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					Institute Student Achievement Toolkit 2010
12th Grade English Assessment Bank:
                   from Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
                                             By Harriet Jacobs
                                                                                      Notes about what
                                                                                          I am reading
   1       I would ten thousand times rather that my children should be the half-
       starved paupers of Ireland than to be the most pampered among the slaves
       of America. I would rather drudge out my life on a cotton plantation, till
       the grave opened to give me rest, than to live with an unprincipled master
       and a jealous mistress. The felon's home in a penitentiary is preferable.
       He may repent, and turn from the error of his ways, and so find peace; but
       it is not so with a favorite slave. She is not allowed to have any pride of
       character. It is deemed a crime in her to wish to be virtuous.

   2       Mrs. Flint possessed the key to her husband's character before I was
       born. She might have used this knowledge to counsel and to screen the
       young and the innocent among her slaves; but for them she had no
       sympathy. They were the objects of her constant suspicion and
       malevolence. She watched her husband with unceasing vigilance; but he
       was well practised in means to evade it. What he could not find
       opportunity to say in words he manifested in signs. He invented more
       than were ever thought of in a deaf and dumb asylum. I let them pass, as
       if I did not understand what he meant; and many were the curses and
       threats bestowed on me for my stupidity.

   3       One day he caught me teaching myself to write. He frowned, as if he
       was not well pleased; but I suppose he came to the conclusion that such
       an accomplishment might help to advance his favorite scheme. Before
       long, notes were often slipped into my hand. I would return them, saying,
       "I can't read them, sir." "Can't you?" he replied; "then I must read them to
       you." He always finished the reading by asking, "Do you understand?"

   4      Sometimes he would complain of the heat of the tea room, and order
       his supper to be placed on a small table in the piazza. He would seat
       himself there with a well-satisfied smile, and tell me to stand by and
       brush away the flies. He would eat very slowly, pausing between the
       mouthfuls. These intervals were employed in describing the happiness I
       was so foolishly throwing away, and in threatening me with the penalty
       that finally awaited my stubborn disobedience. He boasted much of the
       forbearance he had exercised towards me, and reminded me that there
       was a limit to his patience.




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5      When I succeeded in avoiding opportunities for him to talk to me at
    home, I was ordered to come to his office, to do some errand. When there,
    I was obliged to stand and listen to such language as he saw fit to address
    to me. Sometimes I so openly expressed my contempt for him that he
    would become violently enraged, and I wondered why he did not strike
    me. Circumstanced as he was, he probably thought it was better policy to
    be forebearing. But the state of things grew worse and worse daily. In
    desperation I told him that I must and would apply to my grandmother for
    protection. He threatened me with death, and worse than death, if I made
    any complaint to her. Strange to say, I did not despair. I was naturally of a
    buoyant disposition, and always I had a hope of somehow getting out of
    his clutches. Like many a poor, simple slave before me, I trusted that
    some threads of joy would yet be woven into my dark destiny.

6      I had entered my sixteenth year, and every day it became more
    apparent that my presence was intolerable to Mrs. Flint. Angry words
    frequently passed between her and her husband. He had never punished
    me himself, and he would not allow any body else to punish me. In that
    respect, she was never satisfied; but, in her angry moods, no terms were
    too vile for her to bestow upon me. Yet I, whom she detested so bitterly,
    had far more pity for her than he had, whose duty it was to make her life
    happy. I never wronged her, or wished to wrong her, and one word of
    kindness from her would have brought me to her feet.

7       After repeated quarrels between the doctor and his wife, he announced
    his intention to take his youngest daughter, then four years old, to sleep in
    his apartment. It was necessary that a servant should sleep in the same
    room, to be on hand if the child stirred. I was selected for that office, and
    informed for what purpose that arrangement had been made. By
    managing to keep within sight of people, as much as possible, during the
    day time, I had hitherto succeeded in eluding my master, though a razor
    was often held to my throat to force me to change this line of policy. At
    night I slept by the side of my great aunt, where I felt safe. He was too
    prudent to come into her room. She was an old woman, and had been in
    the family many years. Moreover, as a married man, and a professional
    man, he deemed it necessary to save appearances in some degree. But he
    resolved to remove the obstacle in the way of his scheme; and he thought
    he had planned it so that he should evade suspicion. He was well aware
    how much I prized my refuge by the side of my old aunt, and he
    determined to dispossess me of it. The first night the doctor had the little
    child in his room alone. The next morning, I was ordered to take my
    station as nurse the following night. A kind Providence interposed in my
    favor. During the day Mrs. Flint heard of this new arrangement, and a
    storm followed. I rejoiced to hear it rage.

8      After a while my mistress sent for me to come to her room. Her first
    question was, "Did you know you were to sleep in the doctor's room?"




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 9      "Yes, ma'am."

10      "Who told you?"

11      "My master."

12      "Will you answer truly all the questions I ask?"

13      "Yes, ma'am."

14      "Tell me, then, as you hope to be forgiven, are you innocent of what I
     have accused you?"

15      "I am."

16       She handed me a Bible, and said, "Lay your hand on your heart, kiss
     this holy book, and swear before God that you tell me the truth."

17      I took the oath she required, and I did it with a clear conscience.

18       "You have taken God's holy word to testify your innocence," said she.
     "If you have deceived me, beware! Now take this stool, sit down, look me
     directly in the face, and tell me all that has passed between your master
     and you."




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19       I did as she said. As I went on with my account her color changed
     frequently, she wept, and sometimes groaned. She spoke in tones so sad,
     that I was touched by her grief. The tears came to my eyes; but I was soon
     convinced that her emotions arose from anger and wounded pride. She
     felt that her marriage vows were desecrated, her dignity insulted; but she
     had no compassion for the poor victim of her husband's perfidy. She
     pitied herself as a martyr; but she was incapable of feeling for the
     condition of shame and misery in which her unfortunate, helpless slave
     was placed. Yet perhaps she had some touch of feeling for me; for when
     the conference was ended, she spoke kindly, and promised to protect me.
     I should have been much comforted by this assurance if I could have had
     confidence in it; but my experiences in slavery had filled me with distrust.
     She was not a very refined woman, and had not much control over her
     passions. I was an object of her jealousy, and, consequently, of her hatred;
     and I knew I could not expect kindness or confidence from her under the
     circumstances in which I was placed. I could not blame her. Slaveholders'
     wives feel as other women would under similar circumstances. The fire of
     her temper kindled from small-sparks, and now the flame became so
     intense that the doctor was obliged to give up his intended arrangement.

20      I knew I had ignited the torch, and I expected to suffer for it
     afterwards; but I felt too thankful to my mistress for the timely aid she
     rendered me to care much about that. She now took me to sleep in a room
     adjoining her own. There I was an object of her especial care, though not
     to her especial comfort, for she spent many a sleepless night to watch
     over me. Sometimes I woke up, and found her bending over me. At other
     times she whispered in my ear, as though it was her husband who was
     speaking to me, and listened to hear what I would answer. If she startled
     me, on such occasions, she would glide stealthily away; and the next
     morning she would tell me I had been talking in my sleep, and ask who I
     was talking to. At last, I began to be fearful for my life. It had been often
     threatened; and you can imagine, better than I can describe, what an
     unpleasant sensation it must produce to wake up in the dead of night and
     find a jealous woman bending over you. Terrible as this experience was, I
     had fears that it would give place to one more terrible.




