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					TAKS Tutorial Presentation
               Important Dates
July 4, 1776    Declaration of Independence
1781            Articles of Confederation
1787            Constitution drafted
1861 – 1865     Civil War
1865 – 1877     Reconstruction
1898            Spanish American War
1877 – 1900     Gilded Age - Corruption
1900 – 1914     Progressive Era – Fix its
1914 – 1918     WWI
1918 – 1938 Between the wars
    • The Roaring 20s.
    • The Great Depression (1929 Crash)
    • Roosevelt‘s New Deal.
1938 – 1945 WWII
1945 – 1989 Cold War
1950s              Korean War
1970s              Vietnam War
1991         Persian Gulf War
               Americanism
1. Which of the following is an unalienable right
   mentioned in the Declaration of
   Independence: Liberty
2. Primary purpose of the Articles of
   Confederation: To unite the states under the
   Continental Congress.
3. The U.S. Constitution has a system of checks
   and balances. This system is an example of:
   separation of powers.
4. Thomas Jefferson is known as the principal
   author of: Declaration of Independence
• Signing of the Declaration of Independence
   **Amendments you need to know are in Italics **

Bill of Rights: 1st ten amendments
    Amendment 1:          Freedom of religion
                          Freedom of speech
                          Freedom of Press
                          Right to assemble
                          Right to Petition the
                          government
    Amendment 2:          Right to bear arms.

   Amendment 3:              No quartering of troops.
Amendment 4:   Protects people against
               unlawful searches and
               seizures.

Amendment 5:   Due process.

Amendment 6:   Right to a speedy trial

Amendment 7:   Right to a trial by jury.

Amendment 8:   Protects individuals from
               excessive bail, fines, cruel &
               unusual punishment.
Amendment 9:    Govt. cannot take away
                rights of people.

Amendment 10:   Powers reserved by the
                states.
        Amendment 11 – 27
#11 -   Limitations on judicial powers.
#12 -   Process of election president and
        VP.
#13 -   Abolished slavery.
#14 -   Protects rights of citizens and




                                       Slave Rights
        provided due process. Citizen-
        ship for freed slaves.
#15 -   Blacks got right to vote.
#16 -   Income tax.
#17 -   Direct election of senators.
#18 -   Prohibition




                                        repealing of prohibition 1920 - 1933
                                                                               13 years between enactment and
#19 -   Women’s right to vote.
#20 -   Terms for president.
        Inauguration of president.
        Terms of senators and reps.
#21 -   Repeal of prohibition.
#22 -   Limits presidents to 2 terms.
#23 -   People in Washington D.C. can
        vote.
#24 -   Prohibits poll taxes.
#25 -   Presidential disability and
        succession.
#26 -   Right to vote – 18
#27 -   Pay for senators and reps.
             Constitution of U.S.
Article 1:       Legislative Branch – Two houses,
                 Senate – two per state (100)
                 House of Representatives – number for each state de-
                 termined by population (currently 435)
                 Makes the Laws
Article 2:       Executive Branch – President & his cabinet
                 Enforces the Laws
Article 3:       Judicial Branch – Supreme & Lower Courts
                 Interprets the Laws
Article 4:       Relations among states.
Article 5:       Amendment process.
Article 6:       National supremacy
Article 7:       Ratification
• Legislative Branch
• Executive
  Branch
• Judicial
  Branch
       Constitution Preamble
      Introductory paragraph to the Constitution

• ―We the people of the U.S., in order to:
  – 1. have a more perfect union
  – 2. establish justice
  – 3. insure domestic tranquility
  – 4. provide for the common defense
  – 5. promote the general welfare
  – 6. and secure the blessings of liberty
Do ordain and establish this constitution.
          Constitution facts:
1. Adopted 1787.
2. Master builder – James Madison
3. Delaware 1st state to ratify – Dec. 7,
   1787
4. Congress first met March 4, 1789.
                                        Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 1. Some American colonists believed they were justified in declaring independence from Great Britain because the
    British government:
•   A. required free trade with France.
•   B. allowed the colonies to elect their own governors
•   C. encouraged diplomatic relations with Native Americans
•   D. taxed the colonies without direct representation in Parliament

•   ___ 2. This excerpt reflects the principle of –
•   Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging
    the freedom of speech, or of the press… - first amendment to the U.S. Constitution
•   A. individual rights
•   B. executive power
•   C. popular sovereignty
•   D. checks and balances

•   ___ 3. Which of the following is an example of the constitutional principle of governmental checks and balances?
•   A. Direct election of senators
    B. Presidential veto power
    C. Congressional term limits
    D. Appeal of court decisions

•   ___4. Many members of the First Continental Congress opposed declaring independence because they –
•   A. Saw no reason to declare what was already obvious to the colonists
•   B. believed reconciliation with Great Britain was still possible
•   C. were waiting for the outcome of battles between British and French troops
•   D. needed time to recruit and train soldiers

