, pp. 36-37
       In this activity, students must find all the subject-verb errors in the paragraph and
correct them.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 3, p. 37
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           16
Activity 5, p. 37
       In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write a paragraph.
       Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
Unit 2 (and in Unit 1).


Activity 6, p. 37
       Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #2 from Appendix 6.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Write out general topics on 3 x 5 notecards or small sheets of paper. Have
       students work in groups of 3-5 students to brainstorm ideas for writing a
       paragraph on specific topics from that general topic. Allow students 8-10
       minutes per card and then have them exchange cards. At some point, have
       students compare answers with their classmates from other groups.
   2. Have students practice subject-verb agreement with other similar paragraphs that
       you have typed in large font on an overhead transparency.




VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 13, pp. 36-37
       1. kindergarten



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             17
       2. elementary school
       3. organize
       4. supplies
       5. teacher’s aide
       6. keeps
       7. extremely
       8. fight
       9. cry
       10. attend
       11. create




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   18
                                           Unit 3
                                   The Topic Sentence


       In Unit 3, students will learn what a good topic sentence looks like as well as why
a particular sentence would not be a good topic sentence. At the same time, this unit
builds upon the information found in Unit 1 and Unit 2.


OBJECTIVES
1. Learn the basics of a good topic sentence. (whole unit)
2. Evaluate the effectiveness of various topic sentences. (41-42)
3. Learn about controlling ideas. (43-47)
4. Write topic sentences that have controlling ideas. (47-50)
5. Explore keeping a journal as a way to develop writing topics. (50)
6. Write sentences with more varied patterns. (50, 55)
7. Improve use of commas. (51)
8. Understand the difference between a fragment and a comma splice. (52-55)
9. Write an original paragraph by choosing a general topic, narrowing it down, and
   developing a good topic sentence with appropriate controlling ideas.


CHAPTER NOTES:
       Without a good topic sentence, a paragraph will go nowhere fast. For many
writers, coming up with a general topic is not too difficult and even narrowing the topic
down is not that hard. However, they simply have a very difficult time with a solid topic
sentence, one that has a general topic with specific controlling ideas. The bulk of this
unit is devoted to controlling ideas and how they can make or break a topic sentence,
which can make or break the entire paragraph. The exercises may seem a bit easy at
times, but it is important to discuss answers as a whole class to help students make the
transition from objective exercises in this book to their own original writing.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                            19
Activity 1, pp. 38-40
       Students read a paragraph and answer analysis questions about grammar,
vocabulary, and organization. SHIFT will be a new word (paragraph 14) to students, so
we recommend doing a prereading survey to see (1) how many students in the class can
drive, (2) how many have their license, and (3) how many can drive both a manual and an
automatic shift car. (You might also point out that SHIFT is the word used in the final
flight attendant speech on every flight upon arrival: ―Please be careful when removing
items from the overhead bin as items may have SHIFTED during flight.‖ They have
heard this word many times but have probably not caught it since they did not know the
meaning of the word, i.e., to change place.)
       The questions are straight-forward and lead you through the activity logically.


Activity 2, pp. 41-42
       Students need to be reminded that they have to read all three of the sentences
before they try to deduce the general topic. Reading just the first one will not suffice.


Activity 3, pp. 43-45
       This activity practices the information in ―Controlling Ideas‖ from page 43.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 4, p. 45
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 4, pp. 45
       Multiple choice. Students have to choose which of three sentences is the best
topic sentence. The clue here is to look for the best controlling ideas.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                            20
Activity 5, pp. 46-47
         This exercise simulates student errors with topic sentences that lack controlling
ideas. Students have to rewrite a sentence that lacks controlling ideas.


Activity 6, pp. 47-50
         Students will find five paragraphs that are missing the opening topic sentence.
Students must read the entire paragraph, decide which ideas control or help organize the
paragraph, and then go back and write the topic sentence including these controlling ideas
in it.
         Teachers should ask questions about these paragraphs to force students to
comment on the organization, especially the controlling ideas, the organization (e.g., first,
second, third, etc.)
         You may want to earmark these pages for later use when you teach concluding
sentences in the next unit.


Writer’s Note, p. 19
         Point out the option of keeping a journal that can serve as a springboard for new
ideas for paragraphs.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 5, p. 50
         It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 7, p. 51
         This exercise practices commas in twelve related sentences. Students can look at
Appendix 3 if they need instructional help.


Activity 8, pp. 51-52
         Students copy the sentences in Activity 7 in the correct paragraph format. They
also have to add an appropriate title.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                             21
          You may have your students skip this activity is they are beyond the material.
Some students may like this type of ―safe‖ exercise.
          Since Activity 7 and 8 work with a paragraph and not unrelated sentences, you
should take advantage of this by having students point out the topic sentence, the overall
organization, the nature of the paragraph (i.e., a comparison or contrast of two countries),
etc.


Language Focus: Sentence Fragments and Comma Splices, pp. 52-53
          A common error by both native and nonnative speaking students is sentence
composition. If a sentence does not have a subject OR does not have a verb, that
sentence is not a sentence but rather a fragment. Likewise, if a sentence actually consists
of several sentences that have been ―connected‖ by commas, that sentence is called a
comma splice.


Activity 9, pp. 54-55
          Students practice identifying fragments and comma splices and correcting them.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 6, p. 55
          It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 10, 11, 12, pp. 55-56
          Students will brainstorm ideas (Activity 10, write an original paragraph (Activity
11), and analyze and edit their work through peer editing (Activity 12).


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES:
       1. Have students bring in original topic sentences that either have or do not have
          viable controlling ideas. Students write these on the board and other groups of
          students take turns voting YES or NO as to whether or not the sentence is a good
          topic sentence.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition        Chapter Notes                                           22
   2. Continue practicing brainstorming ideas for paragraphs.
   3. Divide the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Give them a general topic such
       as CATS. Ask them to brainstorm the general topic and eventually come up with
       a viable topic sentence with good controlling ideas. Students can vote on which
       group came up with the best answer.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 13, pp. 36-37
           1. kindergarten
           2. elementary school
           3. organize
           4. supplies
           5. teacher’s aide
           6. keeps
           7. extremely
           8. fight
           9. cry
           10. attend
           11. create


Paragraph 14, p. 39
       1. shift
       2. clutch
       3. advantages



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             23
Paragraph 15, p. 48
       1. wealthy


Paragraph 16, p. 48
       1. surroundings
       2. may seem
       3. quite


Paragraph 17, p. 49
       1. trim
       2. healthy-looking
       3. fewer
       4. in shape
       5. overall


Paragraph 18, p. 48
       1. doubt
       2. foods
       3. utensils
       4. served
       5. piping
       6. addition
       7. calories
       8. cup
       9. fat
       10. heart-friendly
       11. snack
       12. furthermore
       13. source
       14. fiber



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   24
       15. certain types
       16. surprised
       17. sales
       18. soaring


Paragraph 19, p. 50
       1. learners
       2. foreign language
       3. native language
       4. stage
       5. link
       6. target word
       7. hatchet
       8. head
       9. cut down
       10. wheat
       11. tree
       12. effective


Paragraph 20, pp. 51-52
       1. located
       2. next to
       3. each other
       4. might
       5. similarities
       6. to a certain extent
       7. temperate
       8. climate
       9. throughout ____
       10. attract
       11. colony



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition    Chapter Notes   25
       12. thus




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   26
                                          Unit 4
                         Supporting and Concluding Sentences
       Now that students have seen what a paragraph looks like, how to come up with
ideas for writing one, and what a good opening topic sentence is, it is time to work with
the middle and ending of a paragraph: the supporting sentences and the concluding
sentence.