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21       My mistress grew weary of her vigils; they did not prove satisfactory.
     She changed her tactics. She now tried the trick of accusing my master of
     crime, in my presence, and gave my name as the author of the accusation.
     To my utter astonishment, he replied, "I don't believe it; but if she did
     acknowledge it, you tortured her into exposing me." Tortured into
     exposing him! Truly, Satan had no difficulty in distinguishing the color of
     his soul! I understood his object in making this false representation. It
     was to show me that I gained nothing by seeking the protection of my
     mistress; that the power was still all in his own hands. I pitied Mrs. Flint.
     She was a second wife, many years the junior of her husband; and the
     hoary-headed miscreant was enough to try the patience of a wiser and
     better woman. She was completely foiled, and knew not how to proceed.
     She would gladly have had me flogged for my supposed false oath; but,
     as I have already stated, the doctor never allowed any one to whip me.
     The old sinner was politic. The application of the lash might have led to
     remarks that would have exposed him in the eyes of his children and
     grandchildren. How often did I rejoice that I lived in a town where all the
     inhabitants knew each other! If I had been on a remote plantation, or lost
     among the multitude of a crowded city, I should not be a living woman at
     this day.

22      The secrets of slavery are concealed like those of the Inquisition. My
     master was, to my knowledge, the father of eleven slaves. But did the
     mothers dare to tell who was the father of their children? Did the other
     slaves dare to allude to it, except in whispers among themselves? No,
     indeed! They knew too well the terrible consequences.




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23       My grandmother could not avoid seeing things which excited her
     suspicions. She was uneasy about me, and tried various ways to buy me;
     but the never-changing answer was always repeated: "[Harriet] does not
     belong to me. She is my daughter's property, and I have no legal right to
     sell her." The conscientious man! He was too scrupulous to sell me; but
     he had no scruples whatever about committing a much greater wrong
     against the helpless young girl placed under his guardianship, as his
     daughter's property. Sometimes my persecutor would ask me whether I
     would like to be sold. I told him I would rather be sold to any body than
     to lead such a life as I did. On such occasions he would assume the air of
     a very injured individual, and reproach me for my ingratitude. "Did I not
     take you into the house, and make you the companion of my own
     children?" he would say. "Have I ever treated you like a negro? I have
     never allowed you to be punished, not even to please your mistress. And
     this is the recompense I get, you ungrateful girl!" I answered that he had
     reasons of his own for screening me from punishment, and that the course
     he pursued made my mistress hate me and persecute me. If I wept, he
     would say, "Poor child! Don't cry! don't cry! I will make peace for you
     with your mistress. Only let me arrange matters in my own way. Poor,
     foolish girl! you don't know what is for your own good. I would cherish
     you. I would make a lady of you. Now go, and think of all I have
     promised you."

24      I did think of it.

25      Reader, I draw no imaginary pictures of southern homes. I am telling
     you the plain truth. Yet when victims make their escape from the wild
     beast of Slavery, northerners consent to act the part of bloodhounds, and
     hunt the poor fugitive back into his den, "full of dead men's bones, and all
     uncleanness." Nay, more, they are not only willing, but proud, to give
     their daughters in marriage to slaveholders. The poor girls have romantic
     notions of a sunny clime, and of the flowering vines that all the year
     round shade a happy home. To what disappointments are they destined!
     The young wife soon learns that the husband in whose hands she has
     placed her happiness pays no regard to his marriage vows. Children of
     every shade of complexion play with her own fair babies, and too well
     she knows that they are born unto him of his own household. Jealousy
     and hatred enter the flowery home, and it is ravaged of its loveliness.

26       Southern women often marry a man knowing that he is the father of
     many little slaves. They do not trouble themselves about it. They regard
     such children as property, as marketable as the pigs on the plantation; and
     it is seldom that they do not make them aware of this by passing them
     into the slave-trader's hands as soon as possible, and thus getting them out
     of their sight. I am glad to say there are some honorable exceptions.




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 27       I have myself known two southern wives who exhorted their husbands
      to free those slaves towards whom they stood in a "parental relation;" and
      their request was granted. These husbands blushed before the superior
      nobleness of their wives' natures. Though they had only counselled them
      to do that which it was their duty to do, it commanded their respect, and
      rendered their conduct more exemplary. Concealment was at an end, and
      confidence took the place of distrust.



ELA 12.1 (A) (2). SWBAT define, identify and compose topic sentences.
01. What is the topic sentence of paragraph 6?
A. I had entered my sixteenth year, and every day it became more apparent that my
presence was intolerable to Mrs. Flint.
B. He had never punished me himself, and he would not allow any body else to punish
me.
C. Yet I, whom she detested so bitterly, had far more pity for her than he had, whose
duty it was to make her life happy.
D. I never wronged her, or wished to wrong her, and one word of kindness from her
would have brought me to her feet.
ELA 12.1 (A) (6). SWBAT distinguish between effective and ineffective word
choice (i.e. slang vs. technical language, more vs. less precise synonyms, etc.).
02. In paragraph 4, the word piazza refers to a specific kind of --
A. food
B. room
C. machine
D. patio
ELA 12.1 (A) (7). SWBAT revise writing for effective word choice.
03. In paragraph 19, the author says, “I did as she said.” To emphasize the control Mrs.
Flint has over the author, the word said should be replaced with --
A. expected
B. hoped
C. ordered
D. requested
ELA 12.3 (A) (3). SWBAT evaluate and revise punctuation in a writing piece.




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04. How should the following sentence from paragraph 23 be revised?
“He was too scrupulous to sell me; but he had no scruples whatever about committing a
much greater wrong against the helpless young girl placed under his guardianship, as
his daughter’s property.”
A. He was too scrupulous to sell me, but he had no scruples whatever about committing
a much greater wrong against the helpless young girl placed under his guardianship, as
his daughter’s property.
B. He was too scrupulous to sell me: but he had no scruples whatever about committing
a much greater wrong against the helpless young girl placed under his guardianship, as
his daughter’s property.
C. He was too scrupulous to sell me but he had no scruples whatever about committing
a much greater wrong against the helpless young girl placed under his guardianship, as
his daughter’s property.
D. No revision needed.
ELA 12.6 (B) (2). SWBAT identify clues from the context (e.g. common sentence
patterns that provide an example, definition, reiteration, or opposite of a complex
term or word; surrounding parts of speech that help identify the part of speech of
a word or phrase; clues that suggest a phrase is an idiomatic expression or an
example of figurative language).
05. Which phrase from paragraph 4 best helps the reader understand the meaning of
the word forbearance?
A. “a well-satisfied smile”
B. “foolishly throwing away”
C. “my stubborn disobedience”
D. “He boasted much...”
06. Which word from paragraph 27 best helps the reader understand the meaning of the
word exhorted?
A. “southern”
B. “wives”
C. “request”
D. “nobleness”
ELA 12.6 (B) (3). SWBAT determine a reasonable working definition for a word or
phrase based on clues from the context.
07. Which of the following is the closest to the meaning of screen as it is used in
paragraph 2?
A. punish
B. select
C. protect
D. test
08. In paragraph 25, the word ravaged means --
A. aware
B. emptied
C. delivered
D. released



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ELA 12.7 (F) (3). SWBAT identify main ideas, both explicitly stated and those that
must be inferred.
09. This passage is mostly about --
A. the author’s plight to teach herself how to read.
B. Dr. Flint’s attempts to corner and seduce the author against her will.
C. the conflict between female slaves and their jealous mistresses.
D. the way female slaves are treated differently from male slaves.
10. Which of the following most accurately states the subject of paragraph 25?
A. Women who marry slave-owners become jealous of their attractive female slaves.
B. Northerners continue to idealize the south despite problems caused by slavery.
C. Slave-owners commonly impregnate their female slaves.
D. Citizens of free northern states return escaped slaves to their southern masters.
ELA 12.7 (F) (4). SWBAT identify supporting details.
11. In paragraph 21, Mrs. Flint’s tactics “did not prove satisfactory” because --
A. Dr. Flint said she had tortured the author into lying to her.
B. the author had begun, for the first time, to fear that she would be killed.
C. she could not prove her husband and the author were sexually involved.
D. she was many years younger than was her husband.
ELA 12.7 (G) (2). SWBAT distinguish between inferences, guesses and
paraphrases.
12. Choose the best paraphrase of the following sentence from paragraph 6: “Yet I,
whom she detested so bitterly, had far more pity for her than he had, whose duty it was
to make her life happy.”
A. For many years, Mrs. Flint had held a grudge against Dr. Flint for his relations with
their slaves, and she refused to believe Harriet Jacobs could show more devotion to her
than her husband did.
B. Harriet Jacobs treated Mrs. Flint better than Dr. Flint had for years, but even so Mrs.
Flint hated her.
C. Since she was his second wife, Dr. Flint felt no obligation to be faithful to Mrs. Flint,
and his attempts to seduce Harriet Jacobs only increased Mrs. Flint’s hatred for them
both.
D. Unlike Dr. Flint, Harriet Jacobs was not responsible for Mrs. Flint’s happiness, but
even so she felt more compassion for the mistress that hated her than Dr. Flint ever did.
ELA 12.7 (G) (3). SWBAT draw an inference based on evidence within a text.
13. In paragraph 2, Harriet Jacobs is accused of “stupidity” because --
A. she does not know how to read or write.
B. she does not comprehend the signs Dr. Flint makes to her.
C. she pretends she cannot understand Dr. Flint’s gestures.
D. she displeases her mistress, Mrs. Flint.
14. Based on the information in paragraph 19, the reader can infer that Mrs. Flint --
A. is a proud woman.
B. regrets her marriage.
C. blames the author for her unhappiness.
D. plans to protect the author.