•   ___ 5. The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution gave citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or former status
    as a slave. Later methods of depriving citizens of their 15th Amendment rights included –
•   A. poll taxes and literacy tests
•   B. requiring landownership
    C. church membership requirements
•   D. requiring a high school education
•
                                 Sample TAKS Questions
    ___ 6. The year 1776 is an important date in US History because it marked the –
•   A. beginning of the American Revolutionary War
•   B. signing of the Declaration of Independence
•   C. writing of the US Constitution
•   D. founding of the first American colony

•   ___ 7. The Bill of Rights guarantees all citizens of the United States certain rights, including protection
•   A. against oppression by foreign governments
•   B. from economic hardships
•   C. from being deprived of property, liberty, or life without due process of law
•   D. against the military draft by the federal government

•   ___ 8. It can best be supported from the excerpt below that if a person‘s unalienable rights are not protected
    by the government, then people have –
•   That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men… whenever any form of government
    becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it…
•   A. the right to change the government
•   B. the opportunity to adjust government spending
•   C. the obligation to obey unfair laws
    D. the responsibility to finance political campaigns

•   ___ 9. According to the text below, the Magna Carta most influenced the colonial development of –
•   Principles of the Magna Carta
•   a rule of law should limit the power of the king
•   certain basic rights should be protected
•   government should be based on an agreement between the ruler and the ruled
•   A. judicial review
•   B. federalism
•   C. representative government
•   D. feudalism
                         Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 10. Which of the following documents lists the reasons for the Revolutionary War?
•   A. US Constitution
•   B. Declaration of Independence
•   C. Articles of Confederation
•   D. Bill of Rights
•   ___ 11. Which document was written in 1787 and replaced the Articles of Confederation as federal law?
•   A. Declaration of Independence
•   B. Treaty of Paris
•   C. US Constitution
•   D. Monroe Doctrine
•   ___12. Which of the following principles of U.S. government best characterizes the First Amendment to
    the US Constitution?
•   A. Republicanism
•   B. Individual rights
•   C. Federalism
•   D. Popular Sovereignty
•   ___13. The idea of representative government flourished in colonial America because the colonists
    wanted –
•   A. the people to be the source of power
•   B. to be responsible for their own defense
•   C. government power to be held by only a few leaders
•   D. a president to control the government
•   ___14. Which of the founding father of the United States had the most significant role in writing the
    Declaration of Independence?
•   A. Thomas Jefferson
•   B. George Washington
•   C. John Adams
•   D. Benjamin Franklin
                   Sample TAKS Questions
•   Commander of the Continental army
•   President of the Constitution Convention
•   First president of the United States
•   ___15. The person described in the list above is
•   A. Thomas Jefferson
•   B. Benjamin Franklin
•   C. George Washington
•   D. John Adams

