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Primary School Leaving Certificate

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Primary School Leaving Certificate Powered By Docstoc
					THE SPANISH EDUCATION SYSTEM

N                                       WORK MARKET
O
N
-
C
O                UNIVERSITY
M
P                                                 Regional Education/   Regional
U                       Advanced                  Employment            Employment
L                       Vocational                Department            Department          NON
S                       Training
O                                                 Social Guarantee                          OFFICIALLY
R                                                 Programmes            Training for
    Non-Compulsory
Y
    Secondary                 IntermediateVocat                         Unemployed People   RECOGNISED
    Education                 ional Training      Adults’ Education
E                                                                                           EDUCATION
D
    (High school)                                                       Workshops
U
C
A
T       Secondary Education Qualification
I                                                       School-leaving Certificate
O
N


        Compulsory Education (6-16 years old):

        Secondary Education (12 -16 years old)

        Primary Education (6-12 years old)

                                 years old)
        Preschool Education (0-6 Florida Centre de Formació
I. DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION



• Officially recognised education
• Non officially recognised education.




              Florida Centre de Formació
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION

What is understood as drop out:
     • Those students who drop out the education
       system before finishing their studies
       (absentees) and also those who obtain no
       qualification but a school-leaving certificate.

     • The highest rates of absenteeism are found in
       gypsy children and youngsters




                Florida Centre de Formació
OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION
Some statistic facts
  • 60% of teachers consider absenteeism one of the most
    important problems in secondary education, together
    with verbal agression between classmates and
    expulsion from the classroom.
  • The rate of drop outs in Spain was 26%, in 1994, 4
    points over the European average (22%). (Before
    LOGSE, the Education Act of 1990).
  • The average of students who leave without obtaining
    the relevant qualification is 8% in the centres
    collaborating in this research.


                  Florida Centre de Formació
OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

Factors that influence school drop out:
   Learning difficulties.
    40% of the students polled admitted they often had learning
     difficulties. Only 9’2% of them thought that they always had
     obvious learning difficulties.

    Educators from these centres informed that approximately
     24% of their students (Compulsory Secondary Education)
     were being applied specific measures focused on diversity.




                    Florida Centre de Formació
OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

Factors that influence school drop out:
   Misconduct in the classroom. Causes:
   – Students lack interest and motivation (52’3%)
   – Crisis of values in modern society (28’6%)
   – Lack of minimum knowledge required (should be acquired in
     Primary Education) (21’3%)
   – Family problems (19%)
   – Poor application of the Education Act, lack of support
     (resources) from the Administration (13’2%)
   – Insufficient preparation of teachers to face these conflicts
     (more than 50% of teachers aren’t prepared)


                    Florida Centre de Formació
OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

Factors that influence school drop out:
Classroom conflicts:

                       Teachers' cause attribution

                  60    52,3
                  50
     Percentage




                  40
                                  28,6
                  30                         21,3       19
                  20                                              13,2
                  10                                                            3,4
                   0
                       interest
                       Lack of

                                   Values

                                            knowledge


                                                        Family

                                                                 application



                                                                               Teacher
                                                                               training
                                             Minimum




                                                                    Law
                                                 ca use s




                                  Florida Centre de Formació
NON OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

Social Guarantee Programmes
   • These programmes represent an educational option for
     those students who haven’t accomplished Compulsory
     Education (Primary and Secondary).
   • 39% of youngsters who drop out from school without
     qualification find an employment after completing one of
     these programmes; 4% rejoin the education system;
     23% are actively searching for employment; 11% give
     up the programme without finishing, and 25% continue
     their training within the frame of Social Guarantee
     Programmes.


                   Florida Centre de Formació
NON OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

Social Guarantee Programmes:
                   Social Guarantee Programme

                  50   39
     Percentage




                  40
                                       25           23
                  30
                  20                                             11
                  10                                                               4
                   0
                       Work


                                      Training


                                                    Job search


                                                                 Abandonment


                                                                               Education
                                                                                Rejoin
                                                 Evolution




                              Florida Centre de Formació
NON OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED EDUCATION

 Adults’ Education:

 • It is an alternative for people older than 18 who
   haven’t got any qualification.

