Lighting For use in the course Interior Design, Furnishings, Materials and Components Written by Helen Hawver Georgia CTAE Resource Network 2010 Reference: “Residential Housing and Interiors” (Good-Heart Wilcox) FCS-IFMC-5 Students will discuss the basic principles of lighting design and its application for residential and commercial projects. a) Analyze product information and evaluate manufacturers, products, and materials considering care, maintenance, safety, and environmental protection issues. b) Describe how a room design is impacted by natural light, artificial light, types of window treatments, and orientation to sunlight. c) Describe and identify types and usage of artificial light, including incandescent, fluorescent, and halogen. d) Describe and identify ceiling, cove, portable, recessed, strip, track, and wall lighting fixtures. Natural Light Sunlight that enters the house through windows, doors, skylights, etc. Natural Light is the first light source to consider North or East—Cool, bluish cast Place bedrooms east Northern provides even light South or West—Warm, orange tones Southern provides steady light Amount of light is controlled by size, number, and arrangement of windows…also type of window treatments and placement of windows Can produce harsh shadows and glare Homework Record the following information about lighting for each of the following: your bedroom, living room and kitchen How many windows does the room have? What color does the natural light give off in the afternoon? What color does the natural light give off in the morning? Are there any downfalls to the natural lighting in each room? (glare, heat, etc) Which rooms are on the South or West sides of your home? Which are on the North or East sides? What window treatments are used in each room If there are not any treatments, what suggestions would you make? Window Treatments to Control Natural Light Draperies Used to control the amount of light in a horizontal slide fashion – Align draw - open and close at the center – One-way draw - draperies pull as one unit across the entire window area These drapes are center – Tier drapes - use a number of short drapes draw to allow for control of to control the amount light and access to the of light in a room French doors – Sheer casement drapes - are opaque light filters Window Treatments to Control Natural Light Curtains Shirred – Allow for light to filter through Café Curtains – Used to cover half a window from the middle to the bottom – Allows for light to come into the room from the top of the window This window has drapes and sheer curtains that allow light to enter Window Treatments to Control Natural Light Shades – Used to control light – Can completely block light when closed There are many types Roller Shades Roman Shades Austrian Shades Pleated shades Window Treatments to Control Natural Light Blinds – Horizontal blinds and vertical blinds include nearly complete control of light Window Treatments to Control Natural Light Shutters – Provide control of light Sliding panels and screens – Can be used for different levels of lighting in a room – Completely block light or allow a filter Other treatments – Stained glass and etchings Artificial Light Predictable and Controllable Available from three sources: Incandescent, Halogen, and Fluorescent Incandescent Light Light bulb most people use. Burns about 700-1000 hours. Produced when electricity passes through a fine tungsten filament in a vacuum bulb, causing the wire to heat and glow. The light produced is yellow-white. Flatters skin tones Continued… Two types of sources: General Service Available in a variety of shapes and wattages Large: bright light 3 way: levels of light – High to Low intensity Small: decorative light Pear shaped bulb is the most common Clear bulbs allow light to shine at full strength, but produce a glare Frosted bulbs disperse light more evenly, decrease glare, soften shadows and remain cooler Reflectorized bulb (a cone shaped bulb used for flood lights and spot lights) Have a silver coating inside of them Some of these bulbs were discontinued due to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 Continued… Incandescent lights are inexpensive and easy to replace They do not hum, flicker, or interfere with electrical devices Halogen Lighting Have tungsten filaments that produce bright, white light, matching the quality of pure daylight Makes colors look the best Available in variety of sizes, shapes and wattages Have longer life and use less energy, but are expensive Light is more similar to that of sunlight. Fluorescent Lighting Produced in a glass tube by releasing electricity through a mercury vapor to make invisible ultraviolet rays A coating of chemicals on the inside of the tube transforms the rays into light Available as tubes, screw in bulbs and compact bulbs Compacts are becoming popular because they use less electricity, last longer and fit a standard socket Lasts up to ten times longer than an incandescent bulb. Use less electricity and do not produce damaging heat. Not as homey and comfortable. Continued… Improvements have been made concerning the quality of light fluorescent bulbs produce The light is dispersed over a larger area than incandescent lights, cause less glare, and require less energy There are not many types to choose from, they are expensive, and there is a delay in turning on the light and when light is seen Types of Lighting General/Ambient