OBJECTIVES
1. Learn how to write the ―rest‖ of a paragraph. (whole unit)
2. See the relationship between the topic sentence, the controlling ideas in the topic
sentence, and the supporting sentences in the paragraph. (57-68)
3. Write sentences with more varied patterns. (69, 74)
4. Use correct pronouns for key nouns. (69-70)
5. Learn about the importance of staying on track, i.e., writing about ONE and only ONE
topic. (70)
6. Study the kinds of good concluding sentences. (70-74)
7. Write an original paragraph by choosing a general topic, narrowing it down, and
developing a good topic sentence with appropriate controlling ideas. (74)


CHAPTER NOTES:
       Getting a topic and a good topic sentence was actually less than half the
proverbial battle here. The real meat of a paragraph is the middle, which must be good
supporting statements that follow logically from the topic sentence and the controlling
ideas. In addition, a well-composed paragraph has a solid concluding sentence. This
concluding sentence can do many things, but the information here focuses on two things:
(1) restate the main idea (from the topic sentence) OR (2) make a prediction about what
may happen (related to the paragraph topic).
       It is important for you to point out that a single paragraph all alone hardly ever
really happens in the real world. In an essay, for example, a paragraph may be
sandwiched among fifteen others. In this case, the concluding statement serves as a


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             27
transition or link to the next paragraph. The concluding sentence should lead the reader
logically to the content of the next paragraph.


Activity 1, p. 59
       Students read three topic sentences and then predict what information would
logically appear in a paragraph that begins with each of them. In order to predict this
accurately, learners must identify the controlling ideas. (NOTE: These three topic
sentences and their corresponding ―body‖ or paragraph appear in Activity 2, so students
will have a chance to check their answers by analyzing a real paragraph.)


Activity 2, pp. 59-61
       Students read the three paragraphs that the topic sentences in Activity 1 came
from. This allows students a chance to verify their answers from Activity 1 by analyzing
real paragraphs.


Activity 3, pp. 61-62
       Students match eight supporting sentences with one of two topic sentences.


Activity 4, pp. 62-63
       This is an important activity because it helps students add supporting details (and
sentences) to their paragraphs.


Activity 5, pp. 63-64, and Activity 6, p. 65
       These two activities require students to brainstorm topics, write a topic sentence
with controlling ideas, and then create a list of questions that can help generate
supporting details.


Activity 7, pp. 66-68
       Students read three paragraphs to analyze whether underlined sentences are good
supporting sentences or unrelated sentences. Be sure to make students explain their
reasons, especially when the sentence is judged to be unrelated.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           28
Building Better Sentences, Practice 7, p. 69
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Language Focus, p. 69, and Activity 8, p. 70
       Students practice using appropriate pronouns for key nouns in their writing.


Writer’s Note, p. 70
       This small note is extremely important. It is connected to the recently studied
notion of ―unrelated‖ vs. ―good supporting‖ sentences. Writers must stay on track; they
must stick to the topic.


Activity 9, pp. 72-74
       This exercise is a little more difficult than most because the students are not given
any information. In previous exercises, certain words or sentences were underlined and
students had to identify those as unrelated or good supporting information. Here,
however, students must work with three paragraphs, analyze them for topic sentence,
good supporting information (vs. unrelated information), and write a good concluding
sentence. The writing of the concluding sentence alone is a difficult task.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 8, p. 74
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 10, 11, p. 74
       Students will use a topic sentence from Activity 5 to write an original paragraph
(Activity 10) and then edit their work through peer editing (Activity 11.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           29
Writer’s Note, p. 74
       This note talks briefly about the fact that it is up to the writer of the information to
decide what is and what is not important information. However, a writer can only use
information that can logically occur in a paragraph with that topic sentence with those
controlling ideas.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Many of the activities mentioned in Units 2 and 3 can be used here with
       supporting and concluding sentences.
   2. Scrambled Paragraphs: Since all parts of a paragraph have been covered, teachers
       can now use scrambled paragraphs as an expansion activity. Choose or write a
       paragraph that has a good topic sentence, good supporting sentences, and a good
       concluding sentence. Write out the sentences of a paragraph on a sheet of paper
       and cut them in strips. Give groups of students the strips and have them race to
       put the sentences in the correct order.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 21, p. 59
       1. cities
       2. coast
       3. landmarks
       4. tourist spots
       5. monuments
       6. such



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             30
       7. excitement
       8. northwest
       9. famous
       10. rooms
       11. appeal
       12. own


Paragraph 22, p. 60
       1. career
       2. flight attendant
       3. amount
       4. training
       5. job
       6. interpersonal skills
       7. customer service
       8. safety
       9. scenery
       10. bargain price
       11. wide variety
       12. truly
       13. worth


Paragraph 23, p. 61
       1. immigrant
       2. admire
       3. grandmother
       4. young
       5. ship
       6. landing
       7. seamstress
       8. grandfather



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition     Chapter Notes   31
       9. large
       10. discrimination
       11. world wars
       12. depression
       13. illnesses
       14. rarely
       15. accomplishments


Paragraph 24, p. 66
       1. childhood
       2. parents
       3. strict
       4. protective
       5. prison
       6. straight
       7. cartoons
       8. chores
       9. laundry
       10. ironing
       11. mowing the lawn
       12. architect
       13. housewife
       14. hard work


Paragraph 25, p. 67
       1. pool
       2. beautiful
       3. maintained
       4. chlorine
       5. swimming pool
       6. grow algae



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   32
       7. rainstorm
       8. chemicals
       9. balanced
       10. swallow
       11. leaves
       12. insects


Paragraph 26, p. 68
       1. sweet dreams
       2. asleep
       3. relax
       4. pleasant
       5. peaceful
       6. creative mind
       7. effective
       8. deep-breathing
       9. rhythmic
       10. stay awake
       11. classical
       12. baroque
       13. developed
       14. majority


Paragraph 27, p. 72
       1. college
       2. adjustments
       3. surprised
       4. hardly
       5. university
       6. seemed
       7. mountains



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   33
       8. important
       9. information
       10. night out
       11. high school


Paragraph 28, p. 73
       1. river
       2. turtles
       3. equipment
       4. rocks
       5. sand
       6. vegetation
       7. items
       8. aquarium
       9. large
       10. construct
       11. pond
       12. back yard


Paragraph 29, pp. 73-74
       1. eggs
       2. prepare
       3. delicious
       4. boil
       5. cook
       6. scramble
       7. mixture
       8. pan
       9. involves
       10. skillet
       11. yolk



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   34
       12. spatula
       13. poaching
       14. involves
       15. dish
       16. shallow




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   35
                                          Unit 5
                                   Paragraph Review
       This unit is a review unit for Units 1-4.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Consolidate information regarding the basics of paragraphs. (whole unit)
   2. Consolidate language focus material on verbs in a sentence, capitalization and
       punctuation, sentence fragments and commas splices, and pronouns. (whole unit)
   3. Understand articles better in composition. (85-87)
   4. Learn about the importance of proofreading. (77)
   5. Combine sentences to develop sentence variety. (78, 85)
   6. Write original paragraphs that contain all of the necessary parts and features. (88)


CHAPTER NOTES
       This unit is a chance for students (and teachers) to catch their breath a bit. All of
the basics of writing paragraphs have been covered. In this unit, students must
demonstrate mastery of the parts of a good paragraph.
       If your students are already familiar with the basics of paragraph writing, then it is
possible to begin the writing course with this unit before moving into Units 6 – 10, each
of which deals with a different rhetorical mode of paragraph writing.


