Prevention and Management of Leg Injuries in Runners by ynk10956


Prevention and Management of Leg Injuries in Runners document sample

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• Heel or foot pain:
    o First thing in the morning
    o Decreases after warming up
    o After prolonged sitting
• Foot cramps

•   Tight calves/achilles complex
•   Overuse (One of the most common overuse injuries in athletes)
•   Improper shoes, or a change in shoe type
•   Running on toes, hills, or very soft surfaces
•   Excessive pronation
•   Heel spurs

• Pain on front of lower leg
     o Outside of tibia=Anterior tibialis muscle
     o Inside of tibia=Posterior tibialis muscle
• Dull ache where muscles attach to bone

• Overuse injury
• Muscle imbalances in the lower leg (3:1 post/ant compt. ratio)
• Change in training regimen (increase of distance or intensity)
     o Use 10% rule when adding mileage
• Taking up a new activity
• Running down hill
• Running on balls of feet
• Tibial stress fracture (50% of all stress fractures)
     o Disease process/pathology/abnormality
     o Nutritional deficiencies

• Pain on outside of knee during, or after, activity
• Pain or tightness along outside of upper leg
     o Can extend from hip to knee

• Muscle imbalances in the lower extremities
     o Quad/Hamstring
     o Weak cores
• Improper shoes, or a change in shoe type
• Improper/inadequate stretching
• Over training
• Running hills
• Structural abnormalities
     o Leg length difference
     o Genu varum (bow legged)

* Runners knee is a general term used to describe several knee conditions. The two
most prevalent are Patellar Tendonitis (PT) and Chondromalacia Patella (CP).

•   Discomfort around knee (CP, PT)
•   Tenderness below knee (PT)
•   Knee pain when kneeling, or sitting for long periods (PT)
•   Grinding sound under patella (CP)
•   Pain when running, climbing stairs, going from sitting to standing (CP)

• Overuse, or increasing mileage too fast (10% rule)
• Improper/worn out shoes
• Hill training, esp. down hill
• Pronation
• Muscle imbalances in the lower extremities
     o Quad/Hamstring
     o Weak cores
• Direct trauma to the patella (CP)
• Abnormal biomechanical tracking of the patella (CP)
• The area of pain does not always reflect the area of injury.
• In most cases ice and rest relieves symptoms, it does not fix the
  underlying issue. If pain persists longer than 3-4 days after a run get it
  looked at by a sports medicine doctor.
• When icing an area always use a moist barrier (wash cloth) between ice
  pack and skin. Ice for 20 minutes, no more, no less.
• Never use dry heat (heat pad), especially on an acute injury! Dry heat
  promotes inflammation.
• Bracing and taping, even Kinesio tape, provide temporary relief and
  management of symptoms. They do not fix the problem.
• A foam roller can be used as a home remedy to decrease muscle spasms,
  however, it is not designed as a replacement for treatment to, or the
  correction of, soft tissue injuries.
• Aqua jogging is an excellent x-training activity for injured runners who
  need to keep the mileage up while getting treatment.
• A full body Gait analysis by Koala can help pinpoint abnormalities that
  cause pain/injuries.
• A runner should stop exercise and seek immediate help for an injury if:
     o There is sharp, and/or burning, pain in the affected area
     o There is a change in gait biomechanics due to pain or injury

Three step home remedy for simple soft tissue ailments:

   1. Hot Epsom salt bath
         a. 2 cups of salts in the tub
         b. Soak area for 10-15 minutes
         c. Hydrate with H2O afterwards
   2. Stretch the affected area
   3. Ice affected area for 20 minutes
         a. Always use a moist barrier
         b. Ice a maximum of 20 minutes/hour
“All three steps should be done nightly for 1 week”

• If symptoms persist longer than 3-4 days, or continue to get
  worse, seek an opinion from a qualified sports medicine doctor.

   1. Runners should drink half their body weight in ounces a day,
      minimum. This does not include H2O in coffee/soft drinks.
   2. Dehydration is a key factor in hitting the wall.
   3. Sports drinks can be used to compliment water intake, not replace it.
   4. When possible, always cut sports drinks 50/50. With the exception of
      Pedialyte, most are a diuretic.
   5. Water is sufficient for the first 45 minutes of a long run, and then
      alternate water with a cut sports drink thereafter.
   6. You need to maintain a constant intake of electrolytes, primarily
      sodium, during long duration events of an hour or more. The ACSM
      recommends that during exercise sessions of less than one hour, there
      is little evidence of physiological/physical performance benefit from
      the consumption of electrolyte drinks. Water is the best fluid
      replacement here. However, for longer events over an hour in
      duration, electrolyte replacement may help prevent cramping and
   7. Monitor your heart rate. A sudden rise could indicate dehydration.
   8. Stop running if you feel nauseated, become dizzy, have the chills, feel
      confused, or cease to sweat. Signs of heat stress or heat stroke. Get
      immediate medical attention.
   9. Even though some races/runs have water stations, it’s always a good
      idea to carry your own mixture of water, and whatever electrolyte
      replacement you prefer, especially on hot and humid Dallas days.

Patrick N. Doyle, D.C.
Koala Health and Wellness Centers, Inc.
601 N. Akard st.
Dallas, Tx. 75201

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