Overall lighting Provides an even level of brightness Fundamental to a house Can be direct (strongest illumination) or indirect (reflects light back into a room) Task Lighting a small space to perform a specific task; reading, cooking, This church has all three types: eating. General is found in the ceiling, task Accent/Decorative is found through the track lights that Used to draw attention to specific light up the podium area and accent areas or objects. is found on the walls to highlight the area. Can you find the three types of lighting in this kitchen? Continued… In a room, a balance of general and task lighting is needed Accent lighting adds drama The amount of illumination produced by a room’s light source is measured in foot-candles (the amount of illumination produced by a standard plumber’s candle at a distance of one foot) Halogen and fluorescent light sources provide more light per watt than incandescent Light is reflected from smooth surfaces and light colors, but absorbed by textured surfaces and dark colors Continued… Colored light is less intense than white light Warm light, such as red and yellow, will make a room appear warmer and brighter Cool colored lights, such as blue or blue green, will make a room appear open White light shows a room at its truest color values and produces the most illumination Homework! Go home and take a tally of all the general, task and accent sources in your home. Also, make note of what rooms these sources are found. Selection and Placement Lighting fixtures Should provide adequate light for activities and blend with décor Size and scale of the fixtures should be proportionate to other items in a room and blend with the room Easy to clean and easy to replace bulbs Structural fixtures are permanently built into the home Luminous ceilings are made of transparent or translucent panels lighted from above Can be part of or the whole ceiling, uses fluorescent bulbs and is general lighting Continued… Recessed lights are small, circular lights that are installed in the ceiling Can be flush or project from ceiling Accent or general Track lighting is mounted in a metal strip that allows fixtures to be placed anywhere along the strip Can swivel or rotate Lighting can be changed as needed Continued… Living rooms should have general lighting from several sources Recessed or track lights can wash entire areas with light to highlight Task lighting should be provided for reading and conversation Accent lighting should highlight collectables and paintings Family and recreation rooms Flexible lighting 3 way bulbs Continued… Dining rooms need local lighting over the table Hanging lights or chandeliers Use a dimmer to control lighting Task lighting for serving area Accent lighting for china cabinet Bedrooms need diffused general lighting as well as task lighting Adequate lighting for closet and grooming areas Home offices need to be free of harsh contrasts and distracting glares Task and accent Bathrooms usually have strip lighting around the mirrors for task lighting Continued… Portable fixtures can be changed and moved Lamps are the most common 1 lamp=task 2 lamps=general Must fit the function, be the proper height, and fitted with the correct shade Attachable under-cabinet and under-shelf fixtures provide task and accent lighting Usually fluorescent Lighting Areas of the Home Entryways and foyers Must be well lighted as to locate the lock and see the house number and guest Bathrooms General and task lighting Kitchens Safety and efficiency Task lighting, under the cabinet, and hanging lights Utility areas General Special purpose rooms Lighting to fit the task Stairs and hall Safety lighting, bright enough to illuminate each step, switches at top and bottom of stairs Recessed lights are popular in a hallway Continued… Exteriors Outside of home Enhance the style of a house and provide safety Patios, pools, and terraces require light for activities Lighting controls Used to control the intensity and effect of light Changes the mood of the room Technology has allowed us to control light systems with remotes, computers and phones Types of Lighting Fixtures Recessed (Can Lights) Track Lights Ceiling fixtures Flush Semi Flush Chandeliers Hanging Lights Floor Lamps Novelty Fixtures Usually seen as nightlights This “lava lamp” would Wall Sconces be considered a Under the Cabinet novelty light Can you name the fixtures in this bathroom? What about their purposes? Information for the next slides taken from: http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/researchareas/energyEnvi ronment.asp http://environment.about.com/od/greenlivingde sign/a/light_bulbs.htm http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction =find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code= LB Lighting and Environmental Issues Obviously, the main environmental concern with lighting is electricity use Windows and skylights should be utilized as much as possible to cut down on the use of electricity. Many new lighting products have been released including compact fluorescent bulbs and LED lights LED’s (light-emitting diodes) are basically conductors that are converted to light. The result is a bright, sharp light. They have a long life and use little electricity. Compact fluorescents work much like a true fluorescent bulb using gas vapors that turn into visible light. They produce less heat and last up to ten times longer than regular bulbs.