Activity 1, pp. 76-77
       Students must write a good topic sentence for three independent paragraphs.


Writer’s Note, p. 77
       Discuss the importance of proofreading with your students. You may wish to say
that you will give a poor grade to any paper that has obviously not been proofread.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                            36
Activity 2, pp. 77-78
        This is a straight-forward exercise on editing.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 9, p. 78
        It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 3, p. 78
        Students are asked to copy their corrected sentences/paragraph from Activity 2
here. You may wish to skip this with more advanced students. For students whose
language uses a different alphabet, such copying may be helpful.


Activity 4, p. 79, and Activity 5, p. 79
        These are parallel to Activity 2 and 3. You may opt to skip this if students seem
to be good at editing at this point.


Activity 6, p. 80, and Activity 7, pp. 80-81
        This activity is also similar to Activity 2 and 3. It does not involve editing,
however. In Activity 6, students have to put the five sentences in the correct order and
label each as topic sentence, supporting information, or concluding sentence. In Activity
7, students copy these sentences in correct paragraph format.


Activity 8, p. 81
        Students must answer four questions to analyze the content, formatting, and
organization of Paragraph 35 in the previous activity.


Writer’s Note, p. 82
        This is just a simple reminder that students should check each sentence as they
proofread to make sure that it is related to the topic sentence.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           37
Activity 9, pp. 82-83
         Students read two paragraphs and identify any unrelated sentences in each.


Activity 10, pp. 83-84
         Students read a paragraph to edit the comma errors. (Students can refer to
Appendix 3 for help if they need to.)


Activity 11, pp. 84-85
         This is a proofreading activity but with a new twist. The writer has written
questions in the margin for the editor (a classmate) to answer. Answering these questions
will give the writer feedback regarding the paragraph.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 10, p. 85
         It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Language Focus: Articles, pp. 85-86, and Activity 12, p. 87
         Articles are tiny words, but they are extremely problematic for students. Some
will omit articles; others will add articles; still others will confuse articles. Some basic
rules of article usage in writing are covered. In Activity 12, students must practice these
rules.


Activity 13 and 14, p. 88
         Students will brainstorm ideas and write an original paragraph (Activity 13) and
analyze and edit their work through peer editing (Activity 14).


Activity 15, p. 88
         This is an important listing of additional writing assignments. The number and
exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                               38
EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. For further practice, use paragraphs in Units 1-4 for any of the expansion
       activities described up to now. As long as students have their books closed, this
       can be a good activity.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 30, p. 76
       1. request
       2. submit
       3. academic records
       4. paperwork
       5. reaches
       6. deadline
       7. accepted
       8. quota
       9. semester
       10. steps
       11. quickly
       12. easily


Paragraph 31, p. 76
       1. bridge
       2. suspension
       3. rises



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             39
       4. wood
       5. rope
       6. steep canyon
       7. adventure-seeking
       8. attempt
       9. narrow
       10. goal
       11. amazing
       12. sight


Paragraph 32, p. 77
       1. young
       2. public
       3. excited
       4. seat
       5. crowd
       6. grew
       7. band
       8. guitars
       9. blared
       10. drums
       11. crashed
       12. deafening
       13. arena
       14. ached
       15. throat
       16. sore (throat)
       17. rock concert
       18. grown-up


Paragraph 33, p. 78



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   40
       1. hockey
       2. skate
       3. score
       4. hit
       5. goalie
       6. perhaps


Paragraph 34, p. 78
       1. southern
       2. beverage
       3. stir
       4. dissolve
       5. mixture
       6. brew
       7. definitely
       8. refresh


Paragraph 35, p. 80
   1. ancient
   2. coin
   3. mast
   4. shipbuilder
   5. variety
   6. location
   7. active
   8. frigate
   9. shipbuilding
   10. tradition
   11. roots
   12. disaster
   13. crew



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   41
   14. afterlife
   15. sailor
   16. ferry


Paragraph 36, p. 82
       1. frozen
       2. harsh
       3. Arctic
       4. amount
       5. land
       6. percentage
       7. region
       8. scenery
       9. extremely
       10. be accustomed to _____
       11. Inuit
       12. desert
       13. several
       14. growth


Paragraph 37, p. 83
       1. bears
       2. Polar bears
       3. weight
       4. warm
       5. icy
       6. winds
       7. snowdrift
       8. claws
       9. paw
       10. amazing



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   42
       11. creatures


Paragraph 38, p. 84
       1. historic
       2. culture
       3. zoo
       4. giant
       5. cubs


Paragraph 39, p. 85
       1. Everglades
       2. unique
       3. gigantic
       4. fresh water
       5. marsh
       6. environment
       7. hundreds
       8. flooding
       9. lake
       10. wide
       11. variety
       12. drain
       13. worse
       14. management
       15. dams
       16. canals
       17. generations


Paragraph 40, p. 87
       1. grandchildren
       2. great-grandchildren



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition    Chapter Notes   43
       3. relatives
       4. experience
       5. seafood
       6. red beans
       7. one kind of _____
       8. stew
       9. cookbook
       10. memory
       11. agree
       12. conclusions
       13. ability




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   44
                                           Unit 6
                                  Definition Paragraphs
       This unit introduces students to definition paragraphs. Students will learn how to
write concise definitions of a term. Writing a concise definition requires students to use
adjective clauses, which is the main grammar focus of unit 6.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Learn what a definition paragraph is (89)
   2. Study and analyze examples of definition paragraphs (90-95)
   3. Combine sentences for sentence variety. (95, 103-107)
   4. Use quotation marks to cite taken information (95-98)
   5. Include specific, relevant examples in writing. (99-100)
   6. Use adjective clauses in constructing definition sentences (100-103)
   7. Write an original definition paragraph by choosing a general topic, brainstorming
       it, narrowing it down, developing a good topic sentence with appropriate
       controlling ideas, including cited information with quotation marks. (107-108)


CHAPTER NOTES
       Unit 6 is the first of five paragraphs that deal with a specific rhetorical mode, i.e.,
type of paragraph writing. Unit 6 introduces students to the basics of composing a
definition paragraph.
       We suggest that you begin with a definition. Ask students to define terms that
they know but that someone else might not know. This could be a word from their
language. It could be a kind of food that they like but that most people would not know.
It could be something related to a hobby of theirs that most people would not know.
Students will need to use an adjective clause in their sentences, so this is a natural lead
into the grammar focus of this unit.
       If you want your students to see the bigger picture here, then try to show how a
definition paragraph could fit into an essay. This is important because a definition


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                              45
paragraph by itself is a rare occurrence. For example, if the essay is comparing two plans
or two medicines, the writer will need to define the two plans or the two medicines. Such
an essay might have an introductory paragraph followed by a definition paragraph
followed by the body of that essay (which might be a compare-contrast chunk of writing).
        In this unit, students will study how to write a good topic sentence for definition
paragraphs. Most of the activities in this unit require students to study example
paragraphs and interact with them or analyze them.