 • Substantial change in the profile of students who
   joined this type of training over the last decade.
   Nowadays: decrease in the demand of basic literacy
   courses and an increase in cultural and professional
   training.
                  Florida Centre de Formació
II. DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT SITUATION
AND NEEDS ENCOUNTERED



   1. Students
   2. Families
   3. Teachers
   4. Education System
   5. Social and political ambit



               Florida Centre de Formació
STUDENTS: CURRENT SITUATION

 • Emotional problems: learning difficulties are associated to
   emotional problems:depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, etc.
 • Lack of social skills and personal development: lack of social
   abilities, attitudes, skills and competencies
 • Organisational and work planning techniques
 • Tutelage: a great deal of these students come from outlying
   areas or broken families.
 • Multicultural education: Spanish training centres have students
   from different ethnic groups.
 • Intellectual development: intellectually handicapped students
   are often among those who drop out from school



                    Florida Centre de Formació
STUDENTS: NEEDS ENCOUNTERED

    – A specific and effective service to give attention to
      students’ emotional problems.
    - Programmes and group dynamics to improve young
      people’s personal development.
    - Provide students with organisational techniques and
      work planning.
    - Alternative adult figures for students whose social
      problems are caused by their family situation, as well as
      techniques to help them improve their social skills.
    - Deep analysis of the lacks and characteristics of the
      immigrant groups.
    - Centres should be adapted to students with special
      educational needs (human and material resources).
                   Florida Centre de Formació
FAMILIES: CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN
FAMILIES

     Families feel incompetent with regards to their
      educational task: They feel they lack knowledge and
      resources to deal with adolescent children.
     Time left for developing the parental role: Incompatibility
      of timetables of parents and children, which makes young
      people spend a long time alone.
     Compromise of families concerning their children’s
      education: the incompetence feeling mentioned above
      makes parents burden teachers with responsibilities (beyond
      their competences) and be more exigent with them.
     Search for alternative socialising agents to assume
      parents’ traditional responsibilities.


                    Florida Centre de Formació
FAMILIES: NEEDS ENCOUNTERED

    - To provide families with strategies to carry out a preventive
      and effective education of their children. Proposal: a bigger
      offer (in primary and secondary education) of “practical
      parents schools”, where they could acquire daily
      educational routine.
    - To make parents be more conscious of their importance
      as an educational figure, regardless of their sociocultural
      level.
    - To make families become more involved in their children’s
      teaching/learning process.
    - To provide families with bigger support from social
      services.


                   Florida Centre de Formació
TEACHERS: CURRENT SITUATION
     Acknowledgement and prestige of education and
      teachers: loss of authority and social status.
     The challenge of focusing on diversity: teachers lack the
      necessary resources.
     Insufficient pedagogical preparation of teachers with
      regards to adolescent children.
     Misconduct in the classroom: Teachers don’t feel prepared
      to face classroom conflicts.
     The tutor’s role: highlight the tutor’s role at school as a
      vocational guide for students. However, teachers lack
      compentences and resources for group attention.
     Information technologies in education: some teachers are
      not prepared for using IT as a daily educational resource.
     Steady teams: lack of coordination between teachers
                   Florida Centre de Formació
TEACHERS: NEEDS ENCOUNTERED

    - Teachers require more collaboration and support from
      families in the teaching process.
    - Definition of their role, not only as transmitters of knowledge,
      but also as vocational guides for students.
    - Inclusion, in teacher training, of specific preparation for
      dealing with adolescent children
    - Permanent retraining of teachers in order to update their
      knowledge.
    - New strategies and resources for teachers to face classroom
      conflicts.
    - Support and material resources from the Administration.
    - Awareness of the importance of coordination and teamwork.

                    Florida Centre de Formació
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM:
CURRENT SITUATION

     Law offers no alternative to officially recognised
      education until the age of 16 (inside or outside the official
      frame).
     Itinerant teachers: high percentage of supply teachers,
      constantly changing, which makes teaching work more
      difficult.
     Coordination between primary and secondary education
      teaching staff
     Preventive measures: to apply preventive measures in
      primary school before it is necessary to apply corrective
      measures.
     Scarcity of resources: it hinders effective attention to
      students with learning difficulties.
     Ovecrowding in schools, while focusing on diversity
                    Florida Centre de Formació
      demands individual attention.(30 students per class)
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM: NEEDS ENCOUNTERED

    - More flexibility to allow collaboration between training
      centres and other institutions
    - Legal support to develop joint actions between official and
        non-official education. More autonomy in training centres so
        that legal matters do not hinder their initiatives.
    -   To improve the task of training centres: bringing training
        and working worlds closer together.
    -   Improvement of communication between primary and
        secondary education centres.
    -   Measures focused on diversity and vocational guidance
        since primary school.
    -   Avoid overcrowding in order to offer quality training and
        individual attention.
                     Florida Centre de Formació
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL AMBIT. CURRENT
SITUATION.

     Other resources alien to school: lack of information about
      other services such as mental health centres and social care.
    • Shortage of professionals in the field of health and social
      care
    • Coordination between school and other institutions (local
      institutions above all).
     Global or comprehensive policies: support from the
      government in order to co-ordinate the policies and measures
      that have to be developed.
     Promotion of young people associations and creation of
      alternative spaces for leisure activities.
     Analysis of the world of work, regarding the most wanted
      qualifications.

