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					Chapter 4 The Lithosphere and the Structure, Configuration
of the Earth’s Surface


   Section 1 Composition of the lithosphere
   Section 2 Structure of the lithosphere
   Section 3 Movement of the lithosphere
   Section 4 Structure and the outline of the solid earth’s
   surface
   Section 5 Tectonic landform
   Section 6 The lithosphere and the human beings
Chapter 4


    The composition of the lithosphere
   The chemical element composition: The most part of elements in
   the elemental periodic table are included in the earth's crust. The 8
   major elements, O、Si、Al、Fe、Ca、Na、K and Mg, occupy above 98%, but
   the other elements altogether occupy only 1% to 2%.



   The mineral composition: The major mineral of the rock is named the
      rock forming mineral. The normal rock forming minerals are felspar,
      quartz, mica, picrite, olivine and so on. They are also the major
      ordinary minerals of the lithosphere.
The weight percentage of elements for the solid
         earth and the earth’s crust
  The primary
elements in the
solid earth
resemble to those
in the Earth’s
crust.But the
percentage of
ferrous takes a
great proportion
of the total in
the solid earth.


                    the solid earth   the earth's crust
Chapter 4
            The atom composition of the lithosphere

        The most part of elements in the elemental periodic table
    are included in the earth's crust. The 8 major elements,that
    is O、Si、Al、Fe、Ca、Na、K and Mg, occupy above 98%, but the
    other elements altogether occupy only 1% to 2%. The amount of
    oxygen almost occupies the half, as to silicon, about 1/4, and
    to aluminum ,about 1/13.
          As far as the atom composition is concerned, the amount
    of O, Si, Al, H, Na iron, Fe, Ca, Mg and K occupies separately
    60.4%, 20.5%, 6.2%, 2.9%, 2.49%,1.9%, 1.88%, 1.77% and 1.37%.
    The total amount of the other elements is less than 1%.
Chapter 4




               lithosphere




 The atom
 composition
Chapter 4
            The rock composition of the lithosphere
   The kinds of the rock:
    Igneous rock: The magmatic rock is the main part of it. The magmatic
   rock is formed from the coagulation of the magma and the volume of it
   accounts for about 65% of the total. It is divided into the acidic rock,
   intermediate rock, basis rock and ultrabasic rock. It also can be divided
   into intrusive rock and extrusive one.

  Sedimentary rock: The rock exposed on the earth’s surface is weathered
  and carried. Finally they are formed into sedimentary rock. It is divided
  into the clastic rock, the clay rock and the biochemistry rock.


   Metamorphic rock: The changing process of rock caused by inner force
  of the earth is called metamorphism. The rock caused by metamorphism is
  the metamorphic rock. The factors impacting the metamorphism are
  temperature, the press factor and the chemical factor.
               The rock composition of the earth’s crust
                and the earth’s surface (Skinner etc.)

   If, according to the origin of the rock, make metamorphic into igneous rock or
sedimentary rock. In the earth’s crust, the amount of igneous rock accounts for 95%
and that of sedimentary rock only account for only 5%. But the amount of
sedimentary rock covers 75% of the whole earth’s surface while that of igneous rock
only cover 25%.


 The whole earth's crust                       the earth’s surface
                   Of the
                   Of Sedimentary rock


                                                                  Of Sedimentary rock




                   Of Igneous rock


                                                                 Of Igneous
                                                                 rock
        The sketch map of the body of the intrusive
               rock and the extrusive rock
  The size, shape and the touching relationship with the around rock of the rock body are
considered as the forming shape of metamorphic rock. According to the depth and shape of
rock body in the earth’s crust, metamorphic rock was divided into erupting rock body and
intrusive one. The latter is subdivided into the deep rock body and the shallow one.
According to the relationship between the rock body and its upper one, it may be divided
into lopolith (②),laccolith(④),sill (③), rock saddle (⑤), stock (⑥), rock bump (⑧), dike (⑨)
etc. meeting with the below picture. In the following of the map, ① is batholith, ⑦ is the
magma bottom cliff.
Chapter 4

