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Principles of Information Systems Chapter 12

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					Systems Investigation and Analysis


                 Chapter 12




          Principles of Information Systems,   1
                     Sixth Edition
    Chapter 12 Outline
• An Overview of Systems
  Development
• Systems Development Life Cycles
• Factors Affecting Systems
  Development Success
• Systems Investigation
• Systems Analysis


         Principles of Information Systems,   2
                    Sixth Edition
An Overview of Systems
     Development




     Principles of Information Systems,   3
                Sixth Edition
Participants in Systems
     Development




     Principles of Information Systems,   4
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Initiating Systems Development




        Principles of Information Systems,   5
                   Sixth Edition
Information Systems Planning




       Principles of Information Systems,   6
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Aligning Corporate and IS Goals




        Principles of Information Systems,   7
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  Developing a Competitive Advantage

• Creative analysis

• Critical analysis
   – Going beyond automating manual systems
   – Question assumptions
   – Identify and resolve conflicting objectives




                  Principles of Information Systems,   8
                             Sixth Edition
  Establishing Objectives for Systems
             Development

• Performance objectives
   – Output quality or usefulness
   – Output format quality or usefulness
   – Speed at which output is produced
• Cost objectives
   – Development costs
   – Fixed investments
   – Ongoing operating costs
   – Uniqueness costs

                 Principles of Information Systems,   9
                            Sixth Edition
    Systems Development and E-
            Commerce
• Internet technology - enables companies to
  extend their information systems beyond their
  boundaries to reach their customers, suppliers,
  and partners.


• Dynamic Core Business Application that
  runs over the Web - must be reliable and fault
  tolerant, providing continuous availability while
  processing all transactions accurately.

                Principles of Information Systems,    10
                           Sixth Edition
  Trends in Systems Development and
                 ERP

• ERP vendor as one-stop provider
• Applications to integrate with ERP systems
• External consulting




                  Principles of Information Systems,   11
                             Sixth Edition
Systems Development Life
        Cycles




      Principles of Information Systems,   12
                 Sixth Edition
Factors Affecting Systems
  Development Success




       Principles of Information Systems,   13
                  Sixth Edition
Systems Development Life Cycles




        Principles of Information Systems,   14
                   Sixth Edition
The Traditional Systems Development
              Life Cycle




         Principles of Information Systems,   15
                    Sixth Edition
Advantages and Disadvantages of
       Traditional SDLC




        Principles of Information Systems,   16
                   Sixth Edition
   Prototyping




Principles of Information Systems,   17
           Sixth Edition
   Prototyping




Principles of Information Systems,   18
           Sixth Edition
Advantages and Disadvantages of
         Prototyping




        Principles of Information Systems,   19
                   Sixth Edition
Rapid Application Development (RAD)




          Principles of Information Systems,   20
                     Sixth Edition
Reasons for Outsourcing




    Principles of Information Systems,   21
               Sixth Edition
        Factors Affecting Systems
          Development Success

• Degree of Change
  – Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering
  – Managing change




               Principles of Information Systems,   22
                          Sixth Edition
Factors Affecting Systems
  Development Success




     Principles of Information Systems,   23
                Sixth Edition
Quality and Standards




   Principles of Information Systems,   24
              Sixth Edition
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)




          Principles of Information Systems,   25
                     Sixth Edition
               Project Management

•   Project schedule
•   Project milestone
•   Project deadline
•   Critical path




                   Principles of Information Systems,   26
                              Sixth Edition
Use of Project Management Tools




        Principles of Information Systems,   27
                   Sixth Edition
Use of Project Management Tools




        Principles of Information Systems,   28
                   Sixth Edition
         Computer-Aided Software
         Engineering (CASE) Tools
  Automate many of the tasks required in a systems development
  effort and enforce adherence to the SDLC, thus instilling a high
  degree of rigor and standardization to the entire systems
  development process

• Upper-CASE tools - CASE packages that focus on activities
  associated with the early stages of systems development.

• Lower-CASE tools - focus on the later stages of systems
  development and are capable of automatically generating structured
  program code.