Activity 1, p. 90
        Students will study and analyze a definition paragraph on gumbo, one on gossip,
and one on pretzels. Follow the questions for a good analysis of this material.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 11, p. 95
        It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Writer’s Note, pp. 95-96
        This writer’s note covers the use of quotation marks for citing material taken from
other sources. First, discuss what students know about quotation marks. They will bring
up their use for enclosing direct statements. Then move to this new use of quotation
marks. Teachers may wish to bring in other forms of citation, depending on the goals of
the particular writing course, e.g., write a research paper, write a thesis, etc.


Activity 2, pp. 96-97
        This activity practices inserting quotation marks in the correct place. It covers
both words taken from a book and words spoken by someone.


Activity 3, p. 97; Activity 4, p. 98, Activity 5, pp. 99-100
        In Activity 3, students have to number seven sentences in the correct sequence to
form a coherent definition paragraph. In Activity 4, students copy the sentences in their



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                            46
own writing in correct paragraph format, including indentation. In Activity 5, students
must answer six questions to analyze the content and composition of this paragraph.


Writer’s Note, pp. 99-100
       Students study when, where, and how to include an example in their writing to
make their message more powerful.


Language Focus: Adjective Clauses, pp. 100-101
       Students learn how to construct an adjective clause. (If you are using Houghton
Mifflin’s TOP 20, have students work on the unit with adjective clauses at this time.)


Activity 6, pp. 101-102
       Students study a definition paragraph about a hurricane. Students have to identify
the adjective clauses in the paragraph and then label the relative pronouns and nouns that
the clauses describe.


Activity 7, pp. 102-103
       Students write sentences with adjective clauses.


Writer’s Note, pp. 103-105
       This is one of the longest writer’s notes in the book. This note discusses how to
have more variety in student writing.


Activity 8, pp. 105-107
       In this activity, students find three paragraphs that are each missing one sentence.
Students are given the chunks or pieces that must be combined logically into a correct
sentence. Students must then copy this sentence into the paragraph. This activity serves
two purposes: (1) students practice sentence combining and (2) students have a chance to
see how a single sentence (that they have composed) fits (or does not fit!) into the bigger
picture (here, a paragraph)




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           47
Building Better Sentences, Practice 12, p. 107
        It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 9, p. 107
        In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write a definition paragraph.
        Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
earlier units.


Activity 10, p. 108
        Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #6 from Appendix 6


Activity 11, p. 108
        This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
    1. For further practice, have students find examples of definition paragraphs.
    2. For many students, writing good, varied topic sentences for definition paragraphs
        may be the hardest part. To work on this, have students create numerous topic
        sentences for definition paragraphs and then critique these with in a peer-editing
        setting.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
        Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           48
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 41, p. 90
   1. definition
   2. thick
   3. a dish
   4. mix
   5. peppers
   6. sausage
   7. a delicacy
   8. tasty


Paragraph 42, p. 92
   1. harmless
   2. grow
   3. facts
   4. add
   5. damage


Paragraph 43, p. 94
   1. originally
   2. as a matter of fact


Paragraph 44, p. 98
   1. a hatchet
   2. gain
   3. among
   4. sound (verb)
   5. alike



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             49
   6. native language


Paragraph 45, pp. 101-102
   1. storm
   2. hurricane
   3. dangerous
   4. tidal
   5. flood
   6. mostly
   7. modern technology
   8. strike
   9. case
   10. resident
   11. track
   12. movement
   13. weather phenomena


Paragraph 46, p. 105
   1. patience
   2. ability
   3. result
   4. misbehave
   5. polite
   6. customer
   7. clerk
   8. lack
   9. nowadays
   10. a civilized society


Paragraph 47, p. 106
   1. folly



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   50
   2. purchase
   3. waste
   4. barren
   5. gold


Paragraph 48, pp. 106-107
   1. relationship
   2. guess
   3. pottery
   4. wax
   5. crack
   6. worthless
   7. brand-new




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   51
                                          Unit 7
                               Process Analysis Paragraphs
       This unit introduces students to process analysis paragraphs. Students will learn
how to analyze a task by listing the steps in the task. The main grammar focus for this
type of writing is the use of transition words and chronological order.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Learn what a process analysis paragraph is; study and analyze examples of this
       kind of paragraph (109-115)
   2. Organize information correctly in a process analysis paragraph (116-118)
   3. Combine sentences for sentence variety. (115, 121)
   4. Use index cards to manage information. (115)
   5. Use appropriate transition words and chronological order (whole unit)
   6. Consider which words the audience may or may not know (118)
   7. Use commas with transition words (119)
   8. Write an original process analysis paragraph by choosing a general topic,
       brainstorming it, narrowing it down, developing a good topic sentence with
       appropriate controlling ideas, including cited information with quotation marks.
       (120-121)


CHAPTER NOTES
       Unit 7 teaches students about the process analysis paragraph. It is, simply put, a
paragraph that tells the steps in doing something or the subtasks in a larger task.
However, dividing a task into smaller specific tasks is difficult for many writers. Writers
need to remember their audience. The audience does not know the steps in the process,
so the writer must be sure to define terms that may be new and to explain all steps to the
audience.
       In this unit, students will study how to write a good topic sentence and a concise
listing of the subtasks of the material in process analysis paragraphs. Most of the


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           52
activities in this unit require students to study example paragraphs and interact with them
or analyze them.


Activity 1, pp. 110-115
        Students will study and analyze a process analysis paragraph on eating a taco, one
on applying to a university, and one on Turkish coffee. Follow the questions for a good
analysis of this material.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 13, p. 115
        It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Writer’s Note, p. 115
        Bring in some note cards for your students. Have them make note cards for
material. There is no better way to learn about this than actually doing it.


Language Focus: Transition Words and Chronological Order, p. 115
        The material here is self-explanatory. Many students like lists. Study the list on
p. 116 as a group. See if students can come up with any other words for this list. What
you want to stress is how difficult it is for a reader to keep up with the steps if they are
note clearly identified either by number (which is boring!) or by transition words (which
is better writing).


Activity 2, pp. 116-117
        Students have to put eight sentences in the correct sequence.


Activity 3, p. 117
        Students copy the sentences from Activity 2 in correct order in correct paragraph
format. They also have to give the paragraph a good title. More advanced students may
skip this activity.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                               53
Activity 4, p. 118
       Students answer four questions to analyze the content and organization of the
paragraph that they sequenced in Activity 2 and copied in Activity 3.


Writer’s Note, p. 118
       Remind students to keep their audience in mind. If a student is writing a process
analysis paragraph about how to clean an aquarium, it is important for him to remember
that the reader may or may not know the vocabulary associated with an aquarium (pump,
gravel, etc.). Unknown or technical words must be defined for the audience.


Activity 5, p. 119
       Students have to put ten sentences in the correct sequence and add commas where
necessary. Have students guess the content of the sentence from the artwork.


Activity 6, p. 120
       Students copy the sentences from Activity 5 in correct order in correct paragraph
format. They also have to add commas where needed and give the paragraph a good title.
More advanced students may skip this activity.


Writer’s Note, p. 120
       This note urges writers to go back and check their work for agreement between
nouns and possessive adjectives.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 14, p. 121
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           54
Activity 7, p. 121
        In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write a process analysis paragraph with
correct transition words.
        Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
earlier units.