      Several kinds of bedding of sedimentary rock

        The sedimentary rock is the secondary rock formed by the outside forces.
    There are secondary minerals, the organic substances and the fossil in the
    sedimentary rock. The most outstanding characteristic of sedimentary rock is
    stratified. The change of rock strata in the vertical and horizontal direction is
    the reflection of sedimentary environment and the characters when
    sedimentary rock was formed. Sedimentary rock has many kinds of structure.
    The most outstanding of them is bedding structure. Bedding means the
    structure formed by the change of composition, structure, granularity and the
    color of rock along the vertical direction. It indicates that bedding is formed
    in sequences.
Several kinds of bedding
         Horizontal bedding

         Undulance bedding
            Lens bedding



           Stave bedding



        Interleaving bedding
Chapter 4
            Sedimentary rock and bedding
Chapter 4
       The interrelation of three main kinds of rock


                                         Igneous
                                          rock




                                   metamorphism
            Sedimentary
                                                                          Metamorphic
                          embedding      Transit    collapse separating
                                                                             rock
               rock                                  dissolve eroding
                          lihification   sediment
Chapter 4
            The sketch map of the rock translation circulation
                                       The sun energy

      extrusive Igneous rock            the collapse separating               transition and
                                           dissolve eroding               sediment of sediment


             the rising                        outcrop for
                                              the rising and
            of magma
                                            the denudation of                                         The
                                                                                                  embedding
                                            the earth's crust                                         and
                                                                                                  Lihification
      inbreaking Igneous rock

                rising                                                                           sedimentary rock
                of the
              inrushing
               magma

                                                Metamorphic
                                metamorphism        rock        metamorphism



                                   melt
                                                   the radiation energy
Chapter 4

          The structure of the lithosphere
  The vertical Delamination :            The horizontal differentiation:
   The lithosphere includes the           The thickness, composition and structure of
  earth's crust and the upper Mantle.   the lithosphere differ from regions to regions.
  The earth's crust may be divided      For example, the earth's crust can be divided
  into the upper one and the lower
                                        into the continent’s one and the ocean’s one.
  one. The upper layer is granite
                                        The ocean’s crust is thin but the continent’s
  stratum and the lower one is
                                        crust is thick.
  basalt stratum.
Chapter 4
       The structure of the inner earth

    The earth has the
characteristics of sphere
structure and it can be
divided into the interior
sphere and the exterior one.
                                Inner
The interior sphere              core

includes the earth crust,      center

the mantle and the                 outer
centrosphere. The                  core


lithosphere includes the
earth’s crust and the upper             mantle   Earth’s
mantle.                                           crust
Chapter 4

                     The layers of the earth

          According to the distributions of transmit velocity of the
    earthquake wave in the places with different depth
    underground, there are two important interfaces where the
    earthquake’s transmit velocity change greatly. The first lies in
    the place 33 km below the earth’s surface and is named as
    Mohorovičić discontinuity. The second lies in the place 2900
    km below the earth’s surface and is named as Gutenberg
    discontinuity. The earth is divided into three big layers by
    these two interfaces: the Earth Crust, Mantle and
    Centrospheres. This three big layers may be divided into
    seven layers.
Chapter 4
                        Layers of the earth

                           Layers                      Thickness(km)
                        Earth Crust                         0-33
                   Mohuo discontinuity

                               The upper mantle            33-410
               Mantle          Transition layer           410-1000
                               The bottom mantle         1000-2900
                 Gutenberg discontinuity
                                     The exterior        2900-4980
                                     centrosphere
            Centrosphere            Transition layer     4980-5720
                                       The inner
                                     centrosphere
Chapter 4       The types and the average thickness
                 of Earth Crust (By LuoNuofu,1967)




        The Earth Crust is the solid earth’s surface layer above the
 Mohuo surface. Its thickness is approximately 1/400 of the earth’s
 radius. According to the earth’s physical data, there is great
 difference of the thickness of Earth Crust. It differs between 5 km
 to 70 km. The average thickness of the continent crust is more than
 37 km and that of the ocean crust is about 7 km. Commonly to say,
 that of mountain and the plateau is thicker than that of other places.
 The thickness of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau is more than 70 km.
Chapter 4