                        Florida Centre de Formació
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL AMBIT. NEEDS
ENCOUNTERED.

    - Further information about how to locate the different
      resources that may be used.
    - Communication/coordination between resources inside
      and outside the school.
    - Awareness of the importance, effectiveness and profitability
      of preventive measures.
    - Creation of multidisciplinary teams (both at a local or
      regional level).
    - Awareness of the profitability of coordinated measures
      between all the existing resources: social services, young
      people associations, training centres, companies...



                   Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Resources to attend students younger than 16 years old
  • Inside the school
      Figures:
      - Careers advice department: pedagogue, teacher of therapeutic pedagogy,
         speech therapist.
      - Schoolteacher
      - Tutor
      Measures focused on diversity
      - General measures
      - Specific measures
  • Outside the school
      Entities and institutions:
      - Family
      - Young people and cultural associations
      - Open centres
      - Town councils
      - Social services: teachers, social workers, speech therapists, pedagogues.
                         Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Resources to attend to students older than 16 years old.
  • Inside the school:
     Figures: the same as for students younger than 16
     Training programmes: Intermediate Vocational Training, Non-Compulsory
        Secondary Education (High School), Advanced Vocational Training,
        University
   Outside the school
     Entities and institutions: the same as before, adding:
           - Companies
           - SERVEF (Valencian Training and Employment Service)
           - Unions
           - NGOs
     Training programmes: Social Guarantee Programmes, Trades Workshops,
        Adults’ Education, Training for unemployed people,Training and careers
        advice workshops

                        Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Measures focused on diversity at school. (younger than 16 )
    General measures: applied to all the students without
    exception.

  • Concretion of the curriculum, including strategies and
    resources to offer different solutions to the needs encountered
  • Optionality
   Reinforcing activities
   Tutorship and guidance




                     Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Measures focused on diversity at school. (younger than 16 )
    Specific measures: applied to students with learning difficulties
     Adaptations to access curriculum: specific support for those students
      with serious difficulties to access the educational curriculum.
     Significant individual curricular adaptations, for students with
      special educational needs.
     Programmes for curricular diversification, for students older than 16
      years old, still in Compulsory Secondary Education after having
      repeated 2 years, but interested in obtaining the Secondary Education
      Qualification
     Programme for curricular diversification in-groups, for students
      younger than 16 years old, with serious difficulties to get adapted to
      school.
     Flexible groups: dividing some groups in certain areas where there is
      an obvious difference between students with regards to their learning.
                            Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Resources for students older than 16: non-officially recognised
    education.
  Valencian Training and Employment Service (SERVEF).
  – This service is responsible for implementing the Valencian policy regarding labour
     arbitration, career guidance, vocational training and promotion of employment.
  – It offers free information and advice for those older than 16, but also labour
     arbitration, training for unemployed people, measures to promote employment
     and self-employment, and develops actions for improving employability.
  Vocational Advice and Training Workshops (TFIL)
  – Once beneficiaries have gone through the previous actions and received career
     guidance, they can be led to one of these workshops, which will be adapted to
     their requirements.
  – These courses are addressed to long-term unemployed, people younger than 25
     years old, women, handicapped people or those marginalised by society.



                          Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Resources for students older than 16: non-officially recognised
    education

  Training for unemployed people
      – Free courses for unemployed people older than 16 years old who want to
         improve their professional skills. A certificate is issued at the end of the
         course.
      – These courses are programmed according to the training needs encountered
         in each region.
  Trade workshop
      – Free courses governed by the Regional Economy, Treasury and
         Employment and Economy Department, addressed to unemployed people
         between 16 and 25 years old. No qualifications are required.
      – The contents of these courses are related to community service.


                          Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Resources for students older than 16: non-officially recognised
    education
  Social Guarantee Programmes
  – Free courses governed by both the Regional Employment and Education
     Departments, carried out by training centres, town councils, career guidance
     centres, companies and NGOs.
  – They are addressed to young people between 16 and 21 years old who haven’t
     accomplished Compulsory Secondary Education or have just obtained a school-
     leaving certificate.
  – The difference between SGP and other Trades Workshops is that in this case
     students don’t receive any economic compensation.
  Permanent Schools for Adults
  – They are governed by the Education Ministry, and addressed to people older
     than 18 years old who want to improve their professional qualification as well as
     to develop abilities required for their social, economic, political and cultural life.


                            Florida Centre de Formació
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING MEASURES

  Some co-ordination initiatives


     Co-ordination groups composed by teachers and social services
     Co-ordination with NGOs
     Local intervention plan
     Commission to prevent absenteeism
     Open leisure centres or Youth centres
     Young people associations
     Vocational and social guidance centres




                      Florida Centre de Formació

				
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