Name: ______________________________ Clauses Definition: A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate (verb). There are two types of clauses, independent and dependent. An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Examples: Mr. Haloran won twelve dollars last week. Everybody passed the geometry test. Mike, Carol, and Stacie all enjoyed the movie. A dependent clause CANNOT stand alone as a sentence. It can act as an adjective, adverb, or noun. It is preceded by an introductory that relates it to another part of the sentence. Examples: Julie, who dyed her hair pink and yellow, shocked everyone at the party. The clause is used as an adjective and is introduced by “who.” If the rain every stops, we’ll leave for the game. The clause is used as an adverb and is introduced by “If.” After he accidentally blew up the chemistry lab, Herbert thought that he would be expelled from school. The first clause is an adverb and is introduced by “After.” The second clause is a noun and is introduced by the word “that.” *** As you can see, there are three types of dependent clauses, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. They operate in the same manner as single-word parts of speech, and, like prepositional and verbal phrases, act as single units. They modify or change other words or take the place of words. Adverb clauses are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions after, although, as as if, as long as, as much as, because, before, even, even though, if, how, in order that, once, provided (that), since, than, so that, that, unless, until, where, why, while, though, when. Adjective clauses are introduced by the relative pronouns that, who, whom, whose, which. Noun clauses are introduced by the words how, when that, whether, what, who, whom, whoever, whose, where, why. *** Remember, there are phrases, or little groups of words without a subject and predicate, and there are clauses, or groups of words having a subject and a predicate! The independent clause is often called a principal or main clause; the dependent clause is often called a subordinate clause. Phrases and Clauses: Identify each group of words below as either phrase (P) or clause (C). ___1. Aside from that ___9. Since we last met ___16. A turn to the ___2. But I say ___10. Because of your right ___3. Though the motor interest ___17. Who the best was running ___11. As I should have candidate will be ___4. Unless she knew guessed ___18. In time of the truth ___12. Down to the sea extreme danger ___5. The last place ___13. Until the matter ___19. When I heard team in the league is settled ___20. Until you told me ___6. When on time ___14. For the duration ___21. Whom he ___7. If you like ___15. Under extreme addressed ___8. By popular pressure ___22. As the writers of consent our Constitution ADVERB CLAUSES Remember that adverb clauses are dependent clauses that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. In other words, adverb clauses act just like single-word adverbs or adverb phrases! Like an adverb, the clause also answers the questions when, where, why, how, or to what degree. Examples: Hide the candy where you will be able to find it. The clause modifies “hide” as it tells where. We left before the rain started. The clause modifies “left” as it tells when. Since you are here, you may as well stay. The clause modifies “may stay” as it tells why. He cried as if his heart would break. The clause modifies “cried” as it tells how. HINT: A good way to test for most adverb clauses is to see if they can be moved around in the sentence. She screamed when she saw the dog. → When she saw the dog, she screamed. Because he was asked to, he went to the store. → He went to the store because he was asked to. **SPECIAL NOTE: “Than” and “as” often introduce clauses with some of their parts understood and dropped out. Jack can run faster than I. “than I can run” = dependent clause He can cook better than she. “than she can cook = dependent clause Tom finished his quiz as fast as Joe. “as fast as Joe finished” = dependent clause Directions: See your list of introductory words for adverb clauses. Bracket the dependent clauses in the following sentences and tell why each is classified as an adverb. 1. When you went into the cellar, did you notice the new shelf? 2. I cleaned the cupboards while Henry washed the woodwork. 3. At the zoo, Susan had to stand on tiptoe so that she could see the animals. 4. He cried because he was lonelier than he could express. 5. Nobody can become an expert golfer unless he really practices. 6. Bring in the clothes before it begins to rain. 7. While she was waiting for her race to begin, Mary looked at her opponent and said, “I can run faster than you can.” 8. The murderer in the horror film missed his next victim as I sat breathlessly watching. 9. While Lancer lay on the office floor, Bat calmly ate her dinner. 10. As much as I like you, I still think you’re a less-than-desirable companion. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Remember that adjective clauses are also called relative clauses. These clauses do what single-word adjectives or adjectives phrases do: they modify or change nouns or pronouns. Examples: Everyone whose name was called received one hundred dollars. The clause modifies “Everyone.” The girl who had brown eyes selected a deep green dress that was covered in sequins. The first clause modifies “girl” and the second modifies “dress.” Cats, who are extremely independent, make terrific pets. The clause modifies “cats.” All who attended the film had a terrific time. The clause modifies “all.” **NOTE: Sometimes, the relative pronoun is omitted but everyone who knows, knows that the pronoun is understood to be there! Example: The boy she hit fell to the ground. “Whom” is left out. “That” = informal Judith is a person everyone admires. “Whom” is left out. “That” = inormal Both underlined clauses are still dependent clauses. See your worksheet for the introductory words to adjective clauses. These clauses are sometimes introduced by “when” or “where.” Occasionally, the introductory word acts as the subject of the dependent clause. Bracket the clauses in the following sentences. Analyze as usual! 1. The coat that Joan is wearing is made of velvet that has been imported from Italy. 2. Here is the place where the treasure is buried. 3. The book that told of Robinson Crusoe’s adventures was sent to me by my aunt. 4. The girl who has red hair that shines in the sun is my cousin. 5. A household hint my mother learned from television saved her much time. 6. I called 555-2756, which is Roland’s number. 7. My uncle, who lived in Idaho, works for an organization that inspects potato crops. NOUN CLAUSES A noun clause is a dependent clause that is used in the same way as a single-word noun. It can fill all of the noun’s functions and can be a subject, direct object, LVC, indirect object, object of the preposition or any other phrase, or appositive. Examples: That Mark ate all the candy was obvious. (X was obvious, where X = subject.) A long vacation is what you need. (Vacation is X, so X = LVC) John told her that she had a beautiful face. (John told her X, so X = DO; yes, her is an indirect object: John told (to) her X) Give whoever asks for it the answer. (Give [to] X the answer makes X the IO) I have no idea of what card I should play next. (of X = OP) His hope, that he would win the election, did not materialize. (His hope, X, did not materialize. X has become a renaming of hope which = appositive.) Oh! Look! Noun dependent clause can be replaced with X, a noun substitute! Again, sometimes the introductory word is left out! She told him she had lied! (She told him THAT she had lied.) Bracket the following noun clauses and tell what its function is in the sentence. Do all our usual stuff. 1. Whoever finds the ring will be rewarded. 2. My idea is that he had inside help in the robbery. 3. Do you know why those people are shouting? 4. Does whoever gave you the wrong number know that he has made a mistake? 5. John’s request, that he might have a puppy and an iguana, was not granted. 6. His excuse is that his alarm did not go off. 7. hand the note to whoever is at the desk. 8. Do you know when it is going to rain? 9. That Jack made a major mistake was our first thought.