Activity 8, p. 121
        Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #7 from Appendix 6


Activity 9, p. 121
        This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
    1. Have students find samples of process analysis paragraphs (or even a list of the
        steps of a process) in books or on the internet. Have students read their finding
        out loud and let other students guess what the process is.
    2. As an alternative, read only the even-numbered steps to see if anyone can guess
        what it is. (The point here would be that without some of the steps, it is much
        harder to guess what the process is; hence, student writers should not assume that
        readers know some of the steps in the process that they have chosen to write
        about.)
    3. Scramble sentences from process analysis paragraph and have students put the
        sentences in the logical order. Point out the transition words. (This could be done
        on an overhead transparency.)




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             55
VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 49, pp. 110-111
   1. juicy
   2. blouse
   3. smart
   4. such as
   5. attack
   6. gently
   7. raise
   8. corner
   9. bite
   10. messy


Paragraph 50, p. 112
   1. apply
   2. early
   3. require
   4. a money order


Paragraph 51, p. 114
   1. worth
   2. a coffee pot
   3. handle
   4. teaspoon



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             56
Paragraph 52, p. 117
   1. hit
   2. opposite
   3. swing
   4. volley
   5. reach
   6. peak
   7. toss
   8. position
   9. shoulders
   10. elbow
   11. sky
   12. knee
   13. quite
   14. left-handed


Paragraph 53, p. 120
   1. jar
   2. oxygen
   3. stem
   4. sunlight
   5. tiny
   6. bubbles
   7. temperature
   8. science experiment
   9. prove
   10. quart
   11. tight
   12. lid
   13. tape



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   57
   14. goldfish
   15. tightly
   16. layers




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   58
                                          Unit 8
                                 Descriptive Paragraphs
       This unit introduces students to descriptive paragraphs. The main goal of this unit
is for students to use more descriptive information in their writing, whether it be in the
form of simple adjectives, a series of adjectives, adjective clauses, or ―feeling‖ nouns or
verbs. Students need their writing to do more than report the obvious facts.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Learn what a descriptive paragraph is; study and analyze examples of this kind of
       paragraph (122-129)
   2. Examine the role of adjectives in better descriptive writing. (130-137)
   3. Understand the power of the connotation (vs. denotation) of adjectives. (134-137)
   4. Use prepositional phrases of location to add descriptive information. (138-145)
   5. Write an original descriptive paragraph (that exhibits a variety of adjective usage)
       by choosing a general topic, brainstorming it, narrowing it down, and developing
       a good topic sentence with appropriate controlling ideas. (138)


CHAPTER NOTES
       Unit 8 teaches students about descriptive paragraphs and more generally about
better descriptive writing. Students work with simple adjectives, series of adjectives,
adjective clauses, and even using prepositional phrases of location to describe their
information better. Writers should do more in their sentences so that readers do not leave
their writing with vague or simple snapshots of what the writer was trying to say.


Opening Activity, p. 123
       Students read a paragraph and look for the descriptive language, i.e., the
adjectives. In ―Describing with the Five Senses,‖ students will relate the five senses to
specific original examples.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                              59
Activity 1, p. 124
        Students will take their examples from the previous exercise and expand upon
them by identifying descriptive words for each.


Activity 2, p. 124
        Students will write original sentences with the descriptive words from Activity 1.


Activity 3, pp. 125-129
        Students will study and analyze a descriptive analysis paragraph on the subway,
one on a tornado, and one on a special garden. Follow the questions for a good analysis
of this material.


Language Focus: Adjectives, p. 130
        This is the introduction to the importance of using adjectives in good descriptive
writing.


Writer’s Note, p. 130
        This note is on the correct sequencing of adjectives in a series.


Grammar Note, p. 131
        This note deals with linking verbs. The term predicate adjective may or may not
be useful to your students, depending on how much grammatical terminology you wish to
use.


Activity 4, pp. 131-132
        Many students find this activity very easy.


Activity 5, p. 132
        This is a fun activity. Students produce some interesting sentences, so this is an
activity where you will want students to share / compare answers.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                              60
Activity 6, pp. 132-133
       This activity is similar in nature to Activity 5, but it requires more thought.
Students who found Activity 4 or 5 easy will be more challenged here.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 15, p. 133
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Writer’s Note, p. 133
       This note encourages students to crosscheck their findings in any bilingual
dictionary to ensure that a found word is really the intended word/meaning that the writer
was looking for.


Language Focus: Denotation and Connotation, pp. 134-135
       Have students think of an item or idea or action that has two or more names for it.
Have students decide whether one name is ―better‖ or ―more polite‖ or ―more technical‖
than the other. In other words, even with the same denotation, two words can have
different connotations.


Activity 7, pp. 134-135
       Practice with positive and negative connotations.


Activity 8, pp. 135-136
       This is a cool activity. Two paragraphs on the same topic, a description of a river
scene, have the same number of sentences, a similar number of words, and the same
number of phrases or clauses. The differences are in the adjectives that the describe the
nouns. Have students notice how the meaning of the paragraphs is affected by the use of
certain adjectives.


Activity 9, p. 137



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           61
         Students fill in the missing adjectives to form a coherent descriptive paragraph.
You may skip the copying part at the end. The most important part is to have students
see how the adjectives ―color‖ the paragraphs.


Language Focus: Prepositions of Location, p. 138
         Students know simple prepositions, but this list looks at AHEAD OF, ON TOP
OF, THROUGHOUT, and AMONG. Point out how adding the location of the action or
the noun with a prepositional phrase can actually add ―color‖ to the sentence.


Activity 10, p. 139
         Students have to write 5 original sentences describing their classroom (or any
room).


Activity 11, pp. 139-143
         Students analyze the use of prepositional phrases of location in a paragraph about
a room and a paragraph about the Statue of Liberty. Answering the questions is sufficient
for this exercise because the questions are quite detailed.


Writer’s Note, p. 143
         This note discusses word order with prepositional phrases of location. Use of
commas is also discussed.


Activity 12, p. 144
         Students analyze a paragraph describing a person to identify prepositional phrases
with particular emphasis on the objects within those phrases.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 16, p. 144
         It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                             62
Activity 13, p. 145
        In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write a descriptive paragraph with
appropriate adjectives and prepositional phrases of location.
        Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
earlier units.


Activity 14, p. 145
        Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #8 from Appendix 6


Activity 15, p. 145
        This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
    1. One step below writing a good descriptive paragraph is the ability to include more
        and more varied descriptive words and phrases in one’s writing. Have students
        look at different paragraphs to identify why one author’s work is very colorful or
        descriptive and another’s is not.
    2. Have students bring in paragraphs from short stores on the Internet that are
        descriptive. These could typically be paragraphs in a dramatic story in which the
        author is trying to ―paint‖ the scene in detail.
    3. Bring a paragraph to class that you have gone through and cut out all the
        descriptive adjectives. Have students add logical adjectives. See which student
        writes the most descriptive paragraph.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
        Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                          63
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 54, p. 123
   1. strong
   2. giant
   3. urn
   4. fascinated
   5. copper
   6. swirl
   7. craftsmen
   8. village
   9. exotic
   10. aroma
   11. brew
   12. velvet


Paragraph 55, pp. 125-126
   1. underground
   2. event
   3. subway
   4. staircase
   5. increase
   6. noise
   7. poster
   8. deep
   9. palm tree
   10. faraway




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             64
Paragraph 56, p. 127
   1. slender
   2. horrible
   3. neighborhood
   4. huge
   5. wild
   6. beast
   7. winds


Paragraph 57, p. 129
   1. bush
   2. rip out
   3. delicate
   4. bright
   5. replacement
   6. smile
   7. armful
   8. enjoy


Paragraph 58, p. 135
   1. forest
   2. environment
   3. fresh
   4. compete
   5. perch
   6. the supply
   7. shade
   8. healthy
   9. grassy
   10. bank (of a river)




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   65
Paragraph 59, p. 136
   1. sluggish
   2. scrawny
   3. struggle
   4. pollute


Paragraph 60, p. 137
(Students supply key vocabulary here.)