   The area and average thickness of Earth Crust

     Earth Crust types   Area(106km2)   Average thickness(km)


       Continent type        149                43.6
     Subcontinent type      64.9                23.7

            Ocean type      269.1                7.3

     Whole Earth Crust       510                 20
Chapter 4




      The movement of the lithosphere

   The types of the movement:
        The horizontal movement (mountain-making
      movement) and the vertical movement(continent
      -making movement)
Chapter 4

      The types of the movement of the lithosphere
     Fold: The curving of the rock strata is named fold; Anticline and syncline; the type of
fold; Inversion of relief.
     Fracture: There will be fracture and the movement when rock is forced. This is called
fracture. Usually, the rupture structure is divided into joint and fault.
    Volcano: The phenomenon that the magma spurts out of the earth’s surface is called
volcano break forth. The primary volcano regions are loop Pacific Ocean volcano region,
the Alpine- Himalayas volcano region and the Atlantic sea mountain volcano region.
     Earthquake: The sudden quiver of the earth is earthquake. The typical earthquake
region are loop Pacific Ocean earthquake region, Mediterranean sea - Himalayas
earthquake region, the ocean middle ridge’s earthquake region and the continent rift valley
earthquake region.
Chapter 4

            The movement of the lithosphere
   The Theory of Plate tectonic


        The lithosphere is divided into the Pacific Plate, the
     European-Asian Plate, the Australian-Indian Plate, the
     African Plate, the South American Plate, the North
     American Plate and the Antarctica plate.
     The mechanism of the lithosphere movement
 The boundary of Plate: Divergent plate boundary, convergent plate boundary, diving
plate boundary.

 The movement of Plate and the evolvement the Ocean and the drift of the
Continent: J. T. Wilson divided the formation of plate movement into six phases:
embryo time; infancy time; manhood time; wane time; remains time and the wither
away time.
The forces of plate movement: Plate tectonic theory thinks that the movement of
Plate is forced by plate convection.
 The explain to the distributing law of earthquake and volcano: The earthquake
and volcano distribute on the edge of plate.

     The character of the lithosphere movement
     unsymmetry, non-stable , directional
Chapter 4
                        The types of fold


       erection fold                 slant fold




                               revere fold




       plane lie fold                 turn coil fold
Chapter 4
                        Several types of fault
  The obvious movement of rock along the fracture plane is fault.
  Elements of fault: fault plane, fault line, fault block and fault distance. Fault is
divided into normal fault, reverse fault, plane push fault and slanting slip fault.




          Before fault massif                      normal fault




    reverse fault                  slanting slip fault         Strike-slip fault
Chapter 4


              Fault physiognomy


                          Fault of Huashan
                          mountain

    Colorado big gorge
Chapter 4
                           Graben and Horst

   In the natural, it is very normal that many faults appear by means of group.
 From the horizontal direction, there are parallel shape, the wild goose travel shape,
 the ring shape and the emit shape etc. From the vertical direction, there are stairs
 shape, furl shape , Graben and Horst etc.




                 Graben


                                                            Horst
Chapter 4
                                          Volcano
            seabed volcano     The eructation of metamorphic rock
                             from the earth’s surface is named the
                             volcano. The break forth of volcano is the
                             reflection of release of the earth’s inside
                             substance and energy. It is very
                             complicated of the complication of
                             volcano eructation.There are gas,liquid
                             and the solid.
            volcano lake