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ELA 12.10 (B) (2). SWBAT distinguish between relevant/sufficient and
irrelevant/insufficient evidence.
15. Which of the following is NOT a reason Dr. Flint wants his youngest daughter to
sleep in his room?
A. He wants to personally assure that she is cared for at night.
B. If his daughter stays with him, a female slave must stay with him also.
C. The author likes to sleep in the same room as her old aunt.
D. He is a married, professional man who wants to keep his affairs quiet.
ELA 12.10 (B) (3). SWBAT defend a response or interpretation with relevant
evidence from the text.
16. Based on the information in paragraph 2, the author likely believes that --
A. Mrs. Flint should have warned her slaves about Dr. Flint’s sexual advances.
B. Mrs. Flint wanted to believe Dr. Flint would never be unfaithful to her with a slave.
C. Mrs. Flint could not punish Dr. Flint, so she punished her slaves instead.
D. Dr. Flint made sexual advances toward slaves because he wanted to anger Mrs.
Flint.
ELA 12.12 (A) (5). SWBAT identify diction that creates connotative effect or
pattern in a text.
17. In paragraph 22, the author uses the phrase “to my knowledge” to imply --
A. the possibility that Dr. Flint had fathered less than eleven slaves.
B. the possibility that Dr. Flint had fathered more than eleven slaves.
C. that it may be just a rumor that Dr. Flint had fathered many slaves.
D. that Dr. Flint usually sold slaves who were also his children.
ELA 12.12 (A) (6). SWBAT analyze how word choice affects style, tone, etc.
18. In paragraph 25, the author uses the phrase “the wild beast of Slavery” to --
A. depict slavery as unfit for civilized people.
B. enhance the reader’s sympathy for the author.
C. emphasize the terror felt by slaves.
D. imply that slavery is too powerful to be controlled.
ELA 12.12 (C) (2). SWBAT distinguish between sound logical arguments and
irrational or fallacious arguments.
19. In paragraph 23, Dr. Flint says, “I have never allowed you to be punished, not even
to please your mistress. And this is the recompense I get, you ungrateful girl!” His words
exemplify which of the following logical fallacies?
A. non sequitur
B. appeal to pity
C. slippery slope
D. straw man
ELA 12.12 (C) (3). SWBAT identify the logical argument in a text.




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20. Overall, the conclusion of this passage is that --
A. women should not expect their husbands to be faithful when they own attractive
slaves.
B. slavery should be abolished because it corrupts slaves and slave-owners both.
C. even the most pampered slaves receive horrific treatment from their owners.
D. wives of slave-owners should encourage their husbands to free the slaves they
father.
ELA 12.12 (C) (5). SWBAT evaluate the logical argument and reasoning as sound
and logical, irrational, or fallacious.
21. The author’s statement that Mrs. Flint’s “emotions arose from anger and wounded
pride” (paragraph 19) is most likely --
A. untrue based on the information in the passage.
B. an example of the author’s anger and disrespect for Mrs. Flint.
C. included as a defense for Mrs. Flint’s behavior toward the author.
D. a conclusion drawn from the events that follow this moment in the passage.

Institute Student Achievement Toolkit 2010
12th Grade English Assessment Bank:
                               from “Taming the Bicycle”
                                              By Mark Twain
                                                                                      Notes about what
                                                                                          I am reading
   1      I thought the matter over, and concluded I could do it. So I went down
       and bought a barrel of Pond's Extract and a bicycle. The Expert came
       home with me to instruct me. We chose the back yard, for the sake of
       privacy, and went to work.

   2      Mine was not a full-grown bicycle, but only a colt -- a fifty-inch, with
       the pedals shortened up to forty-eight -- and skittish, like any other colt.
       The Expert explained the thing's points briefly, then he got on its back
       and rode around a little, to show me how easy it was to do. He said that
       the dismounting was perhaps the hardest thing to learn, and so we would
       leave that to the last. But he was in error there. He found, to his surprise
       and joy, that all that he needed to do was to get me on to the machine and
       stand out of the way; I could get off, myself. Although I was wholly
       inexperienced, I dismounted in the best time on record. He was on that
       side, shoving up the machine; we all came down with a crash, he at the
       bottom, I next, and the machine on top.




                                                                                                     1
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3      We examined the machine, but it was not in the least injured. This was
    hardly believable. Yet the Expert assured me that it was true; in fact, the
    examination proved it. I was partly to realize, then, how admirably these
    things are constructed. We applied some Pond's Extract, and resumed.
    The Expert got on the other side to shove up this time, but I dismounted
    on that side; so the result was as before.

4      The machine was not hurt. We oiled ourselves up again, and resumed.
    This time the Expert took up a sheltered position behind, but somehow or
    other we landed on him again.

5      He was full of surprised admiration; said it was abnormal. She was all
    right, not a scratch on her, not a timber started anywhere. I said it was
    wonderful, while we were greasing up, but he said that when I came to
    know these steel spider-webs I would realize that nothing but dynamite
    could cripple them. Then he limped out to position, and we resumed once
    more. This time the Expert took up the position of short-stop, and got a
    man to shove up behind. We got up a handsome speed, and presently
    traversed a brick, and I went out over the top of the tiller and landed, head
    down, on the instructor's back, and saw the machine fluttering in the air
    between me and the sun. It was well it came down on us, for that broke
    the fall, and it was not injured.

6      Five days later I got out and was carried down to the hospital, and
    found the Expert doing pretty fairly. In a few more days I was quite
    sound. I attribute this to my prudence in always dismounting on
    something soft. Some recommend a feather bed, but I think an Expert is
    better.

7      The Expert got out at last, brought four assistants with him. It was a
    good idea. These four held the graceful cobweb upright while I climbed
    into the saddle; then they formed in column and marched on either side of
    me while the Expert pushed behind; all hands assisted at the dismount.




                                                                                    1
                                                                                    2
 8       The bicycle had what is called the 'wabbles', and had them very badly.
     In order to keep my position, a good many things were required of me,
     and in every instance the thing required was against nature. Against
     nature, but not against the laws of nature. That is to say, that whatever the
     needed thing might be, my nature, habit, and breeding moved me to
     attempt it in one way, while some immutable and unsuspected law of
     physics required that it be done in just the other way. I perceived by this
     how radically and grotesquely wrong had been the lifelong education of
     my body and members. They were steeped in ignorance; they knew
     nothing - nothing which it could profit them to know. For instance, if I
     found myself falling to the right, I put the tiller hard down the other way,
     by a quite natural impulse, and so violated a law, and kept on going
     down. The law required the opposite thing - the big wheel must be turned
     in the direction in which you are falling. It is hard to believe this, when
     you are told it . And not merely hard to believe it, but impossible; it is
     opposed to all your notions. And it is just as hard to do it, after you do
     come to believe it. Believing it, and knowing by the most convincing
     proof that it is true, does not help it: you can't any more do it that you
     could before; you can neither force nor persuade yourself to do it at first.
     The intellect has to come to the front, now. It has to teach the limbs to
     discard their old education and adopt the new.

