Interview by MikeJenny

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									     Assessment



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              What Is Psychological                                      Interview
                 Assessment?                            The unstructured interview involves
                                                        a series of open-ended questions.

   Assessment:                                                 Information sought through interviews:
    A procedure in which a clinician evaluates a                  Reasons for being in treatment
    person in terms of the psychological,                         Symptoms
    physical, and social factors that influence                   Health status          The structured interview
                                                                  Family background      consists of a standardized
    the individual's functioning.                                                        series of questions with
                                                                  Life history
                                                                                         predetermined wording and
                                                                                         order.

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    Mental Status Examination                                        Mental Status Examination
                                                                 Appearance and Behavior
            To assess:
                     Appearance and Behavior       Examples of Abnormal Motor Behavior:
                     Orientation
                     Content of Thought
                     Thinking Style and Language                        Hyperactivity
                     Affect and Mood
                     Perceptual Experiences
                                                                        Psychomotor Agitation
                     Sense of Self                                      Psychomotor Retardation
                     Motivation
                     Cognitive Functioning                              Catatonia
                     Insight and Judgment
                                                                        Compulsion

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                Mental Status Examination                             Mental Status Examination
                 Content of Thought                                         Affect and Mood
                                                    Affect:
       Content of Thought:
                                                      An individual’s outward expression of emotion.
        Ideas that fill a person’s head.
                                                                Inappropriate
            Examples of Abnormalities:                          Blunted or Flat
                        Obsessions                              Exaggerated, Heightened, or Overdramatic
                        Delusions                               Decreased Mobility
                        Overvalued Ideas                        Excessive Mobility
                                                                Restricted Range
                        Magical Thinking
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              Mental Status Examination                               Mental Status Examination
                  Affect and Mood                                  Perceptual Experiences
                                                    Hallucination:
Mood:
                                                     False perceptions not corresponding to the
 An individual’s personal experience of emotion.
                                                     objective stimuli present in the environment.

            Euthymic = Neither happy nor sad                      Auditory                         Olfactory
                                                                     Command
            Dysphoric = Unpleasant feelings                                                        Somatic
            Euphoric = Cheerful, elated, possibly                 Visual                           Gustatory
                        even ecstatic


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            Mental Status Examination               Mental Status Examination
                        Orientation                             Thinking Style & Language
                                                    Symptoms involving vocabulary use and style:
Orientation is a person’s awareness of:
                                                        incoherence
                                                         incoherence                                      illogical thinking
                                                                                                           illogical thinking
                                                                            loosening of associations
                                                                             loosening of associations
             Time                                     neologisms
                                                      neologisms                          circumstantiality
                                                                                           circumstantiality
             Place                                                           blocking
                                                                             blocking
             Identity                                   clanging                                         tangentiality
                                                                                                          tangentiality
                                                         clanging
                                                                         confabulation
                                                                          confabulation
                                                                                              echolalia
                                                                                               echolalia
                                                                flight of ideas
                                                                 flight of ideas                              perseveration
                                                                                                              perseveration
                                                                                   pressure of speech
                                                                                   pressure of speech
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               Mental Status Examination                                      Mental Status Examination
                           Motivation
Motivational impairment can make even ordinary                 Cognitive Functioning:
 life tasks seem insurmountable.                                Level of intelligence evidence by details such
                                                                as memory and abstract ability.
                                                                Problems might include memory impairment
              Sense of Self                                     associated with Alzheimer’s.
              Disturbances of the individual’s
              sense of “who I am” include:
                                                               Insight and Judgment:
                • depersonalization     • identity confusion
                                                                 Understanding and decision making.

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             Psychological Testing                                           Intelligence Testing
                                                                            Intelligence Quotient:
What Makes a Good Psychological Test?                                         A method of quantifying performance on
                                                                              an intelligence test.
                                                                            Originally:
                        Validity
                        Reliability
                                                                                                   Mental Age
                        Standardization
                                                                            I.Q. =                 Mental Age
                                                                                                Chronological Age
                                                                                                Chronological Age
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 Intelligence Testing                                                        Intelligence Testing
        First intelligence test by Binet.                             Deviation IQ:
        Revised as the Stanford-Binet.                                 An index of intelligence derived from
                                                                       comparing the individual's score on an
        Wechsler scales now more widely used.                          intelligence test with the mean score for
        Wechsler introduced deviation IQ to                            that individual's reference group.
        replace mental/chronological age ratio.
                                                                                        Developed by Wechsler.
                                                                                        Eventually adopted as widespread

        I.Q. =                 Mental Age
                               Mental Age
                            Chronological Age    X 100                I.Q.              standard.
                                                                                        Incorporated into the Stanford-Binet.
                            Chronological Age

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            The distribution of IQ scores across    Personality and Diagnostic Testing
            the population fits a normal curve.
                                                    Self-Report Clinical Inventories contain
                                                    standardized questions with fixed response
                                                    categories that the test-taker completes, “self-
                                                    reporting” the extent to which the responses
                                                    characterize him or her.
                                                                       MMPI and MMPI-2
                                                                       NEO Personality Inventory
                                                                       MCMI-III


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MMPI-
MMPI-2: Clinical & Validity Scales                  Personality and Diagnostic Testing

    hypochondriasis           schizophrenia
    depression                hypomania
    hysteria                  social introversion     Projective Tests
    psychopathic deviate      lie scale
    masculinity-femininity    correction
                                                                  Rorschach
    paranoia                  infrequency
    psychasthenia

                                                                             TAT

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  Behavioral Assessment                               Behavioral Assessment
                                                          Behavioral Self-Reports
     Behavioral Assessment:                                     Behavioral Interviewing
      A form of measurement based on                            Self-Monitoring
      objective recording of the                                 Target Behavior
      individual's behavior.                                    Behavioral Checklists and
                                                                  Inventories


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  Behavioral Assessment                                            Behavioral Assessment
Behavioral Observation
                                                                                                 In Vivo
            In Vivo Observation                                                                  Observation
               Limitations include reactivity.
                                                                                                 Analog
            Reactivity:
                                                                                                 Observation
             Change in a person's behavior in response to
              knowledge that he or she is being observed.

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 Environmental Assessment                                    Physiological Assessment
                                                                Many psychological disorders occur in the
                                                                 presence of physiological disturbances.

Environmental Assessment:
 A form of measurement examining the                                                   Disturbances may be:
 environment in which in the individual                                                • localized in brain, perhaps as structural
                                                                                       abnormality or
 lives.                                                                                • physical disorders (e.g., diabetes, AIDS)
                                                                                       that may alter psychological functioning.

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 Physiological Assessment                                       Psychophysiological Assessment
                                                                        Many clinicians and researchers assess changes in the
Psychophysiological Techniques                                          body associated with psychological or emotional
                                                                        experiences, especially in:
                 ECG, BP, EMG
                                                                                              • cardiovascular system
      Physiological Techniques                                                                • muscles
                                                                                              • skin
               Brain Imaging:                                                                 • brain
                  EEG, CT, MRI, PET

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                                                                                                                                     5
Neuropsychological Assessment

              Neuropsychological
                assessment:
                A process of gathering
                information about a
                client's brain functioning
                on the basis of
                performance on
                psychological tests.




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