•   Reflected the idea of limited government
•   Reflected the idea that the governed have rights
•   Expressed the idea of government based on the rule of law
•   Resulted from a struggle between the king and his nobles
•   ___16. Which of the following is best described by the characteristics listed
    above?
•   A. Magna Carta
•   B. The Federalist Papers
•   C. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
•   D. Mayflower Compact
Westward Expansion – Indian Conflicts
                           1776-1890
1. Indians were moved west and promised lands.
2. Indians would not stay nor did White man keep promises.
3. Miners claimed Indian lands.
4. Road built thru Sioux grounds.
Results of Conflict:
1. Reservations – Black Hills, SD, and OK
2. Reservations didn‘t work: Indians wouldn‘t go and it was very
   poor land
3. Indians finally surrendered – after white man killed off the
   buffalo
4. Indian Bureau set up to relocate the Indian and meet needs –
   didn‘t really work.
Westward Exp. - Reform Measures
1. Susette La Flesche and Helen Jackson Hunt.
   (‗A Century of Honor‘)
2. Dawes Act (1887)
  •   Objective was to force white man‘s ways on the
      Indians.
  •   Divided reservation lands among Indian families.
  •   Establish schools to teach the Am. Way.
  •   Asked the Indians to give up their traditional
      religion.
           Civil War 1861-1865
• South Carolina first state to secede – 1861
• Confederate states elected Jefferson Davis as their
  president
• Abraham Lincoln - US President
• Causes of Civil War:
   - Slavery
   - Way of life, South was established as agricultural
  with large plantations, north had several large
  cities with many people working in factories
   - Free labor vs. slave labor – north was based on
  free laborers, south based on slave laborers
   - State‘s rights – North thought that no state had a
  right to leave the Union, South argued that a state
  could leave if they voted to do so.
   Civil War 1861-1865 (cont‘d)
• Ulysses S. Grant – General of Union (North)
  forces.
• Robert E. Lee – General of the Confederate
  (South) forces.
• Battle of Gettysburg – Union victory and turning
  point of the war.
• April 14, 1865 – Abraham Lincoln assassinated
• May 4, 1865 – Confederate Army surrenders
• United States
  President
  Abraham Lincoln
• Union (North)
  General
  Ulysses S.
  Grant
• Confederate
  (South)
  General
  Robert E.
  Lee
      Reconstruction 1865 - 1877
• Reconstruction period – rebuilding the South and
  reuniting the states.
• Andrew Johnson succeeds Lincoln as Pres.
• Radical Republicans – strong group in US Congress
  that wanted to make sure that freed slaves were safe
  and that they could make a living and become full
  citizens.
• Black Codes – southern states passed laws that kept
  former slaves from : voting, testifying against whites in
  court, serving on juries, and joining the militia.
• 13th Amendment – freed the slaves
• 14th Amendment – gave former slaves citizenship
• 15th Amendment – gave former slaves right to vote
        Reconstruction 1865 – 1877
• Carpetbaggers – northerners who went south to take
  advantage of the disorder in the south, they ran for office and
  entered businesses.
• Scalawag – Southern whites who supported the Radical
  Republicans
• US divided south into 5 Military Districts, an army general
  and federal troops were sent to each district.
• Hiram Revels – first African American Senator
• Ku Klux Klan – a secret society that believed in the
  supremacy of the white race and tried to terrorize African
  Americans and carpetbaggers, and scalawags who
  supported them.
• Jim Crow Laws – passed in the southern states to legalize
  segregation. Created separate areas for blacks and whites in
  public waiting rooms, restaurants, schools, and hospitals
• Reconstruction period ended when Northern soldiers went
  home, signifying a renewed trust in the South
      Gilded Age 1877 - 1900
• More jobs and opportunities were created
• Inventions, like the railroad and the electric
  light bulb, made life more comfortable.
• Only a few people got wealthy – often at the
  expense of workers
• Living and working conditions in the industrial
  cities were often poor and unhealthy
• From 1820 – 1930 more than 37 million
  people came to the US. They came through
  Ellis Island on the East Coast and Angel
  Island on the West Coast
   Gilded Age 1877 – 1900 (cont‘d)
• 1867 – US buys Alaska from Russia $7.2 M
• 1869 – Transcontinental Railroad joins east and
  west coasts at Promontory, UT
• 1870 – John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Co
• 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
• 1879 – Thomas Edison invents electric light bulb
• 1886 – American Federation of Labor (AFL)
• 1890 – Sherman Anti-trust Act limits monopolies
• 1898 – Spanish American War begins.
                           Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 1. Which of these periods in U.S. history occurred first?
•   A. Great Depression
•   B. Progressive Era
•   C. Cold War
•   D. Gilded Age

•   ___ 2. In 1898 more than 200 Americans died when the battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana
    Harbor. This event prompt the beginning of the
•   A. Mexican-American War
•   B. Civil War
•   C. Spanish-American War
•   D. Russo-Japanese War

•   ___ 3. The conditions listed below best explain the growth of –
•   -unhealthy working conditions
•   -unequal distribution of wealth
•   -long working hours for little pay
•   -growing incidence of wage cuts
•   A. farmer alliances
•   B. urban areas
•   C. national railroads
•   D. labor unions

•   ___ 4. The invention of the electric elevator contributed to the growth of cities in the US by –
•   A. reducing the need for large industrial complexes
•   B. making construction of taller buildings practical
•   C. leading federal regulation of all urban construction
•   D. eliminating the need to build tenement housing
                    Sample TAKS Questions
• ___ 7. The expansion of America‘s railroad network in the late 1800s
  changed the standard of living by –
• A. creating employment opportunities for women and children
• B. establishing an example for ethical business practices
• C. increasing the availability and variety of consumer goods
• D. discouraging economic competition with foreign countries

• ___ 8. What was one result of the rapid growth of U.S. cities in the early
  20th century?
• A. Fewer educational opportunities were available.
• B. Prices for consumer goods became unstable.
• C. Farm production declined significantly.
• D. The population in slums increased.