 9       The steps of one's progress are distinctly marked. At the end of each
     lesson he knows he has acquired something, and he also knows what that
     something is, and likewise that it will stay with him. It is not like studying
     German, where you mull along, in a groping, uncertain way, for thirty
     years; and at last, just as you think you've got it, they spring the
     subjunctive on you, and there you are. No -- and I see now, plainly
     enough, that the great pity about the German language is, that you can't
     fall off it and hurt yourself. There is nothing like that feature to make you
     attend strictly to business. But I also see, by what I have learned of
     bicycling, that the right and only sure way to learn German is by the
     bicycling method. That is to say, take a grip on one villainy of it at a time,
     and learn it -- not ease up and shirk to the next, leaving that one half
     learned.

10       When you have reached the point in bicycling where you can balance
     the machine tolerably fairly and propel it and steer it, then comes your
     next task -- how to mount it. You do it in this way: you hop along behind
     it on your right foot, resting the other on the mounting-peg, and grasping
     the tiller with your hands. At the word, you rise on the peg, stiffen your
     left leg, hang your other one around in the air in a general and indefinite
     way, lean your stomach against the rear of the saddle, and then fall off,
     maybe on one side, maybe on the other; but you fall off. You get up and
     do it again; and once more; and then several times.




                                                                                      1
                                                                                      3
 11       By this time you have learned to keep your balance; and also to steer
      without wrenching the tiller out by the roots (I say tiller because it is a
      tiller; "handle-bar" is a lamely descriptive phrase). So you steer along,
      straight ahead, a little while, then you rise forward, with a steady strain,
      bringing your right leg, and then your body, into the saddle, catch your
      breath, fetch a violent hitch this way and then that, and down you go
      again.

 12      But you have ceased to mind the going down by this time; you are
      getting to light on one foot or the other with considerable certainty. Six
      more attempts and six more falls make you perfect. You land in the
      saddle comfortably, next time, and stay there -- that is, if you can be
      content to let your legs dangle, and leave the pedals alone a while; but if
      you grab at once for the pedals, you are gone again. You soon learn to
      wait a little and perfect your balance before reaching for the pedals; then
      the mounting-art is acquired, is complete, and a little practice will make it
      simple and easy to you, though spectators ought to keep off a rod or two
      to one side, along at first, if you have nothing against them.

 13      And now you come to the voluntary dismount; you learned the other
      kind first of all. It is quite easy to tell one how to do the voluntary
      dismount; the words are few, the requirement simple, and apparently
      undifficult; let your left pedal go down till your left leg is nearly straight,
      turn your wheel to the left, and get off as you would from a horse. It
      certainly does sound exceedingly easy; but it isn't. I don't know why it
      isn't, but it isn't. Try as you may, you don't get down as you would from a
      horse, you get down as you would from a house afire. You make a
      spectacle of yourself every time.

 14      During eight days I took a daily lesson of an hour and a half. At the
      end of this twelve working-hours' apprenticeship I was graduated -- in the
      rough. I was pronounced competent to paddle my own bicycle without
      outside help. It seems incredible, this celerity of acquirement. It takes
      considerably longer than that to learn horseback-riding in the rough.

 15      But we wander from the point. However, get a teacher; it saves much
      time and Pond's Extract.

ELA 12.1 (A) (2). SWBAT define, identify and compose topic sentences.




                                                                                        1
                                                                                        4
22. What is the topic sentence of paragraph 10?
A. When you have reached the point in bicycling where you can balance the machine
tolerably fairly and propel it and steer it, then comes your next task -- how to mount it.
B. You do it in this way: you hop along behind it on your right foot, resting the other on
the mounting-peg, and grasping the tiller with your hands.
C. At the word, you rise on the peg, stiffen your left leg, hang your other one around in
the air in a general and indefinite way, lean your stomach against the rear of the saddle,
and then fall off, maybe on one side, maybe on the other; but you fall off.
D. You get up and do it again; and once more; and then several times.
ELA 12.1 (A) (6). SWBAT distinguish between effective and ineffective word
choice (i.e. slang vs. technical language, more vs. less precise synonyms, etc.).
23. The author refers to the bicycle by all of the following terms EXCEPT --
A. the machine
B. infernal beast
C. steel spider-web
D. a colt
ELA 12.1 (A) (7). SWBAT revise writing for effective word choice.
24. What word(s) could best replace we in the following sentence from paragraph 4?
“This time the Expert took up a sheltered position behind, but somehow or other we
landed on him again.”
A. the Expert and me
B. the Expert and I
C. the bicycle and me
D. the bicycle and I
ELA 12.3 (A) (3). SWBAT evaluate and revise punctuation in a writing piece.
25. What is the best revision of the following sentence from paragraph 7?
“The Expert got out at last, brought four assistants with him.”
A. The Expert got out at last -- brought four assistants with him.
B. The Expert got out at last; brought four assistants with him.
C. The Expert got out at last and brought four assistants with him.
D. The Expert got out at last, and brought for assistants with him.
ELA 12.6 (B) (2). SWBAT identify clues from the context (e.g. common sentence
patterns that provide an example, definition, reiteration, or opposite of a complex
term or word; surrounding parts of speech that help identify the part of speech of
a word or phrase; clues that suggest a phrase is an idiomatic expression or an
example of figurative language).
26. In paragraph 9, what word(s) help the reader understand what the author means by
the word mull?
A. “distinctly marked”
B. “likewise”
C. “for thirty years”
D. “subjunctive”
ELA 12.6 (B) (3). SWBAT determine a reasonable working definition for a word or
phrase based on clues from the context.



                                                                                         1
                                                                                         5
27. The author mentions “Pond’s Extract” three times in this passage, in paragraphs 1, 3
and 15. From the context of those paragraphs, we know that “Pond’s Extract” is --
A. a drink
B. a medicine
C. a bandage
D. a book
28. Which of the following is closest to the meaning of prudence as used in paragraph
6?
A. joy
B. precision
C. wisdom
D. luck
ELA 12.7 (F) (3). SWBAT identify main ideas, both explicitly stated and those that
must be inferred.
29. This passage is mostly about --
A. the invention of the bicycle.
B. the relationship between the author and the Expert.
C. the author’s experience learning to ride a bicycle.
D. the benefits of owning and riding a bicycle.
ELA 12.7 (F) (4). SWBAT identify supporting details.
30. In paragraph 9, the author says “the big wheel must be turned in the direction in
which you are falling.” He is provides this information as evidence of --
A. the difference between his nature and the laws of nature.
B. the kind of lesson he received from the Expert.
C. how simple it is to control the movement of a bicycle.
D. why the bicycle will never become a popular machine.
ELA 12.7 (G) (2). SWBAT distinguish between inferences, guesses and
paraphrases.
31. Choose the best paraphrase of the following sentences from paragraph 14: “I was
pronounced competent to paddle my own bicycle without outside help. It seems
incredible, this celerity of acquirement. It takes considerably longer than that to learn
horseback-riding in the rough.”
A. In comparison to learning to ride a horse, learning to ride a bicycle is both quick and
easy.
B. The author was shocked by the fact that learning to ride a bicycle takes much less
time than learning to ride a horse.
C. The author had learned to ride a horse a long time ago, and therefore he was
shocked that it took him so much time to learn to ride a bicycle.
D. The author spent less time learning to ride a bicycle than learning to ride a horse.
ELA 12.7 (G) (3). SWBAT draw an inference based on evidence within a text.
32. Based on the information in paragraph 9, the author --
A. thinks students learn best when they have a fear of physical injury.
B. would prefer to study German than continue riding his bicycle.
C. thinks all teachers and students should spend more time on bicycles.
D. will write a new book on education called The Bicycling Method.


