Agenda January 24, 2011 Good Things INSPECT BENCHMARK TEST All correct answers will be added as EXTRA CREDIT points to your grade. No penalty for a wrong answer. Finish “The Story of an Eye Witness.” Read the selection on your own. Answer the questions on the worksheet If you don’t finish in class, it becomes homework due tomorrow, January 25 PERSUASION HOW TO ANALYZE PERSUASIVE PASSAGES PERSUASION An attempt to CONVINCE others to accept your point of view. ARGUMENT: When you persuade, it is called ARGUING for your POSITION. COUNTERARGUMENT: A person who disagrees with you and points out other suggestions or a different point of view. To persuade means to PROPOSE a choice to someone and then give he or she lots of good reasons to accept what you have proposed. Reasons are called SUPPORT or EVIDENCE. Where do you see Persuasion? Magazines Commercials Newspapers In politics Magazine Advertisements Commercials http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oswue3QYCk0&feature=PlayList&p=10FE125E53B 5176C&playnext=1&index=2 (AMP energy drink) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iqb4yFECuyU&feature=related (Coke) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WztnJkER6GY (HS sports – student made) Language “Killer burgers” A twelve year-old child was killed today by a repeat offender:fast food. Susan Groom was a regular customer at McDonalds restaurant. She would sneak in to „snack‟ in between meals with friends whenever she could. It became almost an obsession, an addiction. She had no signs of obesity but an autopsy revealed an inch of fat surrounding her heart. Susan was always breathless and unfit. She in fact, overdosed on this deadly drug called fast food. In Politics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrD6J vawslg&NR=1 (Barack) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOrm OvHysdU (McCain) How Does Persuasion Work? The Process of being Persuaded REASONING: the process of thinking about evidence presented and deciding whether it is good or bad. CONCLUSION: the end result of reasoning. The evidence should make sense so that we reach the conclusion that the persuader wants. Reasons that people Persuade There are THREE reasons people persuade. The reasons are called QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS OF FACT This has to do with whether something is TRUE or FALSE, REAL or NOT REAL. These topics have to do with the difference between a proven FACT or an OPINION. Questions of Fact center around what people BELIEVE. QUESTIONS OF VALUE These topics have to do with OPINIONS. Topics deal with how GOOD vs. BAD, FAIR vs. UNFAIR, etc. Questions of VALUE center around what people LIKE or DISLIKE. QUESTIONS OF POLICY Have to do with BEHAVIOR. Whenever you want someone to DO or NOT DO something, or you want to change the rules, it is a question of policy. Most persuasion has to do with POLICY. PRACTICE: Which question is it? Decide which question best fits the type of question: Is it FACT, VALUE, or POLICY? READY! GO! 1. My parents need to give me a bigger allowance. 2. Violent television shows and video games are a leading cause of violent behavior among teenagers 3. M&M‟s are better than Snickers. 4. Aliens from another galaxy visit Earth on a regular basis. 5. Teenagers should volunteer their time in the community. ANSWERS 1. My parents need to give me a bigger allowance. POLICY 2. Violent television shows and video games are a leading cause of violent behavior among teenagers. FACT 3. M&M‟s are better than Snickers. VALUE 4. Aliens from another galaxy visit Earth on a regular basis. FACT 5. Teenagers should volunteer their time in the community. POLICY 6. President Barak Obama is a good influence for our country. 7. People need to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels in order to save the environment. 8. Students who eat breakfast are more likely to have good grades in school than students who do not eat breakfast. 6. President Barak Obama is a good influence for our country. Value 7. People need to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels in order to save the environment. Policy 8. Students who eat breakfast are more likely to have good grades in school than students who do not eat breakfast. Fact EVALUATING EVIDENCE KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FACTS AND OPINION Facts: Statements that can be proven SCHOOLS WITH VIDEO MONITORS HAVE REPORTED LESS RUNNING IN THE HALLWAYS AND FEWER ACCIDENTS WITHIN THEIR FACILITIES. OPINION- statement of a personal belief that can‟t be proven VIDEO MONITORS IN OUR SCHOOL WILL BE TOO INSTRUSIVE. EVALUATING EVIDENCE To be convinced of something, we need to have proof that the proposed suggestions make sense. EVIDENCE: the proof that a persuader uses to convince us to agree with their point of view. Good evidence is called SOUND evidence. Bad evidence is called UNSOUND. Good evidence is called RELIABLE because it can be trusted over and over again. Types of Sound Evidence Quotes from experts Experts are people who are knowledgeable in a field. Statistics (numbers) that come from reliable sources First hand experiences Stories Facts Opinions Expert opinions come from people who are trusted. Proposition and Support Proposition and Support: Pointing out a problem and then presenting evidence to support that it is a problem, outlines a solution to the problem, then addresses counterarguments, then reinforces the solution. Example Childhood obesity has reached crisis proportions in the United States. (problem) California is one of the leading states with the problem of childhood obesity. (evidence) Solving the problem of childhood obesity will require a change in attitude, eating habits, and exercise. (solution) While many kids and their parent enjoy the convenience of snack foods and fast food meals, (counterargument) The benefits of making simple changes will improve children‟s lives and health. (reinforcing the solution). Agenda Good Things Warm Up Review “What’s Happening” Cornell Notes, continued: Persuasion Practicing Identifying PROPOSITION and SUPPORT Practicing Identifying FALLACIES in persuasion. Video: Worksheet Poster: Demonstrate a FALLACY in your own EXAMPLE HOMEWORK: STUDY PERSUASION TERMS FOR A QUIZ Finish FALLACY paper Warm-Up Every day, we stand up to say the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag. RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING: Do you think that schools should continue to do the Pledge or not? WHY? What COUNTERARGUMENT is there opposing your point of view? Write your Answer in Complete sentences. Persuasive Appeals: How we are hooked in Ethos: Using the credibility of the speaker or writer to give support to your position. Credibility: how trustworthy the source of the information is. Doctor Nancy Stone, M.D. states that Vitamin C is a necessary daily supplement. Persuasive Appeals, Continued Logos: Considering a position based on facts and truth. It logically makes sense. Schools that start an hour later in the morning have higher test scores because students are more rested and alert. Persuasive appeals, continued. PATHOS: Statements that evoke strong feelings instead of logic. BE ALERT FOR STATEMENTS or IDEAS THAT MAKE YOU FEEL ANGRY, SAD, OR EVEN VERY HAPPY! Most PATHOS are FALLACIES! Faulty Reasoning FALLACIES: Faulty reasoning that is based on weak evidence or not enough information. Persuaders who do not have enough evidence to support an argument usually use fallacies to get their point across. Types of Fallacies 1.OVERGENERALIZATION 2. EITHER-OR FALLACY 3. CAUSE-AND-EFFECT FALLACY 4. CIRCULAR REASONING 5. PROPOGANDA 6. BAND-WAGON 7. NAME-CALLING 8. SNOB APPEAL 9. ONCE-IN-A LIFETIME 10. OVERSIMPLIFICATION OVERGENERALIZATION A broad statement that says something is true for EVERY case, even though there are other possibilities. Every school official who supports video monitoring supports invasion of student privacy. EITHER-OR FALLACY Stating that there are only two possible reasons or options. Either you vote for video monitoring in schools or you don‟t care about student‟s safety. CAUSE-AND-EFFECT FALLACY Stating that because one event followed another, the second was caused by the first. Mountain View Middle School cut security staff and two children got hurt at lunch. MORE LOGICAL- Two Mountain view Middle school students were injured during lunch because they were running and slipped on wet pavement that had just been washed down. CIRCULAR REASONING An attempt to support a statement just by repeating it in other words. Wearing school uniforms is a good idea because uniforms are good for kids to wear. LOGICAL STATEMENT: Having children wear school uniforms is a good idea because it limits theft, self- esteem issues, and inappropriate dress. PROPOGANDA Using misleading, distorted, or false information to make someone believe or agree with a position. Bandwagon The everyone else is doing it so you should too bit! Clyde: “Dad, can I go to see the movie “Attack of the Killer Wombats?” Dad: “No, son, you can‟t go. I heard that movie has bad things in it.” Clyde: “Awe, come on, everybody‟s going to see it!” Name Calling/Ad-Hominem This is when a person‟s character is put down, and not their argument or evidence. Basically it‟s just coming back with the “You‟re Stupid!” bit. Snob Appeal Making it sound like agreeing with a position will make you superior to others. “When you care enough to send the very best…send Hallmark.” Once-in-a-Lifetime This type of fallacy gives a feeling of urgency…like it‟s a deal that will never ever be made again! Oversimplification Emphasizing only the good parts, while downplaying the bad parts. “Getting a new PS3 is really worth the $400 investment because you also get a blue-ray player and you can play older games on it.” In-Class Assignment: 35 POINTS Using your notes as a guide, select ONE OF the fallacies we learned about in class. Write the Fallacy in BIG letters on the top Create an example of the FALLACY in use. YOU MAY NOT USE THE ONE ON THE PAPER Draw a believable picture to visually demonstrate it. Color, neatness, and accuracy count. DUE in Class!