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Lectia 10 Prepozitia

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					Lectia 10: Prepozitia
10.1. Introducere
Prepozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles
de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem folosi pentru a o
descrie:
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when
he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the
desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the
desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the
desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over
the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the
desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of
nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he
paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the
desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans
against the desk.
Cuvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.

                         In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie.




10.2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in
At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta
Ex.: The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
On indica zilele si datele calendaristice
Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday.
 We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul.
Ex.: She likes to jog in the morning.
 It's too cold in winter to run outside.
 He started the job in 1971.
 He's going to quit in August.

10.2. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in
At se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
Ex.: Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Ex.: Her house is on Boretz Road.
In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente).
Ex.: She lives in Durham.
 Durham is in Windham County.
 Windham County is in Connecticut.
                            Prepozitii de loc: in, at, on si lipsa prepozitiei
                  IN                  AT                 ON               lipsa prepozitiei
          (the) bed*           class*              the bed*          downstairs
          the bed              home                the ceiling       downtown
          room                 the library*        the floor         inside
          the car              the office          the horse         outside
          (the) class*         school*             the plane         upstairs

                                                                                                        1
          the library*        work                the train          uptown
          school*
          * In diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste locuri.


10.3. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei
To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
Ex.: They were driving to work together.
 She's going to the dentist's office this morning.
Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea.
Acestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent.
Ex.: We're moving toward the light.
 This is a big step towards the project's completion.
Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se
folosesc prepozitii.
Ex.: Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home.
 They both went outside.

10.4. Prepozitii de timp: for si since
For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani).
Ex.: He held his breath for seven minutes.
 She's lived there for seven years.
 The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
Ex.: He's worked here since 1970.
 She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

10.5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe
Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de
prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.
                              SUBSTANTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE
          approval of                 fondness for                need for
          awareness of                grasp of                    participation in
          belief in                   hatred of                   reason for
          concern for                 hope for                    respect for
          confusion about             interest in                 success in
          desire for                  love of                     understanding of
                                ADJECTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE
          afraid of                   fond of                     proud of
          angry at                    happy about                 similar to
          aware of                    interested in               sorry for
          capable of                  jealous of                  sure of

                                                                                                  2
           careless about             made of                   tired of
           familiar with              married to                worried about
                                  VERBELE si PREPOZITIILE
           apologize for              give up                   prepare for
           ask about                  grow up                   study for
           ask for                    look for                  talk about
           belong to                  look forward to           think about
           bring up                   look up                   trust in
           care for                   make up                   work for
           find out                   pay for                   worry about



Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (vezi 6.4.Verbe frazale).

10.6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii

      agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
      argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
      compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
      correspond to a thing, with a person
      differ from an unlike thing, with a person
      live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

10.7. Prepozitii inutile
In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observa
urmatoarele exemple:
Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway.
 The book fell off of the desk.
 He threw the book out of the window.
 She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in")
 Where did they go to?
 Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind")
 Where is your college at?


                       1. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu at, in sau on:
                      They live ___ in Coronation Street ___ number 32.
                      Jack works ___ Oxford ___ the University.
                      I've left my briefcase ___ the office. I think I left it ___ the chair ___the
                      corner.
                  Meet me ___ the bus-stop ___ the end of Bristol Road.
                  They live ___ Seal, a small village ___ the road to Folkestone.
                  2. Completeaza urmatorul text cu prepozitiile care lipsesc:
                  It was ___ the evening ____ Friday 29th March ___ Tribeca, New York. Police
                  patrolman Swaine and assistant potrolman Bradley were driving ___ 3rd
       Avenue. Swaine stopped the patrol car, which was new and shinning, ___ an electrical
       store. He needed some batteries. He got ___ and went ___ the store; but he left the keys
       ___ the car because Bradley stayed ___ the car. Swaine looked ___ the street. It was
       crowded ___ early evening shoppers. It was brightly lit and lively.
       3. Tradu pasajul de mai sus in limba romana.




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