Paragraph 61, p. 142
   1. living room
   2. wooden
   3. bookcase
   4. lamp shade
   5. arrange
   6. a sofa
   7. stripe
   8. coffee table
   9. legs (of a table)
   10. sailboat


Paragraph 62, p. 142
   1. freedom
   2. structure
   3. robes
   4. continent
   5. symbol
   6. amazing


Paragraph 63, p. 144
   1. paralegal



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition    Chapter Notes   66
   2. curly
   3. makeup
   4. blush
   5. chain
   6. eyeglasses
   7. lose
   8. I.D.
   9. law firm




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   67
                                          Unit 9
                                  Opinion Paragraphs
       This unit introduces students to opinion paragraphs. Students will learn how to
separate facts from opinions. The main grammar focus that is emphasized here is the
accurate use of word forms.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Learn what an opinion is; study and analyze examples of this kind of paragraph
       (146-152)
   2. Separate facts from opinions. (152-153)
   3. Work on using word forms for various parts of speech of the same base
       vocabulary. (153-156)
   4. Sequence material in an opinion paragraph in a logical way. (157-158)
   5. Choose topics that are most suitable for an opinion paragraph. (158)
   6. Combine sentences for sentence variety. (153, 159)
   7. Write an original opinion paragraph by choosing a general topic, brainstorming it,
       narrowing it down, developing a good topic sentence with appropriate controlling
       ideas. (159)


CHAPTER NOTES
       Unit 9 teaches students about the opinion paragraph. This writing style is
connected to persuasive writing or argumentative as well. If you are expressing your
opinion, you are in essence defending it and even promoting it. At the very least, your
writing should influence the reader; thus, an opinion paragraph can be persuasive or
argumentative.
       In this unit, students will study how to write a good topic sentence and a concise
listing of the subtasks of the material in process analysis paragraphs. Most of the
activities in this unit require students to study example paragraphs and interact with them
or analyze them.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition     Chapter Notes                                            68
Activity 1, pp. 147-151
       Students will study and analyze an opinion paragraph on dying with dignity, one
on Coke and Pepsi preferences, and one on the pros and cons of wearing school uniforms.
Follow the questions for a good analysis of this material.


Writer’s Note, p. 151
       Writers cannot give only their own opinion all the time. At times, it is important
to acknowledge the opposing view. This note talks about the importance of at least
acknowledging the opposition as a tool for gaining familiarity.


Activity 2, p. 152
       Students must identify good and bad topic sentences for opinion paragraphs.


Activity 3, pp. 152-153
       Students have to identify two facts and two opinions from the previous paragraph
on medicides. The students here learn that information is rarely black and white.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 17, p. 243
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Language Focus: Word Forms, pp. 153-155
       Using the correct word form is tough for learners at this level. However, stress to
your students the importance of moving beyond the traditional listing of word forms.
They need to make an attempt to include many different word forms in their written
English. .


Activity 4, p. 156
       Students must identify words that do not have an error with word form and those
that have a word form error.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           69
Activity 5, pp. 156-157
          Students must read six sentences, identify them as F (fact) or O (opinion), and
then put them in logical sequential order.


Activity 6, pp. 157-159
          Simple copying. Students copy the sentences from Activity 5 in paragraph
format.


Choosing a Topic for an Opinion Paragraph
          This part teaches students how to look at both sides of an opinion, especially
when trying to decide if a particular topic is or is not suitable for an opinion paragraph.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 18, p. 159
          It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 7, p. 159
          In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write an opinion paragraph following the
guidelines in the textbook.
          Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
earlier units.


Activity 8, p. 159
          Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #9 from Appendix 6




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition        Chapter Notes                                             70
Activity 9, p. 159
       This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.


EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Opinions abound. This should be one of the easiest rhetorical modes to find a
       sample for in a book, newspaper, magazine, or Internet site.
   2. Students need additional help editing. I personally like ―Lucky 7,‖ which means
       that the task has 7 mistakes or 7 problems or 7 people. Put examples of opinion
       paragraphs on the board. The papers could be from the students who wrote (or
       miswrote) the paragraphs; be sure NOT to show the names of the writers.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 64, p. 147
   1. government
   2. pain
   3. hardship
   4. hope


Paragraph 65, p. 149
   1. advertising
   2. better
   3. fizz
   4. recognizable



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             71
   5. greatness
   6. mind


Paragraph 66, p. 150
   1. reasons
   2. equal
   3. choice


Paragraph 67, p. 158
   1. rays
   2. disease
   3. deadly
   4. treat
   5. harmful
   6. ultraviolet rays
   7. evidence
   8. persuade




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   72
                                         Unit 10
                                  Narrative Paragraphs
       This unit introduces students to narrative paragraphs. Here students will learn the
important features of good narrative paragraphs. Students will learn what topics make
better candidates for this important kind of writing and how to develop these topics into a
good narrative paragraph with a solid beginning, middle, and end.


OBJECTIVES
   1. Learn what a narrative paragraph is; study and analyze examples of this kind of
       paragraph (160-167)
   2. Write good topic sentences and supporting details for descriptive writing. (168-
       170)
   3. Use verb tenses consistently. (170-176).
   4. Write sentences with more variety in their structure and patterns. (159, 176)
   5. Write an original narrative paragraph by choosing a general topic, brainstorming
       it, narrowing it down, and developing a good topic sentence with appropriate
       controlling ideas. (177)


CHAPTER NOTES
       Unit 10 teaches students about narrative paragraphs, the last rhetorical mode of
paragraph writing that is covered in this book.
       Since good teachers try to work from the known to the unknown, from the
familiar to the new or unfamiliar, try to make use of the fact that many students write in a
daily journal. You should stress the similarities and then differences between journal
writing and a narrative paragraph. Journals are narrative accounts, but narrative
paragraphs are more tightly organized.


Writer’s Note, p. 161
       This note focuses on the fact that good narrative paragraphs must have a solid
beginning, middle, and end.


Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           73
Activity 1, pp. 162-167
       Students will analyze three different narrative paragraphs to see why each is or is
not a strong narrative source of writing. Follow the questions after each of the three
paragraphs; these will make the exercise run smoothly.


Activity 2, p. 168
       Students must decide whether certain titles are more likely to be good candidates
for narrative writing than others.


Activity 3, pp. 168-169
       Students must read seven sentences that narrate one person’s experiences during a
big earthquake and then put the sentences in the correct sequence.


Activity 4, pp. 169-170
       Students copy the sentences from Activity 3 in correct paragraph format and add a
suitable title. Students must also identify the topic sentence (background information),
beginning of story, middle of story, and end of story.


Building Better Sentences, Practice 19, p. 170
       It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Language Focus: Verb Tense Consistency, pp. 170-171
       Students will hear about the need to use verb tenses consistently. Paragraph 73
serves as an illustration of the material in this language focus.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition         Chapter Notes                                         74
Activity 5, p. 172
        Students must underline all the verbs in a narrative about a first job and then make
corrections to the verbs that have errors. This activity is harder than most students
initially expect it to be.


