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PERSUASION

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					    Agenda January 24, 2011
 Good Things
 INSPECT BENCHMARK TEST
    All correct answers will be added as EXTRA
     CREDIT points to your grade.
    No penalty for a wrong answer.

 Finish “The Story of an Eye Witness.”
    Read the selection on your own.

    Answer the questions on the worksheet

    If you don’t finish in class, it becomes homework
     due tomorrow, January 25
PERSUASION

  HOW TO ANALYZE
  PERSUASIVE PASSAGES
                PERSUASION

 An attempt to CONVINCE others to accept your
  point of view.
 ARGUMENT: When you persuade, it is called
  ARGUING for your POSITION.
       COUNTERARGUMENT: A person who disagrees with
        you and points out other suggestions or a different
        point of view.
   To persuade means to PROPOSE a choice to
    someone and then give he or she lots of good
    reasons to accept what you have proposed.
       Reasons are called SUPPORT or EVIDENCE.
Where do you see Persuasion?

 Magazines
 Commercials
 Newspapers
 In politics
Magazine Advertisements
                  Commercials
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oswue3QYCk0&feature=PlayList&p=10FE125E53B
    5176C&playnext=1&index=2 (AMP energy drink)


   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iqb4yFECuyU&feature=related (Coke)


   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WztnJkER6GY (HS sports
    – student made)
                      Language
        “Killer burgers”

A twelve year-old child was killed
today by a repeat offender:fast
food. Susan Groom was a regular
customer at McDonalds restaurant.
She would sneak in to „snack‟ in
between meals with friends
whenever she could. It became
almost an obsession, an addiction.
She had no signs of obesity but an
autopsy revealed an inch of fat
surrounding her heart. Susan was
always breathless and unfit. She in
fact, overdosed on this deadly drug
called fast food.
            In Politics

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrD6J
  vawslg&NR=1 (Barack)
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOrm
  OvHysdU (McCain)
How Does Persuasion Work?
The Process of being Persuaded
   REASONING: the process of
    thinking about evidence
    presented and deciding whether
    it is good or bad.

   CONCLUSION: the end result
    of reasoning.
      The evidence should make
        sense so that we reach the
        conclusion that the
        persuader wants.
Reasons that people Persuade

 There are THREE
  reasons people
  persuade.
 The reasons are called
  QUESTIONS.
QUESTIONS OF FACT
           This has to do with
           whether something is
           TRUE or FALSE,
           REAL or NOT REAL.
              These topics have to
               do with the
               difference between a
               proven FACT or an
               OPINION.
              Questions of Fact
               center around what
               people BELIEVE.
QUESTIONS OF VALUE
These topics have to
do with OPINIONS.
   Topics deal with how
    GOOD vs. BAD,
    FAIR vs. UNFAIR,
    etc.
   Questions of VALUE
    center around what
    people LIKE or
    DISLIKE.
QUESTIONS OF POLICY

              Have to do with
               BEHAVIOR.
                  Whenever you want
                   someone to DO or
                   NOT DO something,
                   or you want to change
                   the rules, it is a
                   question of policy.
                  Most persuasion has to
                   do with POLICY.
           PRACTICE:
        Which question is it?
   Decide which question best fits the type of
    question: Is it FACT, VALUE, or POLICY?

   READY! GO!
   1. My parents need to give me a bigger
       allowance.
   2. Violent television shows and video games
       are a leading cause of violent behavior
       among teenagers
   3. M&M‟s are better than Snickers.
   4. Aliens from another galaxy visit Earth on a
       regular basis.
   5. Teenagers should volunteer their time in
       the community.
ANSWERS
    1. My parents need to give me a bigger
        allowance. POLICY
    2. Violent television shows and video games
        are a leading cause of violent behavior
        among teenagers. FACT
    3. M&M‟s are better than Snickers. VALUE
    4. Aliens from another galaxy visit Earth on a
        regular basis. FACT
    5. Teenagers should volunteer their time in
        the community. POLICY
 6. President Barak Obama is a good
  influence for our country.
 7. People need to reduce their dependence
  on fossil fuels in order to save the
  environment.
 8. Students who eat breakfast are more
  likely to have good grades in school than
  students who do not eat breakfast.
 6. President Barak Obama is a good
  influence for our country. Value
 7. People need to reduce their dependence
  on fossil fuels in order to save the
  environment. Policy
 8. Students who eat breakfast are more
  likely to have good grades in school than
  students who do not eat breakfast. Fact
     EVALUATING EVIDENCE

   KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FACTS
    AND OPINION

   Facts: Statements that can be proven
       SCHOOLS WITH VIDEO MONITORS HAVE REPORTED LESS
        RUNNING IN THE HALLWAYS AND FEWER ACCIDENTS WITHIN
        THEIR FACILITIES.