• Integrated-CASE tools - provide links between upper-
  and lower-CASE packages.
                     Principles of Information Systems,              29
                                Sixth Edition
   CASE Tools




Principles of Information Systems,   30
           Sixth Edition
          Object-Oriented Systems
               Development
Object-oriented systems development typically involves:

• Identifying potential problems and opportunities within the
  organization that would be appropriate for the OO approach

• Defining the kind of system users require

• Designing the system

• Programming or modifying modules

• Evaluation by users

• Periodic review and modification
                      Principles of Information Systems,        31
                                 Sixth Edition
Systems Investigation




     Principles of Information Systems,   32
                Sixth Edition
           Systems Investigation

In general, systems investigation attempts to uncover
answers to the following questions:

– What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve?
– What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
– What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications,
  personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are
  required in a new system?
– What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
– What are the associated risks?



                 Principles of Information Systems,             33
                            Sixth Edition
Participants in Systems Investigation




           Principles of Information Systems,   34
                      Sixth Edition
Feasibility Analysis




  Principles of Information Systems,   35
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Sample Net Present Value
      Calculation




     Principles of Information Systems,   36
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Object-Oriented Systems
     Investigation




     Principles of Information Systems,   37
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The Systems Investigation Report




         Principles of Information Systems,   38
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Systems Analysis




   Principles of Information Systems,   39
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Identifying Sources of Data




     Principles of Information Systems,   40
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Collecting Data




Principles of Information Systems,   41
           Sixth Edition
                     Data Analysis

•   Data modeling
•   Activity modeling
•   Application flowcharts
•   Grid charts
•   CASE tools




                    Principles of Information Systems,   42
                               Sixth Edition
Data and Activity Modeling




      Principles of Information Systems,   43
                 Sixth Edition
Application Flowcharts




   Principles of Information Systems,   44
              Sixth Edition
   Grid Charts




Principles of Information Systems,   45
           Sixth Edition
              Requirements Analysis

•   Asking directly
•   Critical success factors (CSFs)
•   The IS plan
•   Screen and report layout




                    Principles of Information Systems,   46
                               Sixth Edition
    The IS Plan




Principles of Information Systems,   47
           Sixth Edition
Screen and Report Layout




     Principles of Information Systems,   48
                Sixth Edition
Object-Oriented Systems Analysis




         Principles of Information Systems,   49
                    Sixth Edition
The Systems Analysis Report




      Principles of Information Systems,   50
                 Sixth Edition
                       Summary

• Systems development team - of stakeholders, users,
  managers, systems development specialists, and
  various support personnel

• Five phases of the traditional SDLC - investigation,
  analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and
  review

• Systems investigation participants - stakeholders,
  users, managers, employees, analysts, and
  programmers

                 Principles of Information Systems,    51
                            Sixth Edition
  Principles and Learning Objectives
• Effective systems development requires a team effort
  of stakeholders, users, managers, systems
  development specialists, and various support
  personnel, and it starts with careful planning.

   – Identify the key participants in the systems development
     process and discuss their roles.
   – Define the term information systems planning and list
     several reasons for initiating a systems project.
   – Identify important system performance requirements for
     applications that run on the Internet or a corporate intranet or
     extranet.
   – Discuss three trends that illustrate the impact of enterprise
     resource planning software packages on systems
     development.


                    Principles of Information Systems,                  52
                               Sixth Edition
    Principles and Learning Objectives

• Systems development often uses tools to select,
  implement, and monitor projects, including net present
  value (NPV), prototyping, rapid application development,
  CASE tools, and object-oriented development.

   – Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the
     traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-
     user systems development life cycles.
   – Identify several factors that influence the success or failure of a
     systems development project.
   – Discuss the use of CASE tools and the object-oriented approach
     to systems development.

                     Principles of Information Systems,               53
                                Sixth Edition
   Principles and Learning Objectives

• Systems development starts with investigation
  and analysis of existing systems.

  – State the purpose of systems investigation.

  – Discuss the importance of performance and cost
    objectives.

  – State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss
    some of the tools and techniques used in this phase
    of systems development.

                 Principles of Information Systems,       54
                            Sixth Edition
End of Chapter 12




  Principles of Information Systems,   55
             Sixth Edition

				
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