Activity 6, pp. 173-176
        This is a cool exercise! Students get to become the teacher! There are 5 teacher
comments about 5 short narrative paragraphs. Students must match the teacher’s
comments with the appropriate paragraphs!


Building Better Sentences, Practice 20, p. 176
        It is important that students NOT look at the original sentences. The goal here is
to see the combinations that result and how they are different, not just to see if the student
combinations match the original.


Activity 7, p. 176
        In this Original Writing Practice, students must choose a topic, brainstorm
specific ideas, develop a topic sentence, and write a narrative paragraph following the
guidelines in the textbook. Students are encouraged to check their verb tenses here.
Consistency is key!
        Because of the variety of levels in any writing course, some learners may need
additional help with this activity even though all of the ―pieces‖ have been covered in
earlier units.


Activity 8, p. 177
        Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #10 from Appendix 6


Activity 9, p. 177
        This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition       Chapter Notes                                           75
EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Finding additional narrative material is not hard, especially in an ESL setting.
       Like opinion paragraphs earlier, this should be one of the easiest rhetorical modes
       to find a sample of in a book, newspaper, magazine, or Internet site.
   3. Students need additional help editing. I personally like ―Lucky 7,‖ which means
       that the task has 7 mistakes or 7 problems or 7 people. Put examples of opinion
       paragraphs on the board. The papers could be from the students who wrote (or
       miswrote) the paragraphs; be sure NOT to show the names of the writers.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 68, p. 161
   1. conquer
   2. fear
   3. public speaking
   4. assignment
   5. mirror
   6. podium
   7. audience
   8. breathe
   9. flowed


Paragraph 69, p. 163
   1. nightmare



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             76
   2. turn around
   3. public address system
   4. cap
   5. be lost
   6. toward
   7. hug


Paragraph 70, p. 164
   1. embarrassing
   2. skirt


Paragraph 71, p. 166
   1. track team
   2. scheduled
   3. uniform
   4. active
   5. lonely
   6. courage
   7. classmates
   8. develop


Paragraph 72, pp. 169-170
   1. earthquake
   2. measure
   3. violent
   4. side-to-side movement
   5. rumble
   6. shake
   7. stucco
   8. collapse
   9. uneventful



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   77
   10. unforgettable
   11. a sixth sense
   12. peaceful
   13. tragedy
   14. unexpected
   15. disaster
   16. doorway


Paragraph 73, p. 171
   1. paperwork
   2. document
   3. bank statement
   4. landscape
   5. embassy
   6. patiently
   7. guard
   8. warm-blooded
   9. personnel
   10. frightened
   11. baby-faced
   12. employee
   13. shocked
   14. experience


Paragraph 74, p. 172
   1. assistance
   2. business car
   3. launch ( a new career)


Paragraph 75, p. 173
   1. unfortunate



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   78
   2. healthy
   3. reddish
   4. stuff
   5. tripe
   6. tongue


Paragraph 76, p. 173-174
   1. yard
   2. scream
   3. veterinarian
   4. operate
   5. cast


Paragraph 77, p. 174
   1. comfortable
   2. banners
   3. sports teams
   4. twin bed
   5. dresser
   6. knobs
   7. novel
   8. closet


Paragraph 78, p. 175
   1. nightmare
   2. backpack
   3. missing
   4. headquarters
   5. steal
   6. purse
   7. valuables



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   79
   8. suggest
   9. garbage
   10. robbers
   11. duplicate


Paragraph 79, p. 176
   1. trick
   2. fail
   3. cheat
   4. restroom
   5. switch
   6. meanwhile
   7. furious
   8. right-handed
   9. check marks ( )
   10. trouble




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   80
                                          Unit 11
                   Paragraphs in an Essay: Putting It All Together


       This unit introduces students to the basics of an essay. This unit helps students to
see the similarities between writing paragraphs and essays and to understand how
paragraphs function in a longer essay. The teaching strategy here, however, is not to
teach the essay as independent, separate form of writing—even though it is different from
a paragraph in many ways—but rather as a continuation or elaboration of a paragraph.
We believe that this approach will help students retain the strategizing and organizing
skills that they have developed in the earlier ten units here that deal with paragraphs.




OBJECTIVES
   1. Understand what an essay is. (178-180)
   2. Compare and contrast the structure of a paragraph and an essay. (181)
   3. Differentiate paragraph topics from essay topics. (181-182)
   4. Analyze examples of essays. (182-184, 188-189)
   5. Learn about the organization of an essay. (184-191)
   6. Write a guided essay by brainstorming ideas, writing the body paragraphs, and
       peer editing other students’ work. (191-194)


CHAPTER NOTES
       It is not enough for students to understand how to write a single paragraph
because real world demands on our students are such that they will rarely have to write a
single well-developed paragraph (except as part of some essay exams). Students must be
able to transfer their organizing skills from paragraph writing to essay writing. They
continue to need a great deal of work on choosing a good topic.
       The material in this unit can serve as a bridge for students making the transition
from writing paragraphs to writing essays.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             81
Opening information, pp. 178-179
       This is designed to hit the high points of what a paragraph is. In a few pages, the
book will work to show students that essay structure is actually very similar to paragraph
structure; thus, it is important that students know the structure of a paragraph well so that
they can see the similarities.


Activity 1, pp. 179-180
       This is a very short exercise (only 3 questions) that may serve as a warm up to the
unit. The questions seek to identify students’ previous experience and perhaps
perceptions of essays in English.


Activity 2, pp. 181-182
       For each of five problems, there are two thesis statements. Students must identify
which is more appropriate for a paragraph and which is more suitable to an essay.


Essay 1, p. 183
       Point out the role of the parts that are underlined or in bold. Point out the
structure of any individual part, e.g., the topic sentence in paragraph 3. Use this sample
essay to show the similarities in parts or features of paragraphs and essays.


Writer’s Note, pp. 184-185
       This note mentions the true importance of more and more academic vocabulary.
A student’s writing cannot be seen as growing or becoming more academic unless there
is a growth in the writer’s vocabulary use.


Activity 3, pp. 186-187
       Five essay thesis statements are given. Students are to complete a roman numeral
level only outline of these five paragraphs. The first three have been done for the
students.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition        Chapter Notes                                          82
Activity 4, p. 187
       Students compare their answers in Activity 3, pp. 186-187.


Activity 5, pp. 188-189
       Students read Essay 2 and then answer the analysis questions on the next page.


Appendix 6, pp. 189-191
       The assignment is to complete the outline for Essay 2. The missing chunks can be
determined by reading and grasping the content of the essay.


Activity 7, pp. 191-192
       Students practice brainstorming for an essay in a ―guided‖ exercise. In the
previous units, students are gradually weaned from any real help from the textbook when
they are brainstorming. Because this is the students’ first attempt at brainstorming for an
essay topic, we have included an essay that does not require students to ―sink or swim.‖
Instead, we have set up an exercise that leads the student writers through the process.
       Have students read the topic and then follow the directions.


Activity 8, pp. 193
       Students practice original essay writing within by filling in the body paragraphs of
an essay on the advantages of city life.