• 9. The invention of the light bulb contributed to industrial growth in the U.S.
  by making it possible for-
• A. production to continue at night
• B. workers to light their homes
• C. electric companies to raise their prices
• D. cities to reduce crime by lighting city streets
   Spanish-American War 1898
• US battleship Maine in Cuba‘s Havana
  harbor was sunk mysteriously on Feb 15,
  1898.
• Many Americans thought the US should help
  the Cuban rebels gain independence from
  Spain.
• Other Americans wanted Spain out of Cuba
  so that the US could control the island and
  protect US business interests there.
• American newspapers stirred people up by
  printing sensational stories – Yellow
  Journalism
      Spanish-American War 1898
• Results of war:
• Cuba got limited independence from Spain
• US gained an empire of Spain‘s old possessions –
  Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
• US paid Spain $20 million for Philippines
• Theodore Roosevelt became a national hero and
  President McKinley chose him to be his running
  mate for the next election
• US victory demonstrated the growing importance of
  the US as a leader in international affairs.
• USS Maine
     Progressive Era 1900 - 1914
Three Progressive presidents: T,T,W (Teddy, Taft & Wilson)
• Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt
• William Taft
• Woodrow Wilson
• Roosevelt‘s reform programs became known as the Square
  Deal. He believed the US needed to adopt progressive
  reforms in order to maintain an efficient society that could
  compete successfully against other nations.
• The struggle for the right of women to vote was only one of
  a series of reform efforts that transformed American society
  in the early 1900s. Historians refer to this era as the
  Progressive Era.
• Science and technology had benefited people; thus
  progressives believed using scientific principles could also
  produce solutions for society
• President
  Theodore
  (Teddy)
  Roosevelt




―Trustbuster‖
• President
  William Taft
• President
  Woodrow
  Wilson
• Muckrakers – a group of crusading journalists who
  investigated social conditions and political
  corruption.
To force state legislators to respond to voters, three
  new reforms were introduced in many states:
• Initiative – allowed a group of citizens to introduce
  legislation and required the legislature to vote on it.
• Referendum – allowed proposed legislation to be
  submitted to the voters for approval.
• Recall – allowed voters to demand a special
  election to remove an elected official from office
  before his or her term had expired.
• 16th Amendment – Income tax
• 17th Amendment – People elect senators
• 18th Amendment – Prohibition (of alcohol)
• 19th Amendment – Women‘s right to vote
• 1913 – Congress approved the Federal
  Reserve Act, one of the most significant
  pieces of legislation in American history
   - Banks would have to keep a portion of their
  deposits in a regional reserve bank which
  would provide a financial cushion against
  unanticipated losses.
• Building codes set minimum standards for
  light, air, room size, and sanitation, and
  required buildings to have fire escapes.
  Health codes required restaurants and other
  facilities to maintain clean environments for
  their patrons.
                                   Sample TAKS Questions
•   Federal Income Tax
•   Direct election of senators
•   Child labor law
•   Initiative, referendum, and recall
•    ___ 1. All of the reforms in the box were enacted during
•    A. Reconstruction
•    B. The Progressive Era
•    C. the Great Depression
•    D. World War II

•   We will not submit to the prosperity that is obtained by lowering the wages of working men and charging an excessive price to consumers, nor to that
    other kind of prosperity obtained by swindling investors or getting unfair advantages over business rivals. President Theodore Roosevelt
    August 6, 1912
•   ___ 2. President Theodore Roosevelt made this statement during which historical period?
•   A. The Progressive Era
•   B. The Gilded Age
•   C. Reconstruction
•   D. The Great Depression

•   ___ 3. The events below are all associated with which period in U. S. history?
•   NAACP founded
•   Pure Food and Drug Act passed
•   19th Amendment ratified
•   Clayton Antitrust Act passed
•   A. The Progressive Era
•   B. The Gilded Age
•   C. The Great Depression
•   D. Reconstruction


•   ___ 4. When U.S engineers began the construction of the Panama Canal, one of the greatest obstacles they faced was
•   A. the threat of attack from the Panamanian army
•   B. opposition from the U.S. government
•   C. the prevalence of mosquito-borne disease
•   D. a lack of technological expertise
                            Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 7. The 17th amendment to the US Constitution provided for the US senators to be elected directly by the
    people. This amendment is significant because it –
•   A. allowed for the election of more experienced senators
•   B. gave citizens more control of the government
•   C. discouraged people from voting in state and local elections
•   D. lessened the importance of political parties

•   ___ 8. Ratification of the 17th amendment gave the people a greater voice in government by providing for –
•   A. direct election of senators
•   B. federal funding of local and state governments
•   C. equal voting rights for African Americans
•   D. equal representation in the Senate and the House

•   ___ 9. By setting aside millions of acres of land under public domain during the early 1900s, Theodore
    Roosevelt prompted which of the following concepts?
•   A. Political reform
•   B. Conservationism
•   C. Collective bargaining
•   D. Agribusiness