                                                                                         1
                                                                                         6
ELA 12.10 (B) (2). SWBAT distinguish between relevant/sufficient and
irrelevant/insufficient evidence.
33. Why does the author state in paragraph 12 that “spectators ought to keep off a rod
or two to one side, along at first, if you have nothing against them”?
A. He worries that because bicycles are new, they will scare spectators unaccustomed
to them.
B. He believes that new cyclists are eager to show off, and spectators will be bored.
C. He suggests that new cyclists likely will embarrass themselves in front of spectators.
D. His experiences prove that new cyclists accidentally run over innocent spectators.
ELA 12.10 (B) (3). SWBAT defend a response or interpretation with relevant
evidence from the text.
34. The events in this passage most clearly indicate that the author --
A. is wealthier than other people in his hometown.
B. wishes he had a son to teach him to ride the bicycle.
C. has more trouble riding a bicycle than most people do.
D. perceives the bicycle as a symbol of modern American life.
ELA 12.12 (A) (5). SWBAT identify diction that creates connotative effect or
pattern in a text.
35. In paragraph 2, the author uses which of the following words to associate the bicycle
with a horse?
A. skittish
B. machine
C. pedals
D. points
36. In paragraph 5, the word limped implies that the Expert --
A. has a bad leg.
B. has been hurt in the crash.
C. has no teaching experience.
D. wants to stop the lesson.
ELA 12.12 (A) (6). SWBAT analyze how word choice affects style, tone, etc.
37. Which of the following words best characterizes the writer’s diction?
A. sincere
B. humble
C. sentimental
D. playful
ELA 12.12 (C) (2). SWBAT distinguish between sound logical arguments and
irrational or fallacious arguments.
38. In paragraph 9, the author says he would have learned German better if it had been
more like riding a bicycle. This argument is an example of which logical fallacy?
A. red herring
B. ad hominem
C. bad analogy
D. slippery slope




                                                                                        1
                                                                                        7
 39. In a later section of “Taming the Bicycle”, the writer explains, “There was a row of
 low stepping-stones across one end of the street, a measured yard apart. Even after I
 got so I could steer pretty fairly I was so afraid of those stones that I always hit them.”
 This is an example of which logical fallacy?
 A. straw man
 B. non sequitur
 C. bandwagon
 D. bad analogy
 ELA 12.12 (C) (3). SWBAT identify the logical argument in a text.
 40. The author would most likely agree that --
 A. Things are rarely as simple as they seem.
 B. A person can learn to ride a bicycle gracefully.
 C. Public humiliation is good for the soul.
 D. Triumph comes at a high price.
 ELA 12.12 (C) (5). SWBAT evaluate the logical argument and reasoning as sound
 and logical, irrational, or fallacious.
 41. In paragraph 5, the author’s description of the Expert as “full of surprised admiration”
 is likely --
 A. a reference to the bike’s indestructibility.
 B. an accurate representation of the Expert’s thoughts.
 C. based on a conversation between the two characters.
 D. untrue based on the events in the essay.
Institute Student Achievement Toolkit 2010
12th Grade English Assessment Bank:
                                     “Learning to Speak”
                                          By Helen Hunt Jackson
                                                                                       Notes about what
                                                                                           I am reading
   1       With what breathless interest we listen for the baby's first word! What
       a new bond is at once and for ever established between its soul and ours
       by this mysterious, inexplicable, almost incredible fact! That is the use of
       the word. That is its only use, so far as mere gratification of the ear goes.
       Many other sounds are more pleasurable,--the baby's laugh, for instance,
       or its inarticulate murmurs of content or sleepiness.
   2      But the word is a revelation, a sacred sign. Now we shall know what
       our beloved one wants; now we shall know when and why the dear heart
       sorrows or is glad. How reassured we feel, how confident! Now we
       cannot make mistakes; we shall do all for the best; we can give happiness;
       we can communicate wisdom; relation is established; the perplexing gulf
       of silence is bridged. The baby speaks!
   3       But it is not of the baby's learning to speak that we propose to write
       here. All babies learn to speak; or, if they do not, we know that it means a
       terrible visitation,--a calamity rare, thank God! but bitter almost beyond
       parents' strength to bear.


                                                                                                      1
                                                                                                      8
4       But why, having once learned to speak, does the baby leave off
    speaking when it becomes a man or a woman? Many of our men and
    women to-day need, almost as much as when they were twenty-four
    months old, to learn to speak. We do not mean learning to speak in
    public. We do not mean even learning to speak well,--to pronounce words
    clearly and accurately; though there is need enough of that in this land!
    But that is not the need at which we are aiming now. We mean something
    so much simpler, so much further back, that we hardly know how to say it
    in words which shall be simple enough and also sufficiently strong. We
    mean learning to speak at all! In spite of all which satirical writers have
    said and say of the loquacious egotism, the questioning curiosity of our
    people, it is true to-day that the average American is a reticent, taciturn,
    speechless creature, who, for his own sake, and still more for the sake of
    all who love him, needs, more than he needs any thing else under heaven,
    to learn to speak.
5       Look at our silent railway and horse-cars, steamboat-cabins, hotel-
    tables, in short, all our public places where people are thrown together
    incidentally, and where good-will and the habit of speaking combined
    would create an atmosphere of human vitality, quite unlike what we see
    now. But it is not of so much consequence, after all, whether people speak
    in these public places or not. If they did, one very unpleasant phase of our
    national life would be greatly changed for the better. But it is in our
    homes that this speechlessness tells most fearfully,--on the breakfast and
    dinner and tea-tables, at which a silent father and mother sit down in haste
    and gloom to feed their depressed children. This is especially true of men
    and women in the rural districts. They are tired; they have more work to
    do in a year than it is easy to do. Their lives are monotonous,--too much
    so for the best health of either mind or body. If they dreamed how much
    this monotony could be broken and cheered by the constant habit of
    talking with each other, they would grasp at the slightest chance of a
    conversation. Sometimes it almost seems as if complaints and antagonism
    were better than such stagnant quiet. But there need not be complaint and
    antagonism; there is no home so poor, so remote from affairs, that each
    day does not bring and set ready, for family welcome and discussion,
    beautiful sights and sounds, occasions for helpfulness and gratitude,
    questions for decision, hopes, fears, regrets! The elements of human life
    are the same for ever; any one heart holds in itself the whole, can give all
    things to another, can bear all things for another; but no giving, no
    bearing, no, not even if it is the giving up of a life, if it is done without
    free, full, loving interchange of speech, is half the blessing it might be.

6       Many a wife goes down to her grave a dulled and dispirited woman
    simply because her good and faithful husband has lived by her side
    without talking to her! There have been days when one word of praise, or
    one word even of simple good cheer, would have girded her up with new
    strength. She did not know, very likely, what she needed, or that she
    needed any thing; but she drooped.




                                                                                    1
                                                                                    9
   7       Many a child grows up a hard, unimpressionable, unloving man or
       woman simply from the uncheered silence in which the first ten years of
       life were passed. Very few fathers and mothers, even those who are
       fluent, perhaps, in society, habitually talk with their children.
   8      It is certain that this is one of the worst shortcomings of our homes.
       Perhaps no other single change would do so much to make them happier,
       and, therefore, to make our communities better, as for men and women to
       learn to speak.
ELA 12.1 (A) (2). SWBAT define, identify and compose topic sentences.
42. What is the topic sentence of paragraph 5?
A. But it is not of so much consequence, after all, whether people speak in these public
places or not.
B. But it is in our homes that this speechlessness tells most fearfully, --on the breakfast
and dinner and tea-tables, at which a silent father and mother sit down in haste and
gloom to feed their depressed children.
C. If they dreamed how much this monotony could be broken and cheered by the
constant habit of talking with each other, they would grasp at the slightest chance of a
conversation.
D. The elements of the human life are the same for ever; any one heart holds in itself
the whole, can give all things to another, can bear all things for another; but no giving,
no bearing, no, not even if it is the giving up of a life, if it is done without free, full, loving
interchange of speech, is half the blessing it might be.
ELA 12.1 (A) (6). SWBAT distinguish between effective and ineffective word
choice (i.e. slang vs. technical language, more vs. less precise synonyms, etc.).
43. In paragraph 1, the word murmur is a specific kind of --
A. speech
B. emotion
C. sound
D. motive
ELA 12.1 (A) (7). SWBAT revise writing for effective word choice.
44. What is the best way to strengthen the author’s final sentence?
“Perhaps no other single change would do so much to make them happier, and,
therefore, to make our communities better, as for men and women to learn to speak”.
A. remove the word perhaps
B. remove the word single
C. replace the word therefore with thus
D. replace men and women with people
ELA 12.3 (A) (3). SWBAT evaluate and revise punctuation in a writing piece.