   OPINION- statement of a personal belief that
    can‟t be proven
            VIDEO MONITORS IN OUR SCHOOL WILL BE TOO
             INSTRUSIVE.
    EVALUATING EVIDENCE

   To be convinced of something, we need to
    have proof that the proposed suggestions
    make sense.
     EVIDENCE: the proof that a persuader uses to
      convince us to agree with their point of view.
     Good evidence is called SOUND evidence. Bad
      evidence is called UNSOUND.
     Good evidence is called RELIABLE because it
      can be trusted over and over again.
    Types of Sound Evidence

   Quotes from experts
       Experts are people who are knowledgeable in a field.
   Statistics (numbers) that come from reliable
    sources
   First hand experiences
   Stories
   Facts
   Opinions
       Expert opinions come from people who are trusted.
     Proposition and Support

   Proposition and Support: Pointing out a
    problem and then presenting evidence to
    support that it is a problem, outlines a
    solution to the problem, then addresses
    counterarguments, then reinforces the
    solution.
                    Example
 Childhood obesity has reached crisis proportions in the
  United States. (problem)
 California is one of the leading states with the problem of
  childhood obesity. (evidence)
 Solving the problem of childhood obesity will require a
  change in attitude, eating habits, and exercise. (solution)
 While many kids and their parent enjoy the convenience
  of snack foods and fast food meals, (counterargument)
 The benefits of making simple changes will improve
  children‟s lives and health. (reinforcing the solution).
                       Agenda
   Good Things
   Warm Up
   Review “What’s Happening”
   Cornell Notes, continued: Persuasion
   Practicing Identifying PROPOSITION and SUPPORT
   Practicing Identifying FALLACIES in persuasion.
       Video: Worksheet
       Poster: Demonstrate a FALLACY in your own EXAMPLE

   HOMEWORK: STUDY PERSUASION TERMS FOR A QUIZ
    Finish FALLACY paper
                Warm-Up

   Every day, we stand up to say the
    Pledge of Allegiance to the United States
    Flag. RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING:
     Do you think that schools should continue to
      do the Pledge or not? WHY?
     What COUNTERARGUMENT is there
      opposing your point of view?

    Write your Answer in Complete sentences.
Persuasive Appeals: How we are
          hooked in
                    Ethos: Using the credibility of
                     the speaker or writer to give
                     support to your position.

                    Credibility: how trustworthy
                     the source of the information
                     is.
                         Doctor Nancy Stone,
                          M.D. states that Vitamin
                          C is a necessary daily
                          supplement.
Persuasive Appeals, Continued

                    Logos: Considering a
                     position based on
                     facts and truth. It
                     logically makes sense.

                        Schools that start an
                         hour later in the
                         morning have higher
                         test scores because
                         students are more
                         rested and alert.
Persuasive appeals, continued.

    PATHOS: Statements that
     evoke strong feelings
     instead of logic.

        BE ALERT FOR
         STATEMENTS or IDEAS
         THAT MAKE YOU FEEL
         ANGRY, SAD, OR EVEN
         VERY HAPPY!
        Most PATHOS are
         FALLACIES!
             Faulty Reasoning

   FALLACIES: Faulty reasoning that is based
    on weak evidence or not enough
    information.
       Persuaders who do not have enough evidence
        to support an argument usually use fallacies to
        get their point across.
         Types of Fallacies

   1.OVERGENERALIZATION
   2. EITHER-OR FALLACY
   3. CAUSE-AND-EFFECT FALLACY
   4. CIRCULAR REASONING
   5. PROPOGANDA
   6. BAND-WAGON
   7. NAME-CALLING
   8. SNOB APPEAL
   9. ONCE-IN-A LIFETIME
   10. OVERSIMPLIFICATION
     OVERGENERALIZATION

   A broad statement that says something is
    true for EVERY case, even though there are
    other possibilities.
       Every school official who supports video
        monitoring supports invasion of student
        privacy.
       EITHER-OR FALLACY

   Stating that there are only two possible
    reasons or options.

   Either you vote for video monitoring in
    schools or you don‟t care about student‟s
    safety.
CAUSE-AND-EFFECT FALLACY
   Stating that because one event followed another, the
    second was caused by the first.

       Mountain View Middle School cut security staff and
        two children got hurt at lunch.

       MORE LOGICAL- Two Mountain view Middle school
        students were injured during lunch because they were
        running and slipped on wet pavement that had just
        been washed down.
        CIRCULAR REASONING

   An attempt to support a statement just by
    repeating it in other words.

       Wearing school uniforms is a good idea because
        uniforms are good for kids to wear.

       LOGICAL STATEMENT: Having children wear school
        uniforms is a good idea because it limits theft, self-
        esteem issues, and inappropriate dress.
             PROPOGANDA

   Using misleading,
    distorted, or false
    information to make
    someone believe or
    agree with a position.
Bandwagon
         The everyone else is doing
          it so you should too bit!

             Clyde: “Dad, can I go to
              see the movie “Attack of
              the Killer Wombats?”
             Dad: “No, son, you can‟t
              go. I heard that movie
              has bad things in it.”
             Clyde: “Awe, come on,
              everybody‟s going to see
              it!”
Name Calling/Ad-Hominem

   This is when a person‟s
    character is put down,
    and not their
    argument or evidence.

   Basically it‟s just
    coming back with the
    “You‟re Stupid!” bit.
               Snob Appeal

   Making it sound like
    agreeing with a
    position will make
    you superior to
    others.

   “When you care
    enough to send the
    very best…send
    Hallmark.”
          Once-in-a-Lifetime

   This type of fallacy
    gives a feeling of
    urgency…like it‟s a
    deal that will never
    ever be made again!
Oversimplification

              Emphasizing only the
               good parts, while
               downplaying the bad
               parts.

              “Getting a new PS3 is
               really worth the $400
               investment because you
               also get a blue-ray
               player and you can play
               older games on it.”
In-Class Assignment: 35 POINTS

   Using your notes as a guide, select ONE OF
    the fallacies we learned about in class.
   Write the Fallacy in BIG letters on the top
   Create an example of the FALLACY in use.
    YOU MAY NOT USE THE ONE ON THE
    PAPER
   Draw a believable picture to visually
    demonstrate it.
   Color, neatness, and accuracy count.
   DUE in Class!

				
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