•   ___ 10. The migration of thousands of African Americans to the North in the early 20th century can best be
    explained by –
•   A. the availability of cheap farmland in the North
•   B. the closing of factories in southern states
•   C. decreased availability of government and land for sharecropping in the South
•   D. greater job opportunities in northern cities
            WWI 1914 – 1918
• War started in 1914 but US did not enter the war
  until 1917.
Causes of War:
• Leaders of industrial European countries wanted to
  increase the size of their empires – Imperialism
• France, Russia and Great Britain had an alliance
  called the Triple Entente. Germany, Austria-
  Hungary, and Italy signed the Triple Alliance.
• War was triggered by the assassination of the
  Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Serbia. In
  response, Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia
• Unrestricted Submarine Warfare - The continued
  sinking of American ships by Germany‘s
  submarines called U-boats, eventually led the US
  to declare war on Germany
            WWI 1914 – 1918
Results of War:
• Germany was forced to give up territory and
  colonies to France, Belgium, Denmark, and Poland
• The size of Germany‘s army was reduced and they
  were forbidden to have submarines and aircraft
• Germany accepted responsibility for starting the war
  and was penalized $33 million in damages to other
  nations
• President Woodrow Wilson‘s Fourteen Points
• League of Nations
  Between the Wars 1918 – 1938
• The Roaring Twenties: An era of rapid change
  and clashing values
• Economy was strong
• People were buying things on installment plan
• Radios and movies were keeping people
  entertained, young people were challenging
  authority and values
• Art, music, and literature thrived.
• Jazz – the new music of African Americans
  became popular to whites and Afr. Americans
• The Jazz Age of the 1920s
• Flapper - girl
  of the 1920s
Prohibition of
Alcohol in the
  1920s
1920 - 1933
• Henry Ford Assembly Line
                       Sample TAKS Questions
•   1. Which of the following is the correct cause-and-effect pairing of events that
    occurred during the 1920‘s?
•   A. Victory in the World War I and outbreak of urban riots
•   B. Labor strife and the downfall of unions
•   C. Prohibition and the rise of organized crime
•   D. Fear of foreigners and the closing of U.S. borders


•   2. During the 1920s the nationwide prohibition of the manufacture, sale, or
    transportation of alcohol in the US contributed to the –
•   A. ratification of the women‘s suffrage amendment
•   B. growth of organized crime
•   C. end of Progressive reform
•   D. demand for stricter immigration policies

•   3. The automobile industry helped stimulate the economy in the 1920s because it-
•   A. increased demand for products such as steel, rubber, and gasoline
•   B. started the Industrial Revolution in the United States
•   C. ended the U.S. dependence on the foreign-made cars
•   D. increased employment opportunities for female engineers
•
                                Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 2. What court case of the 1920s is associated with William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow?
•   A. Plessy v. Ferguson
•   B. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
•   C. Scopes v. State of Tennessee
•   D. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

•   ___ 3. The Red Scare, a period of anticommunist hysteria in the U.S. during 1919 and 1920, was largely a response to the
•   A. signing of the Treaty of Versailles
•   B. creation of the first U.S. labor unions
•   C. Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
•   D. implementation of Prohibition

•   ___ 4. Prohibition is led to which of the following?
•   A. An increase in liquor consumption
•   B. A rise in the crime rate
•   C. The ―packing‖ of Congress with anti-Prohibitionists
•   D. An increase in the number of women in the workplace

•   ___ 5.
•   Every piece of work in the shops moves: it may move on the hooks on overhead chains… it may travel on a moving platform or
    it may go by gravity, but the point is that there is no lifting or trucking of anything other than materials.
•                                                                                                                 -Henry Ford, 1924
•   What revolutionary manufacturing method is Henry Ford describing in this excerpt?
•   A. Assembly line
•   B. Micromanagement
•   C. Quality assurance
•   D. Cottage industry
                            Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 1. Which of the following best describes events in the United States during the Great Depression?
•   A. Japanese Americans were detained in interment camps.
•   B. The economy collapsed, and millions of people became unemployed.
•   C. Fears about communism led to the imprisonment of many people.
•   D. The government passed laws that eliminated poverty and discrimination.

•   ___ 2. Many U.S. farmers from the Great Plains left their farms and migrated to California in the 1930s
    because of
•   A. the excessively high cost of new farm machinery
•   B. federal and state assistance programs available to farmers in California
•   C. drought and dust storms that destroyed their crops
•   D. the availability of factory jobs in California

•   ___ 3. One reason people overextended their use of credit in the stock market during the late 1920s was that
    they believed
•   A. debts would not have to be repaired for many years
•   B. the federal government would assume their debts
•   C. they would make quick profits and be able to repay their debts
•   D. overspending would bolster the week economy