                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                      0
45. How should the following sentence from paragraph 1 be revised?
“What a new bond is at once and for ever established between its soul and ours by this
mysterious, inexplicable, almost incredible fact!”
A. What a new bond is at once, and for ever established between its soul and ours by
this mysterious, inexplicable, almost incredible fact!
B. What a new bond is at once and for ever established between it’s soul and ours by
this mysterious, inexplicable, almost incredible fact!
C. What a new bond is at once and for ever established between its soul and our’s by
this mysterious, inexplicable, almost incredible fact!
D. no revision necessary
ELA 12.6 (B) (2). SWBAT identify clues from the context (e.g. common sentence
patterns that provide an example, definition, reiteration, or opposite of a complex
term or word; surrounding parts of speech that help identify the part of speech of
a word or phrase; clues that suggest a phrase is an idiomatic expression or an
example of figurative language).
46. Which word(s) from paragraph 6 best help the reader understand the meaning of
girded up?
A. “good and faithful husband”
B. “praise”
C. “simple good cheer”
D. “with new strength”
ELA 12.6 (B) (3). SWBAT determine a reasonable working definition for a word or
phrase based on clues from the context.
47. Which of the following is closest to the meaning of calamity as used in paragraph 3?
A. event
B. blessing
C. illness
D. disaster
ELA 12.7 (F) (3). SWBAT identify main ideas, both explicitly stated and those that
must be inferred.
48. Which sentence from the passage best expresses the author’s position?
A. With what breathless interest we listen for the baby’s first word!
B. But the word is a revelation, a sacred sign.
C. Many of our men and woman to-day need, almost as much as when they were
twenty-four months old, to learn to speak.
D. The elements of the human life are the same for ever; any one heart holds in itself
the whole, can give all things to another, can bear all things for another; but no giving,
no bearing, no, not even if it is the giving up of a life, if it is done without free, full, loving
interchange of speech, is half the blessing it might be.
ELA 12.7 (F) (4). SWBAT identify supporting details.
49. In paragraph 5, the author suggests that rural families should use speech to --
A. share their fears with each other.
B. request advice from each other.
C. reflect upon events that have passed.
D. all of the above


                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                  1
ELA 12.7 (G) (2). SWBAT distinguish between inferences, guesses and
paraphrases.
50. Choose the best paraphrase of the following sentence from paragraph 7: “Very few
fathers and mothers, even those who are fluent, perhaps, in society, habitually talk with
their children.”
A. If parents were not so shy, they would not hesitate to speak more often with their
children.
B. Parents may speak often with other adults, but they do not speak enough with their
children.
C. Parents feel more comfortable speaking with fellow adults than they do with their
children.
D. Parents spend too much time with their friends to have conversations with their
children.
ELA 12.7 (G) (3). SWBAT draw an inference based on evidence within a text.
51. Based on the information in paragraph 1, the author --
A. prefers to hear a baby laugh or murmur than talk.
B. spends much of her time with babies learning to speak.
C. believes that speech serves only one purpose.
D. believes speech connects humans to each other.
ELA 12.10 (B) (2). SWBAT distinguish between relevant/sufficient and
irrelevant/insufficient evidence.
52. According to paragraph 5, what is NOT a reason rural families do not talk?
A. They have too much work to do.
B. They are exhausted from their work.
C. They have nothing to talk about.
D. They eat their meals in a hurry.
ELA 12.10 (B) (3). SWBAT defend a response or interpretation with relevant
evidence from the text.
53. Based on the first two paragraphs, why is it “perplexing” when babies cannot speak?
A. Parents worry their baby may never learn how to speak.
B. Parents want to know they’re satisfying their baby’s needs.
C. Parents grow bored with a baby’s screams and laughs.
D. all of the above

ELA 12.12 (A) (5). SWBAT identify diction that creates connotative effect or
pattern in a text.
54. In paragraph 2, the word sacred depicts human speech as --
A. holy
B. valuable
C. rare
D. singular
ELA 12.12 (A) (6). SWBAT analyze how word choice affects style, tone, etc.




                                                                                        2
                                                                                        2
 55. Why does the author make repeated use of the word we?
 A. She tells a story about herself and another person.
 B. She has permissions speak on behalf of a large group of people.
 C. She is royalty.
 D. She wants the reader to identify with her.
 ELA 12.12 (C) (2). SWBAT distinguish between sound logical arguments and
 irrational or fallacious arguments.
 56. In paragraph 5, the author says, “The elements of the human life are the same for
 ever; any one heart holds in itself the whole, can give all things to another, can bear all
 things for another; but no giving, no bearing, no, not even if it is the giving up of a life, if
 it is done without free, full, loving interchange of speech, is half the blessing it might be.”
 Her words exemplify which of the following logical fallacies?
 A. ad hominem
 B. slippery slope
 C. appeal to authority
 D. bandwagon
 ELA 12.12 (C) (3). SWBAT identify the logical argument in a text.
 57. What does the author believe is best way to improve our communities?
 A. for family members to talk more with each other
 B. for parents in rural areas to spend less time working
 C. for parents to engage their children in conversation
 D. for babies to learn to speak as soon as possible
 ELA 12.12 (C) (5). SWBAT evaluate the logical argument and reasoning as sound
 and logical, irrational, or fallacious.
 58. In paragraph 5, the author’s description of rural families is most likely based on --
 A. the author’s own experiences living in a rural district.
 B. generalizations or stereotypes about people living in rural districts.
 C. a book the author has read about people who live in rural districts.
 D. observations the author made on a recent visit to a rural district.
Institute Student Achievement Toolkit 2010
12th Grade English Assessment Bank:
                     “Addressing the Graduating Class”
                                         By William Faulkner
                                                                                  Notes about what
                                                                                      I am reading
     William Faulkner, an American writer and winner of the Nobel Prize for
     Literature, delivered this speech to the graduating students of University
     High School, in Oxford, Mississippi, on May 28, 1951.




                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                 3
1      Years ago, before any of you were born, a wise Frenchman said, “If
    youth knew; if age could.” We all know what he meant: that when you
    are young, you have the power to do anything, but you don’t know what
    to do. Then, when you have got old and experience and observation have
    taught you answers, you are tired, frightened; you don’t care, you want to
    be left alone as long as you yourself are safe; you no longer have the
    capacity or the will to grieve over any wrongs but your own.

2      So you young men and women in this room tonight, and in thousands
    of other rooms like this one about the earth today, have the power to
    change the world, rid it forever of war and injustice and suffering,
    provided you know how, know what to do. And so according to the old
    Frenchman, since you can’t know what to do because you are young, then
    anyone standing here with a head full of white hair, should be able to tell
    you.