Activity 9, p. 194
       Peer editing of original writing is an important part in the writing process.
Students will use Peer Editing Sheet #11 from Appendix 6


Activity 10, p. 194
       This is an important listing of five additional writing assignments. The number
and exact scope of any extra assignments are up to the instructor.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                           83
EXPANSION ACTIVITIES
   1. Students need to see MANY more essays. If you have a good group, have them
       search on the Internet or in the library for more essay samples that (1) are of real
       interest to them and (2) contain appropriate language and vocabulary.
   2. Have students write outlines of essays.
   3. As a group/class, have students brainstorm specific essay themes / titles based on
       a generic title. Put the class into groups of 3 or 4. Explain that they must come
       up with an essay theme / title and then write a simple five-item (four or six is o.k.,
       too) outline. (Number 1 will be introduction and the last will be conclusion.) For
       example, you might write the term ―DESSERTS‖ on the board. Give students a
       specific time limit of, say, ten minutes to have their outline ready. You may wish
       to give each group an overhead transparency and a pen so they can write their
       outline on the OHP sheet and then present their ideas to the entire class. (If you
       have too many groups in the class, this can be monotonous, so try to limit the
       number of presentations to four or five. Those who do not present for
       DESSERTS can present the next topic.)
   4. Cut up paragraphs of an essay to have students unscramble them in the correct
       order.
   5. For specific practice, give everyone a copy of the same essay, but remove ONE
       paragraph in advance. Students in class need to brainstorm to figure out the
       content of the missing paragraph. Teacher listens to students’ ideas and writes
       them on the board or overhead. Students talk about the ideas one by one to say
       whether each is plausible or not. For homework, have students write the missing
       paragraph based on the class discussion.


VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the unit (not including
the glossed words). Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher
proficiency level, instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to
correspond to the vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             84
particular strategy is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of
appropriate vocabulary in this course.


Essay 1, p. 41, p. 90
   1. mass-produced
   2. relatively
   3. antibiotics
   4. plague
   5. swell
   6. retreat
   7. harm




Essay 2, p. 188
   1. disregard
   2. in contrast
   3. impact
   4. role
   5. widespread
   6. entwined
   7. behaviors
   8. sympathetic
   9. conversely
   10. potential


Essay 3, p. 193
       1. routine
       2. approximately
       3. culturally diverse
       4. obvious
       5. afford



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             85
       6. tranquility




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   86
                                        Appendices


The appendices can be used in any order, but it is important that teachers be aware of the
content presented in them.


Appendix 1 covers the basic steps of writing a paragraph. This appendix shows how a
student successfully follows the seven steps and produces a coherent, cohesive paragraph
about a Louisiana dish called gumbo. We suggest you find some time to go through this
appendix before the students go about writing their first paragraph from scratch. (Several
of the early exercises in Unit 1 and 2 requires mere copying or writing of paragraphs that
we know do not follow the correct sequence of brainstorming, first draft, second draft,
etc.)


Appendix 2 focuses on capitalization. This appendix consists of two parts. The first part
is a set of basic rules; the second part is actual practice with capitalization.


Appendix 3 focuses on punctuation. This appendix provides instruction and pertinent
practice in end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, semicolons, and
editing of errors.


Appendix 4 provides additional grammar practice in three key areas: verb tenses,
articles, and editing for errors.


Appendix 5 contains Building Better Sentences exercises. We strongly suggest that
some time be spent on the strategies for combining sentences presented on pp. 229—230
before students attempt the activities. It is at this point that students will probably have
questions about word order and punctuation usage.




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition        Chapter Notes                                          87
Appendix 6 is a list of peer editing sheets for students to use with each other. Students
are much more likely to give relevant feedback if they are looking for specific elements
within an outline or an essay. The questions are specifically designed to concentrate the
students’ attention on specific points.




VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
       Below is a list of vocabulary words from the paragraphs in the appendices.
Because vocabulary is such an important point in moving to a higher proficiency level,
instructors may want their students to maintain a vocabulary journal to correspond to the
vocabulary, something that we strongly advocate. Whether or not this particular strategy
is employed, it is imperative that students acquire a large amount of appropriate
vocabulary in this course.


Paragraph 80, p. 209
   1. article
   2. issue
   3. Prime Minister
   4. economic
   5. ties
   6. reestablish
   7. sort
   8. cooperation


Paragraph 81, p. 210
   1. cross
   2. directly
   3. certainly
   4. twice
   5. carry




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition      Chapter Notes                                             88
Paragraph 82, pp. 210-211
   1. foreign
   2. inspire
   3. abroad


Paragraph 83, p. 218
   1. globe
   2. destroy
   3. area
   4. heavy
   5. damage
   6. amazingly
   7. reaction
   8. broadcast


Paragraph 84, p. 219
   1. desert
   2. earth
   3. dry
   4. rainfall
   5. canyon
   6. sand


Paragraph 85, p. 219
   1. review
   2. wish
   3. face
   4. greatest
   5. triumph
   6. king
   7. survive



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   89
   8. range
   9. well-written
   10. conflict
   11. talented
   12. independent
   13. character
   14. plot
   15. turns
   16. outcome
   17. story
   18. disappoint
   19. praise


Paragraph 86, p. 220
   1. tuna salad
   2. a can
   3. flake
   4. fork
   5. mayonnaise
   6. slice
   7. easy-to-make ______
   8. treat


Paragraph 87, pp. 220-221
   1. infamous
   2. moment
   3. assassinate
   4. theory
   5. fateful day
   6. bullet
   7. assassin



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   90
Paragraph 88, p. 221
   1. routine
   2. daily
   3. shower


Paragraph 89, p. 221
   1. shortest
   2. the White House
   3. presidency
   4. brief
   5. catch
   6. pneumonia
   7. the army


Paragraph 90, p. 222
   1. soldier
   2. battles
   3. rich soil
   4. thrive
   5. agriculture
   6. farmer
   7. cotton
   8. citrus


Paragraph 91, pp. 222-223
   1. brain teaser
   2. amaze
   3. multiply
   4. square
   5. digit



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   91
   6. correctly


Paragraph 92, p. 223
   1. among
   2. geography
   3. recent
   4. survey
   5. globe
   6. capital
   7. educator
   8. blame
   9. knowledge
   10. memorization
   11. material
   12. regardless
   13. unfortunate
   14. fact


Paragraph 93, pp. 223-224
   1. free service
   2. monthly
   3. electricity bill
   4. advantage
   5. power company
   6. analyst
   7. inspect
   8. identify
   9. potential
   10. energy-saving _____
   11. thermostat
   12. air conditioning



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   92
   13. efficiently


Paragraph 94, p. 224
   1. convince
   2. intrigue
   3. improve
   4. success


Paragraph 95, p. 225
   1. surprising
   2. statistics
   3. a college degree
   4. rather _____


Paragraph 96, pp. 225-226
   1. imagine
   2. tap
   3. brake pedal
   4. emergency
   5. emergency brake
   6. lower gear
   7. rub
   8. tire
   9. curb


Paragraph 97, p. 226
   1. aquarium
   2. sales clerk
   3. report card
   4. a dime store
   5. a fish bowl



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   93
   6. sword
   7. green swordtail


Paragraph 98, pp. 226-227
   1. modern technology
   2. cellular phone
   3. destructive
   4. upset
   5. (be) prone to _____
   6. car accident


Paragraph 99, p. 227
   1. coins
   2. denominations
   3. regularly
   4. a penny
   5. monetary
   6. transaction


Paragraph 100, p. 228
   1. oasis
   2. silence
   3. campus
   4. hectic
   5. solitude
   6. shelf, shelves
   7. rare
   8. obscure
   9. uncomfortable
   10. wooden
   11. a copy machine



Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   94
   12. sociable
   13. turmoil




Great Paragraphs 2nd edition   Chapter Notes   95

				
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