•   ___ 4. Which of the following was a contributing factor to the Great Depression?
•   A. More goods were produced than Americans could afford to buy.
•   B. A deficit of agriculture goods led to an increase in farm prices.
•   C. Low trade tariffs caused other countries to stop trading with the U.S.
•   D. Oil prices soared to the highest level in history.
    Between the Wars 1918 – 1938
• The Great Depression – over 9,000 banks failed
  and more than 25% of the workforce was
  unemployed.
Causes of Great Depression:
• Overproduction
• Low income, especially for farmers. Workers wages
  failed to keep pace with increased productivity
• Bankers made unsound loans
• Stock speculation
• International trade declined because of WWI
• Stock Market Crash of Oct. 29, 1929
• Stock Market Crash – Oct. 29, 1929
• Dust Bowl of 1930s
• Many people lived in shacks during the Great
  Depression and called the towns ―Hoovervilles‖
  after President Hoover.
    Between the Wars 1918 – 1938
Roosevelt‘s New Deal:
• Deficit Budgeting and Public Works – used
  government funds to provide direct relief for the
  unemployed and create jobs.
• Banking Reforms – restored public confidence in
  banks by insuring depositors‘ money.
• Production controls – encouraged farmers to reduce
  their output and temporarily suspended the anti-
  trust laws so that businessmen could establish
  industry-wide production controls.
• Encouragement of Consumption – minimum wage
  laws, encouraged labor unions
• Optimism – Roosevelt instilled confidence in
  American people. Fireside Chats – radio talks
  made by Roosevelt to let the American people know
  that Roosevelt working for them
• Roosevelt‘s New Deal – work program
• President Franklin D Roosevelt (FDR) delivering a
  Fireside Chat.
              Sample TAKS Questions
• 5. Which of the following brought an end to the Great
  Depression in the United States?
• A. The Korean War
• B. The New Deal
• C. World War II
• D. Reconstruction

• 6. President Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s New Deal was a
  program designed to –
• A. prevent the onset of the Great Depression
• B. Control big business
• C. combat the effects of the Great Depression
• D. restore the gold standard
               WWII 1938 - 1945
Causes:
• Totalitarianism – Axis nations were totalitarian dictatorships.
  Scorned democratic ideals: dignity of individual, civil
  liberties, world peace.
• Militarism – Axis nations built huge military organizations,
  devised new weapons and proclaimed war a glorious
  adventure.
• Nationalism – Japanese Shinto teachings, Italian dreams of
  restoring the Roman Empire, and German ―master race‖
  doctrines all fostered a narrow and bigoted nationalism
• Imperialism – Japan expanded into Manchuria in search of
  land and resources, Italy enlarged her African Empire and
  Germany annexed Austria, Czechoslovakia in order to
  dominate Europe and eventually the world!
• Hitler –
  Germany,
  Mussolini -
  Italy
            WWII 1938 – 1945
• Many Americans were isolationists and wanted to
  stay out of the War. They believed it was a
  European matter.
• Neutrality Act of 1939 – limited involvement in war
• Destroyer-Naval Base deal with Britain – traded 50
  old US destroyers for land to build US Naval bases
• Lend-Lease Act – substantial aid to Britain, allowed
  Britain to not have to pay cash up front for supplies
• June 22, 1941 – Despite the Russo-German Non-
  Aggression Pact, Hitler ordered a blitzkrieg against
  Russia.
• Dec. 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and the
  US declares war on Japan.
            WWII 1938 – 1945
• Holocaust – Nazis ordered the murder of millions of
  Jews (Final Solution) and other people including:
  Gypsies, the disabled, homosexuals, and political
  opponents of the Nazis.
• Hitler dreamed of a world ruled by blonde, blue
  eyed people he called Aryans or the ―master race‖
• Hitler built many walled prisons called concentration
  camps where prisoners were starved and worked to
  death
• Over 6 million Jews were killed and 5 million from
  other groups as well.
• Jewish prisoners at German (Nazi)
  concentration camp
            WWII 1938 – 1945
      The Allies                 The Axis
•   Great Britain         • Germany
•   China                 • Italy
•   France                • Japan
•   Soviet Union (from
    1941)
•   United States (from
    1941)
            WWII 1938 – 1945
• April 1945 – Allied forces crossed into Germany and
  met up with the Russian forces Hitler committed
  suicide and Germany surrenders.
• 1941 – 1945 American forces on an ―island-
  hopping‖ offensive and eventually captured island
  bases close enough to launch destructive raids on
  Japan. Japan still would not surrender.
• President Truman approved the use of the Atom
  bomb against Japan. August 6, 1945 dropped on
  Hiroshima. Between 80,000 – 120,000 people died
  instantly. Truman declares that he dropped the
  bombs to fulfill his job of saving American lives, he
  knew if there was a ground war on Japan many
  more American soldiers would die.
          WWII 1938 – 1945
• August 9, 1945 Soviet Union declared war on
  Japan
• August 9, 1945 US dropped second Atomic
  bomb on Japan in the city of Nagasaki, killing
  between 35,000 – 74,000 people.
• August 15, 1945 Japan surrendered.
• Mushroom cloud
  from one of two
  atomic bombs
  dropped on
  Japan during
  last days of
  WWII – Aug.
  1945
            WWII 1938 – 1945
• Atlantic Charter – (1941) Roosevelt and Churchill
  issued a statement of principles concerning the
  future of the world after the war.
• Yalta Conference – (Feb. 1945) The Big Three:
  President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and
  Premier Stalin decided upon procedures for voting
  in the UN Security Council and called upon the
  United Nations to send delegates to San Francisco
  to prepare the final Charter.
• San Francisco Conference – Despite the
  unexpected death of President Roosevelt,
  delegates representing 50 states met as planned.
           WWII 1938 – 1945
Goals of the United Nations:
• To maintain international peace and security
• By collective action, remove threats to the
  peace and suppress acts of aggression
• Develop friendly relations among nations
• Promote respect for human rights without
  distinction as to race, sex, language, or
  religion.
• Encourage international cooperation in
  solving economic, social, cultural, and
  humanitarian problems.
         Cold War 1945 - 1989
• A struggle between the democratic nations of the
  West (US, GB, France) and the nations allied with
  the Soviet Union
• Both the Soviet Union and the United States wanted
  to protect their interests and gain allies around the
  world. The US and its allies in the North Atlantic
  Treaty Organization (NATO) resisted the
  communists. The Soviets responded by forming the
  Warsaw Pact with their Allies.
• As each side tried to win over other countries,
  conflicts flared up all over the world. Both the US
  and the Soviet Union built many nuclear weapons,
  which they pointed at each other. The Cold War
  lasted from the end of WWII until 1989, when the
  Berlin Wall was torn down and Soviet Union
  Communism ended.
                                 Sample TAKS Questions
•   ___ 1. One reason for the large increase in defense spending between 1950 and 1960 was –
•   A. an unprecedented inflationary economy
•   B. funding for military involvement in South America
•   C. The cold war and the arms race with the Soviet Union
•   D. a large investment in supersonic military transports