3      But maybe this one is not as old and wise as his white hairs pretend or
    claim. Because he can’t give you a glib answer or pattern either. But he
    can tell you this, because he believes this. What threatens us today is fear.
    Not the atom bomb, nor even fear of it, because if the bomb fell on
    Oxford tonight, all it could do would be to kill us, which is nothing, since
    in doing that, it will have robbed itself of its only power over us: which is
    fear of it, the being afraid of it. Our danger is not that. Our danger is the
    forces in the world today which are trying to use man’s fear to rob him of
    his individuality, his soul, trying to reduce him to an unthinking mass by
    fear and bribery -- giving him free food which he has not earned, easy and
    valueless money which he has not worked for; the economies or
    ideologies or political systems, communist or socialist or democratic,
    whatever they wish to call themselves, the tyrants and the politicians,
    American or European or Asiatic, whatever they call themselves, who
    would reduce man to one obedient mass for their own aggrandizement
    and power, or because they themselves are baffled and afraid, afraid of, or
    incapable of, believing in man’s capacity for courage and endurance and
    sacrifice.

4       That is what we must resist, if we are to change the world for man’s
    peace and security. It it not men in the mass who can and will save Man.
    It is Man himself, created in the image of God so that he shall have the
    power and the will to choose right from wrong, and so be able to save
    himself because he is worth saving; -- Man, the individual, men and
    women, who will refuse always to be tricked or frightened or bribed into
    surrendering, not just the right but the duty too, to choose between justice
    and injustice, courage and cowardice, sacrifice and greed, pity and self; --
    who will believe always not only in the right of man to be free of injustice
    and rapacity and deception, but the duty and responsibility of man to see
    that justice and truth and pity and compassion are done.




                                                                                    2
                                                                                    4
  5       So, never be afraid. Never be afraid to raise your voice for honesty and
      truth and compassion, against injustice and lying and greed. If you, not
      just you in this room tonight, but in all the thousands of other rooms like
      this one about the world today and tomorrow and next week, will do this,
      not as a class or classes, but as individuals, men and women, you will
      change the earth; in one generation all the Napoleons and Hitlers and
      Caesars and the simple politicians and time-servers who themselves are
      merely baffled or ignorant or afraid, who have used, or are using, or hope
      to use, man’s fear and greed for man’s enslavement, will have vanished
      from the face of it.




ELA 12.1 (A) (6). SWBAT distinguish between effective and ineffective word
choice (i.e. slang vs. technical language, more vs. less precise synonyms, etc.).
59. What word(s) could best replace “raise your voice” in paragraph 5?
A. scream
B. increase
C. holler
D. advocate
ELA 12.1 (A) (7). SWBAT revise writing for effective word choice.
60. To strengthen the author’s argument, what word(s) could replace “do anything” in
the following sentence? “We all know what [the Frenchman] meant: that when you are
young, you have the power to do anything, but you don’t know what to do.”
A. conquer the world
B. be whatever you want to be
C. make the world a better place
D. work tirelessly
ELA 12.3 (A) (3). SWBAT evaluate and revise punctuation in a writing piece.
61. Choose the revision that most improves the following sentence:
“Then, when you have got old and experience and observation have taught you
answers, you are tired, frightened.”
A. Then, when you have got old, experience and observation have taught you answers,
you are tired, frightened.
B. Then, when you have got old, and experience and observation have taught you
answers, you are tired, frightened.
C. Then, when you have got old and experience and observation have taught you
answers, and you are tired, frightened.
D. Then, when you have got old and experience and observation have taught you
answers; you are tired, frightened.
ELA 12.6 (B) (2). SWBAT identify clues from the context (e.g. common sentence
patterns that provide an example, definition, reiteration, or opposite of a complex
term or word; surrounding parts of speech that help identify the part of speech of
a word or phrase; clues that suggest a phrase is an idiomatic expression or an
example of figurative language).


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62. Which words from paragraph 4 best help the reader understand the meaning of the
word rapacity?
A. “injustice” and “deception”
B. “duty” and “responsibility”
C. “justice” and “truth”
D. “pity” and “compassion”
ELA 12.6 (B) (3). SWBAT determine a reasonable working definition for a word or
phrase based on clues from the context.
63. In paragraph 3, the word aggrandizement refers to --
A. a commitment to justice
B. a form of entertainment
C. a sense of curiosity
D. an increase in reputation
ELA 12.7 (F) (3). SWBAT identify main ideas, both explicitly stated and those that
must be inferred.
64. Paragraphs 1 and 2 are mainly about --
A. the author’s ideas about how the world can be improved.
B. the author’s own failed attempts to improve the world.
C. how young people never listen to their wiser elders.
D. how young people have the power to improve the world.
ELA 12.7 (F) (4). SWBAT identify supporting details.
65. In paragraph 3, Faulkner says politicians take advantage of people’s fear by --
A. confusing them with names “communist” or “democratic”.
B. speaking ominously about the possibility of nuclear war.
C. giving them food and money they have not earned.
D. threatening to throw them in jail if they are disobedient.
ELA 12.7 (G) (2). SWBAT distinguish between inferences, guesses and
paraphrases.
66. Choose the best paraphrase of the following sentences from paragraph 3: “What
threatens us today is fear. Not the atom bomb, nor even fear of it, because if the bomb
fell on Oxford tonight, all it could do would be to kill us, which is nothing, since in doing
that, it will have robbed itself of its only power over us: which is fear of it, the being
afraid of it.”
A. The people of Oxford, Mississippi, must realize the atom bomb could come at any
moment, and so there is no reason to fear it.
B. The atom bomb is powerful not because it can kill us but because it scares us, and
these days fear is our greatest weakness.
C. The atom bomb is powerful only in its ability to scare people, and people who are
scared do not serve their country in a helpful way.
D. If the atom bomb struck Oxford now, it would not hurt anyone; people must realize it’s
only power is the ability to frighten.
ELA 12.7 (G) (3). SWBAT draw an inference based on evidence within a text.




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67. The reader can infer that the person with white hair --
A. is the author.
B. is seated in the front row.
C. is the Frenchman.
D. is Napoleon.
ELA 12.10 (B) (2). SWBAT distinguish between relevant/sufficient and
irrelevant/insufficient evidence.
68. Which line does NOT exemplify the author’s dislike for political institutions?
A. “ Not the atom bomb, nor even fear of it, because if the bomb fell on Oxford tonight,
all it could do would be to kill us, which is nothing, since in doing that, it will have robbed
itself of its only power over us: which is fear of it, the being afraid of it.”
B. “Our danger is the forces in the world today which are trying to use man’s fear to rob
him of his individuality, his soul, trying to reduce him to an unthinking mass by fear and
bribery.”
C. “It is not men in the mass who can and will save Man.”
D. “In one generation all the Napoleons and Hitlers and Caesars and the simple
politicians and time-servers who themselves are merely baffled or ignorant or afraid,
who have used, or are using, or hope to use, man’s fear and greed for man’s
enslavement, will have vanished from the face [of the earth].”
ELA 12.10 (B) (3). SWBAT defend a response or interpretation with relevant
evidence from the text.
69. According to Faulkner, why do political leaders try to enslave their people?
A. stupidity
B. boredom
C. fear
D. ambition
ELA 12.12 (A) (5). SWBAT identify diction that creates connotative effect or
pattern in a text.
70. In paragraph 3, the repetition of the phrase “whatever they [wish to] call themselves”
serves primarily to --
A. emphasize that political institutions say and do different things.
B. acknowledge the author’s lack of expertise concerning political institutions.
C. encourage the listeners to research these political organizations’ true names.
D. beautify the sentence in which the repetition appears.
ELA 12.12 (A) (6). SWBAT analyze how word choice affects style, tone, etc.
71. In paragraph 4, the author uses word pairs (“justice and injustice”, “courage and
cowardice,” “sacrifice and greed”, etc.) primarily for what purpose?
A. to incorporate as many ideas as possible into his speech.
B. to reveal the contradictory nature of everyday life.
C. to build energy before leading into the conclusion.
D. to exemplify the decisions his audience must make.
ELA 12.12 (C) (2). SWBAT distinguish between sound logical arguments and
irrational or fallacious arguments.