                                                             Fuji




     volcano’s eructation
Chapter 4

            The pictures of volcano eruption
Chapter 4
            The epicenter, epicenter’s distance, hypocenter’s
                       depth and the hypocenter
      The places underground where there is earthquake is the hypocenter.
  Its vertical projection on the earth’s surface is epicenter. The
  distance from the epicenter to the hypocenter is the hypocenter’s
  depth. According to the depth, the earthquake is divided into the
  shallow hypocenter earthquake (the hypocenter’s depth is less than
  70km), the middle hypocenter earthquake (the hypocenter’s depth is 70-
  300km) and the deep hypocenter earthquake (the hypocenter’s depth is
  more than 300km). Most earthquakes belong to the shallow hypocenter
  earthquake.The number of them occupies about 72.5% of the total and
  the amount of energy they release occupies 85%. The number of the deep
  hypocenter earthquake only occupies 4% and the amount of energy they
  release occupies about 3%. Although some of the level of the middle
  hypocenter earthquake is very high, it does little harm. The distance
  from the observation point (such as the earthquake station) to the
  epicenter is named the epicenter’s distance. Usually, the earthquake
  which epicenter’s distance is less than 100 km is named local
  earthquake. The earthquake which epicenter’s distance is between 100
  km and 1000 km is near earthquake and if the epicenter’s distance is
  more than 1000 km, far earthquake.
Chapter 4




                                                  Epicenter
                                                  distance
                         epicenter                                    observe point




                             hypocenter’s depth



            hypocenter


                                                              video frequency enjoy
Chapter 4
    The relationship between the distribution of world
              earthquake and plate tectonic




      The red points in the above map is the epicenter of shallow
  hypocenter and deep hypocenter earthquake between 1962-1967. The
  epicenter of the other period is similar to these.
Chapter 4
             Plate tectonic of the earth’s surface
    The lithosphere is divided into the Pacific Plate, the European-
Asian Plate, the Australian-Indian Plate, the African Plate, the
South American Plate, the North American Plate, the Antarctica Plate
and Arabian small plates. It is distributed in the following map.
Chapter 4


                           Six big Plates
                             north circle

                                                                      American plate
                        Asia-Europe Plate
     North tropic


                                                      Pacific Plate
        Africa Plate                 Equator


                              Indian ocean Plate
         South tropic




                          South circle
                                            Antarctica plate
Chapter 4

                     Transform fault
     On the boundary of the transform fault , the new fault is
   not formed and the old fault is not vanished too. There is
   only the horizontal movement of the Plate.
Chapter 4
                  Six phases of the J.T.Wilson’s gyration(Strahler,1997)

                                                        Stage4a    New subduction boundary


                                          Ocean
                Embryonic basin           lithosphere
Stage 1
           Continental
                                                        Stage4b    Island arc
           lithosphere




Stage 2                  Young basin

                                                         Stage 5     Arc-continent



          Passive margin
Stage 3                       Old basin                            Continent-continent orogen
                                                         Stage 6
Chapter 4            The convection of Mantle and
                  the movement of Plates (Strahler)
         Plate tectonic theory thinks that the movement of plate is forced by the
   mantle. Mantle is heated unequally. In the places with higher temperature , the
   matter in the Mantle goes up but is hindered by the lithosphere, so they move
   to the two sides under the lithosphere and go down to the places with lower
   temperature. It forms a whole convection gyration of Mantle. It leads to the
   separation of Mantle and the formation of the new ocean’s crust on the
   convection rising place.

                          plate subduction boundary   Ocean lithosphere   plate expanding boundary


            Lithosphere
            continent
Chapter 4

       The structure and the outline of the solid
                   earth’s surface
        The distributing of the sea and continent:
        The area of the ocean is more than that of the continent;
        The distribution of the sea and the continent is asymmetry;
        Seven continents and four oceans;
        The outline of the continent looks like a converse triangle;
        The big island group distributes mostly on the eastern shore of
        the continents ;
        There are not only many islands, but also series of island arcs on
        the eastern shore of the continents;
        Some continents’ outlines have the obvious comparability and
        inosculating character.
Chapter 4




      Ground’s undulation:
      The bigger of continent’s area is , the higher
     of its average altitude is;
      The bigger of ocean’s area is , the deeper of
     its average depth is.
Chapter 4          The distribution of the oceans
            and the continents on the earth’s surface
    The earth’s surface is divided into the ocean and the
continent.The continuous water body is named world’s ocean which is
the main body of the ocean. The land is enclosed by the ocean but
extruded on the ocean’s surface.The continent is the main body of the
land and the island is the main part of the land.



      the north       the south             the west       the east
      hemisphere      hemisphere            hemisphere     hemisphere