•   ___ 2. In the excerpt below, President Eisenhower was responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy‘s public attempts to

•        ―Don‘t be afraid… read every book, as long as any document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the
    only censorship. How will we defeat communism unless we know what it is, what it teaches, and why does it have such an
    appeal for men, why are so many people swearing allegiance to it? ―                    President Dwight D. Eisenhower,
•                                                                                          Speech at Dartmouth College, 1953
•   A. promote religious tolerance
•   B. limit free speech
•   C. increase U.S. literacy rates
•   D. restrict conservative political influence

•   ___ 3. What threat was President Truman referring to in the excerpts below?
•             I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation
    by armed minorities or by outside pressures…. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world- and we
    shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation.                                        President Harry Truman, 1947
•   A. Regional war in South America
•   B. The spread of communism
•   C. Civil disobedience in U.S. cities
•   D. The formations of the United Nations

•   ___ 4. Which of the following statements best characterizes the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),
    which was created in 1949?
•   A. Each member nation is committed to the defense of all other member nations.
•   B. All member nations will cooperate in rebuilding war-torn nations.
•   C. Trade barriers between all member nations will be removed.
•   D. All member nations will enforce trade embargoes against communist countries.
                   Sample TAKS Questions
• ___ 5. The actions of Joseph McCarthy in the early 1950‘s led many
  Americans to
• A. suspect that some government officials had communist sympathies
• B. demand more rights for organized labor
• C. support U.S. involvement in the United Nations
• D. organize to protect the rights of African American

• ___ 6. Entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) might change China‘s
  economic relationship with the rest of the world because China will have to
• A. allow more foreign competition in its markets
• B. allow Europeans to manage the economy
• C. produce completely different goods
• D. become a democratic country with a market economy