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72. The author’s reference to “a wise Frenchman” in the first sentence may be an
example of which kind of logical fallacy?
A. false dilemma
B. appeal to pity
C. appeal to authority
D. ad hominem
73. In which of the following sentences does Faulkner refer to the fallacy of the
bandwagon?
A. “When you are young, you have the power to do anything, but you don’t know what to
do.”
B. “It is not men in the mass who can and will save Man.”
C. “It is Man himself, created in the image of God so that he shall have the power and
the will to choose right from wrong, and so be able to save himself because he is worth
saving.”
D. “Never be afraid to raise your voice for honesty and truth and compassion, against
injustice and lying and greed.”
ELA 12.12 (C) (3). SWBAT identify the logical argument in a text.
74. Overall, the conclusion of this passage is that --
A. political institutions will always be corrupt.
B. people should always stand up for what is right.
C. the future belongs to the nation’s children.
D. fear will always be humankind’s greatest weakness.
ELA 12.12 (C) (5). SWBAT evaluate the logical argument and reasoning as sound
and logical, irrational, or fallacious.
75. The author references Napoleon, Hitler and Caesar as examples of --
A. leaders who used fear to enslave large numbers of people.
B. role models whose characteristics his audience should imitate.
C. historical figures who, like everyone else, were crippled by fear.
D. all the above
                        Written Composition: Option A
Directions: Read the following excerpt. Write an essay in which you present an argument for or against
Emma Goldman’s claim that American society is too concerned with money. Make sure your essay is
logical and well-organized, and include evidence from your own observation, from the passage, or from
another source of your choice. Your essay should be between 300 and 500 words in length.
                                                                                   My notes about what
                                                                                          I am reading

                      from “Minorities Versus Majorities”
                                 By Emma Goldman




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  1      If I were to give a summary of the tendency of our times, I would say,
      Quantity. The multitude, the mass spirit, dominates everywhere, destroying
      quality. Our entire life--production, politics, and education--rests on quantity,
      on numbers. The worker who once took pride in the thoroughness and quality
      of his work, has been replaced by brainless, incompetent automatons, who
      turn out enormous quantities of things, valueless to themselves, and generally
      injurious to the rest of mankind. Thus quantity, instead of adding to life's
      comforts and peace, has merely increased man's burden.

  2      In politics, naught but quantity counts. In proportion to its increase,
      however, principles, ideals, justice, and uprightness are completely swamped
      by the array of numbers. In the struggle for supremacy the various political
      parties outdo each other in trickery, deceit, cunning, and shady machinations,
      confident that the one who succeeds is sure to be hailed by the majority as the
      victor. That is the only god,--Success. As to what expense, what terrible cost
      to character, is of no moment. We have not far to go in search of proof to
      verify this sad fact...

 11       ...It is said that the artist of today cannot create because Prometheuslike he
      is bound to the rock of economic necessity. This, however, is true of art in all
      ages. Michael Angelo was dependent on his patron saint, no less than the
      sculptor or painter of today, except that the art connoisseurs of those days
      were far away from the madding crowd. They felt honored to be permitted to
      worship at the shrine of the master.

 12     The art protector of our time knows but one criterion, one value,--the
      dollar. He is not concerned about the quality of any great work, but in the
      quantity of dollars his purchase implies. Thus the financier in Mirbeau's Les
      Affaires sont les Affaires points to some blurred arrangement in colors,
      saying: "See how great it is; it cost 50,000 francs." Just like our own
      parvenus. The fabulous figures paid for their great art discoveries must make
      up for the poverty of their taste.


                           Written Composition: Option B
Directions: Read the following excerpt. Write an essay in which you present an argument for or against
Ralph Waldo Emerson’s depiction of traveling as a “fool’s paradise”. Make sure your essay is logical,
and well-organized, and include evidence from your own observation, from the passage, or from another
source of your choice. Your essay should be between 300 and 500 words in length.
                                                                                           My notes about what
                                                                                                  I am reading

                                  from “Self-Reliance”
                                 By Ralph Waldo Emerson




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  1       It is for want of self-culture that the idol of Traveling, the idol of Italy, of
      England, of Egypt, remains for all educated Americans. They who made
      England, Italy, or Greece venerable in the imagination, did so not by rambling
      round creation as a moth round a lamp, but by sticking fast where they were,
      like an axis of the earth. In manly hours we feel that duty is our place and that
      the merry men of circumstance should follow as they may. The soul is no
      traveler: the wise man stays at home with the soul, and when his necessities,
      his duties, on any occasion call him from his house, or into foreign lands, he
      is at home still and is not gadding abroad from himself, and shall make men
      sensible by the expression of his countenance that he goes, the missionary of
      wisdom and virtue, and visits cities and men like a sovereign and not like an
      interloper or a valet.

  2      I have no churlish objection to the circumnavigation of the globe for the
      purposes of art, of study, and benevolence, so that the man is first
      domesticated, or does not go abroad with the hope of finding somewhat
      greater than he knows. He who travels to be amused or to get somewhat
      which he does not carry, travels away from himself, and grows old even in
      youth among old things. In Thebes, in Palmyra, his will and mind have
      become old and dilapidated as they. He carries ruins to ruins.

  3       Traveling is a fool's paradise. We owe to our first journeys the discovery
      that place is nothing. At home I dream that at Naples, at Rome, I can be
      intoxicated with beauty and lose my sadness. I pack my trunk, embrace my
      friends, embark on the sea and at last wake up in Naples, and there beside me
      is the stern Fact, and sad self, unrelenting, identical, that I fled from. I seek
      the Vatican and the palaces. I affect to be intoxicated with sights and
      suggestions, but I am not intoxicated. My giant goes with me wherever I go.


                           Written Composition: Option C
Directions: Read the following excerpt. Write an essay in which you present an argument for or against
Benjamin Franklin’s depiction of America as the “Land of Labour”. Make sure your essay is logical and
well-organized, and include evidence from your own observation, from the passage, or from another
source of your choice. Your essay should be between 300 and 500 words in length.
                                                                                             My notes about what
                                                                                                    I am reading

         from “Information to Those Who Would Remove to America”
                                    By Benjamin Franklin




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5      Strangers are welcome, because there is room enough for them all, and
    therefore the old Inhabitants are not jealous of them; the Laws protect them
    sufficiently, so that they have no need of the Patronage of Great Men; and
    every one will enjoy securely the Profits of his Industry. But, if he does not
    bring a Fortune with him, he must work and be industrious to live. One or two
    Years' residence gives him all the Rights of a Citizen; but the government
    does not at present, whatever it may have done in former times, hire People to
    become Settlers, by Paying their Passages, giving Land, Negroes, Utensils,
    Stock, or any other kind of Emolument whatsoever. In short, America is the
    Land of Labour, and by no means what the English call Lubberland, and the
    French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are said to be pav'd with half-peck
    Loaves, the Houses til'd with Pancakes, and where the Fowls fly about ready
    roasted, crying, Come eat me!

6      Who then are the kind of Persons to whom an Emigration to America may
    be advantageous? And what are the Advantages they may reasonably expect?

7      Land being cheap in that Country, from the vast Forests still void of
    Inhabitants, and not likely to be occupied in an Age to come, insomuch that
    the Propriety of an hundred Acres of fertile Soil full of Wood may be
    obtained near the Frontiers, in many Places, for Eight or Ten Guineas, hearty
    young Labouring Men, who understand the Husbandry of Corn and Cattle,
    which is nearly the same in that Country as in Europe, may easily establish
    themselves there. A little Money sav'd of the good Wages they receive there,
    while they work for others, enables them to buy the Land and begin their
    Plantation, in which they are assisted by the Good-Will of their Neighbours,
    and some Credit. Multitudes of poor People from England, Ireland, Scotland,
    and Germany, have by this means in a few years become wealthy Farmers,
    who, in their own Countries, where all the Lands are fully occupied, and the
    Wages of Labour low, could never have emerged from the poor Condition
    wherein they were born.




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