                            the land      the water
                            hemisphere    hemisphere
Chapter 4
                    The comparison of the ocean’s area and
                          land’s area of two hemispheres
                             Ocean(%)                      Land(%)
     East hemisphere           62.0                             38.0
    West hemisphere            80.0                             20.0
    North hemisphere           60.7                             39.3
    South hemisphere            80.9                            19.1
    Water hemisphere            89.0                            11.0
    Land hemisphere             53.0                            47.0
       The earth’s surface includes land and ocean. Because the area of the sea
     and that of continent differ a lot, the sea’s area is more than the land’s area
     and the distribution is not uniformity. It is obvious that the land’s area of the
     eastern hemisphere(38%) is more than western one(20%) and the land’s
     area of the north hemisphere(39.3%) is more than that of south one(19.1%).
     The land’s area of land hemisphere is 47%, but the ocean's area of water
     hemisphere is 89%。
Chapter 4
              The relationship between Continent’s
                  area and the average height

    There are great differences between the average
 height of every continent above the sea level and the
 average depth of ocean’s bottom under the sea level.
 The average height of the Antarctica is 2263m and it
 is always regarded as the highest continent in the
 world. It is caused by the huge thick icecap on its
 cover. As far as the earth’s surface is concerned, the
 height of Asia is the tallest one (950m), then the
 north America (700m), the Africa(650m), the south
 America(600m)and the Europe(300m). Obviously, the more
 the continent’s area is, the taller its altitude is. It
 is also true that the more the ocean’s area is, the
 deeper its average depth is.
Chapter 4


        The area and average height of the Continents
            Continent   Area(106km2)   Percentage to the    Average
                                             whole
                                                           height (m)
                                         land area(%)

             Asia          44.4            29.8             950
            Africa         30.6            20.5             650
      North America        22.0            14.5             700
      South America        17.9            12.0             600
       Antarctica          15.6            10.5             2000
            Europe         10.4            7.0              300
        Australia          7.8             5.2              400
        Average or        149.0            100              875
           sum
Chapter 4

    The percentage of area of solid earth’s surface on different altitude


           The altitude of
        land’s surface is
        between -1000m and
        +2000m. Its average
        land’s altitude is
        875m。The altitude
        of seabed’s surface is
        between - 3000m and
        -6000m. Its average
        land’s altitude is -
        3795m。

                                     (According to Myllie, 1976)
Chapter 4


              Tectonic landform

                         The landform which is formed and
                     controlled by the land tectonic
                     movement is called tectonic
                     physiognomy. For example, the
     Geotectonic     continent and the ocean, trench and
                    mid-ridge of the ocean, the island arc
      landform       and the marginal sea, the continental
                     shelf and the continental slope.

Chapter 4




                      It is formed on the basis of the
                  geotectonic landform. But it has
                  regional character. The typical
      Regional
                  representations are the plateau, the
       tectonic   plain, the basin, the volcano of the
      landform    sea’s bottom and so on.
Chapter 4




                     It is formed on the basis of the
                  geotectonic      landform      and
                  regional tectonic landform. But it
        Local     is impacted by local tectonic
       tectonic   action. It’s divided into fold
      landform    landform, fault landform, volcano
                  landform, lithology tectonic
                  landform and so on.
Chapter 4

              Monoclinal landform

   There are two types of monoclinal landform: cuesta (monoclinal
   hill ) and the pig back ridge(pig back hill). When the rock strata’s
   dip angle is very small, the dip angle of hillside developing in the
   same direction of terrane is small too. But that of the other hillside
   is comparative precipitous. So the two hillsides are
   dissymmetrical. This kind of hill is named the Monoclinal hill.
Chapter 4




       When the rock strata’s dip
    angle of the Monoclinal hill is
    big enough, two hillsides are
    comparatively precipitous and
    symmetrical, it looks like the
    pig back. That is why it is
    named the pig back ridge hill.    pig back ridge   Monoclinal hill
Chapter 4

        The lithosphere and human beings
    Solid support, origin of the life matter, origin of the production
    matter, element of the life, natural disaster


            Volcano             Human                 Earthquake
                                beings



               Mineral            Rock       Elemental composition
                                             of Earth’s crust

				
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