• ___ 7. Compared to a market-oriented economy, a subsistence-based
  economy has a higher percentage of agricultural output that is
• A. sold for profit
• B. produce for personal use
• C. collected for payment of taxes
• D. distributed to the poor by the government
              Korea 1950s
• 1945 Korea was divided at the 38th parallel
• In North Korea Russians established a
  Communist government led by the Korean
  Workers Communist party head Kim Il-Sung,
  they equipped a powerful army.
• In South Korea, the UN-supervised elections
  established an independent anti-Communist
  government headed by President Syngman
  Rhee.
                 Korea 1950s
• June 1950 North Korean Communist invaded South
  Korea. The UN Security council recommended that
  UN members furnish military assistance to South
  Korea.
• The UN Army consisted chiefly of American and
  South Korean units, with contingents from 15 other
  anti-communist nations. Headed by General
  Douglas MacArthur
• 1953 – UN and Communist negotiators took two
  years to agree upon truce terms. The UN claimed
  that many of its prisoners did not want to return to
  Communist rule; the Communists insisted upon
  compulsory repatriation. Finally the conference
  agreed that all prisoners be given freedom of
  choice. 2 of every 5 prisoners refused to return to
  Communist rule.
• 38th Parallel where North and South Korea
  were divided.
    Between Korea and Vietnam
• 1956 – Martin Luther King rises as leader of the
  nonviolent civil rights movement in the US
• John F. Kennedy elected president - ―Ask not what
  your country can do for you - ask what you can do
  for your country.‖
• 1961 Berlin Wall constructed to prevent East
  German citizens from fleeing to the West.
• 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion by the US fails to free the
  Caribbean island of Cuba from dictator Fidel Castro
• 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis – occurs when the US
  discovers that the Soviet Union has put nuclear
  missiles in Cuba. Soviets agreed to remove
  weapons
• Martin Luther King Jr. delivering his ―I
  have a dream,‖ speech in Washington DC
• President John
  F. Kennedy,
  youngest
  American
  president,
  embraced the
  ―New Frontier‖
  in the areas of
  technology,
  science, and
  social relations.
  Assassinated
  Nov. 1963 in
  Dallas, TX
  Between Korea & Vietnam (cont‘d)
• 1963 President John F. Kennedy assassinated.
  Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President.
• 1963 Martin Luther King delivers his ―I have a
  dream …. That my four little children will one day
  live in a nation where they will not be judged by the
  color of their skin but by the content of their
  character.‖
• 1964 Pres. Johnson re-elected and passes
  resolution to send thousands of US troops to
  Vietnam.
• 1968 Martin Luther King and Senator Robert
  Kennedy both assassinated
• 1968 Richard Nixon elected President.
• President
  Richard Nixon
• Resigned from
  office on
  August 9, 1974
  after Watergate
  scandal
              Civil Rights
• Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) –
  Segregation in public schools
  unconstitutional.
• Civil Rights Act of 1964 – barred
  discrimination of many kinds.
• Voting Rights Act of 1965 – ensured African
  Americans‘ right to vote.
                        Sample TAKS Questions
•   1. W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the founders of the NAACP, an organization dedicated to--
•   A. preserving racial segregation in the US
•   B. achieving racial equality for African Americans
•   C. Promoting landownership as the key to economic equality
•   D. using force to gain equal rights


•   2. According to the excerpt below, which of the following is necessary to preserve liberty
    within the US?
•   I doubt that a country can live in freedom where its people can be made to suffer physically or
    financially for criticizing their government, its actions, or its officials… - Hugo Black, NY Times
    v. Sullivan, 1964
•   A. the right to vote
•   B. freedom of association
•   C. freedom of expression
•   D. the right to privacy

•   3. Which event is an example of geography playing an important role in the defeat of an
    invading army?
•   A. The North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950
•   B. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931
•   C. German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941
•   D. The US invasion of Cuba in 1898
                         Sample TAKS Questions
•   4. According to the excerpt below, what did Berlin symbolize to the West?
•   All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take
    pride in the words ―Ich bin ein Berliner [I am a Berliner].‖ – President John F. Kennedy, June
    26,1963
•   A. an ideal location for peace conferences
•   B. a strategic international outpost for the US military
•   C. A place of freedom surrounded by a totalitarian state
•   D. A prime location from which to sell US products to Europe

•   5. According to the excerpt below, Parks was tired of giving in to—
•   People always say that I didn‘t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn‘t true. I was not
    tired physically... I was not old… the only tired I was, was tired of giving in. – Rosa Parks, My
    Story, 1991
•   A. violent crime
•   B. segregation
•   C. consumer fraud
•   D. communism

•   6. In the 1960‘s Cesar Chavez organized the United Farm Workers to –
•
•   A. assist farm workers in securing loans to buy homes
•   B. demand disaster relief for farmers in the Midwest
•   C. guarantee government subsidies for US fruit growers
•   D. improve working conditions for immigrant workers
              Vietnam War
• Two things convinced Truman to assist France
  in Vietnam: the fall of China to Communism
  and the outbreak of war in Korea.
• President Eisenhower agreed to stay involved
  because he feared that if Vietnam fell to
  communism, so too would the other nations of
  Southeast Asia….. ―the domino theory.‖
• President Johnson said he did not want war
  but was determined to prevent South Vietnam
  from becoming Communist.
• 1965 Pres. Johnson expands US involvement
• US Antiwar movement emerges.
              Vietnam War
• 1968 Richard Nixon becomes President
• 1971 US pulls out of Vietnam
• 1973 warring sides sign peace agreement,
  ending the war and restoring peace in
  Vietnam.
• 1975 North Vietnam united North and South
  Vietnam under Communist rule. President
  Ford asked for funds for South Vietnam but
  Congress refused.
• Vietnam war
            Persian Gulf War
• 1990 Iraq‘s dictator, Saddam Hussein, sent
  his army to invade oil-rich Kuwait. American
  officials feared the invasion was only the first
  step and that Iraq‘s ultimate goal was to
  capture Saudi Arabia and its vast oil reserves.
• UN Nations first imposed economic sanctions
  and set a deadline for Iraqi withdrawal.
• Iraq refused to comply and Jan. 16, 1991 the
  coalition forces launched Operation Desert
  Storm.
• Feb. 1991 Cease-fire declared just 100 hours
  after the ground war began.
• Persian Gulf War
• The new
  modern war,
  1991

				
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