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									Chronic Poverty Research Centre

Annual Report

1st October 2005 to 30th September 2006

                             Dr Andrew Shepherd

                             Associate Directors
                            Professor Tony Addison
                              Dr Caroline Harper
                            Professor David Hulme
                            Professor Andy McKay

                                Ms Vicky Holt

            Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM)
    School of Environment and Development (SED) University of Manchester,
Harold Hankins Building, Precinct Centre, Booth Street West, Manchester M13 9QH
                +44(0)161 275 2808;
1.     Background Information

Title of Research Programme:       Chronic Poverty Research Centre
Reference Number:                  R8487
Period covered by report:          1 October 2005 – 30 September 2006
Name of lead institution:          Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM),
                                   School of Environment and Development (SED),
                                   University of Manchester
Director:                          Andrew Shepherd, Overseas Development Institute,
Key partners:                         Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies,
                                      Department of Economics, University of Sussex
                                      Development Initiatives, UK
                                      Development Research and Training, Uganda
                                      Helpage International, UK
                                      IED Afrique, Senegal
                                          o Department of Economics, University of Ghana
                                          o FIDESPRA (Forum International pour le
                                               Développement et l‘Echange de Savoir et de
                                               Savoir-Faire au Service d‘une Promotion Rural
                                               Auto Entretenue), Benin
                                      Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA)
                                            IIPA subcontractees:
                                             o Gujarat Institute of Development Research
                                             o Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)
                                             o National Council of Applied Economic
                                                 Research (NCAER)
                                      Institute of Development Studies, UK
                                      Institute for Development Policy and Management
                                       Overseas Development Institute, UK
                                       Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies,
                                          University of the Western Cape, South Africa

                                       Institute for Development Studies, Kenya

Countries covered by research:     Bangladesh                   Niger
                                   Benin                        Papua New Guinea
                                   Burkina Faso                 Philippines
                                   India                        Senegal
                                   Ghana                        South Africa
                                   Indonesia                    Tanzania
                                   Kenya                        Uganda
                                   Nepal                        Vietnam

                                 Planned                       Actual
Start date:                      1 October 2005                1 October 2005
End date:                        30 September 2010             30 September 2010
Total programme budget:          £7,499,975                    £7,499,975

2.     Summary

Good progress in the first year of the CPRC is reported.

Much of the inception phase was occupied with planning, and in particular carefully defining
the research agenda and how it differed from that of the first five years of the CPRC. The
objective was to lay the foundation for a period which would see the CPRC working more at
the research ‗cutting edge‘, as well as building on the policy impact gains of the first period.
This involved defining the research agenda and approach centrally and getting buy-in from
partners. This process proved slow and has extended into the second six-month period. It
has involved three partners‘ meetings, which have now laid the foundations for a higher
degree of coherence and progress towards agreed objectives across the Centre.

An agreed intellectual framework and set of theme research papers was produced to guide
the CPRC‘s research work. A policy engagement strategy and work plan was produced to
guide policy engagement and communications work. The leading research themes have also
produced 5 year strategies and annual work plans. Southern partners have also produced 5
year strategies and annual work plans. Integrating these to produce a coherent research
effort remains a challenge, but one which is being addressed with energy.

Partnerships from the previous phase have continued, and new partnerships with a network
of 5 West African countries, and Kenya have been established, with significant attention to
capacity development. The previous partnerships with Development Initiatives and HelpAge
International have been consolidated into a ‗Chronic Poverty Engagement Partnership‘.

Good progress has now been made on all 3 ‗pillars‘ – research, policy analysis and policy
engagement. 21 papers were commissioned and prepared for the Concepts and Methods
workshop in October 2006. Plans were laid for two further conferences by March 2007, one
in Bangladesh and one in South Africa. There is a good flow of published research working
papers, and other outputs – a book on India published by Sage, the Uganda Chronic Poverty
Report (Sept 2005), and the Bangladesh State of the Poorest Report (Nov 2006). There is a
large quantity of papers in various stages of progress towards publication. The process of
producing the second Chronic Poverty Report is well advanced with 57 background outputs
produced to date, a peer-reviewed outline, and agreement on the statistical data which will
be developed and analysed. A number of southern partners have begun to produce their own
publication series. Thus outputs across the Centre are generally on track.

Policy engagement is particularly well developed in Uganda, based on the initial identification
of key policy issues in the Uganda Chronic Poverty Report. Work on designing a cash
transfer pilot programme has started for the Government‘s Social protection Task Force, to
feed into the next PEAP revision, and demand-led policy work on education and agriculture
has been identified. In South Africa qualitative work on social grants for the Treasury has
already helped to correct misperceptions in government about the likely effects of grants on
dependency. In India inputs to the 11th Five Year Plan process have been requested from the
CPRC by the Planning Commission. There is an embryonic plan in place to influence the
2010 WDR on poverty.

Naturally, different components of the Centre‘s work are moving at different speeds.
However, the CPRC‘s management team is monitoring this and taking action where
necessary to support progress. The new programme manager has proved a key facilitator of
action and coherence.

3.     Key themes

The three CPRC ‗pillars‘ are established and operating:

          Policy engagement and communications: has a strategy and workplan; a semi-
           detached NGO led ‗Chronic Poverty Engagement Partnership‘ and a Uganda
           strategy and plan of action.
          Policy analysis: has centred around background work for the second Chronic
           Poverty Report (57 outputs so far); supporting Uganda develop its policy analysis
           and engagement programme; and supporting background work on labour markets
           and migration for WDR 2008 on Agriculture.
          Research: all 6 themes are up and running, with especially rapid progress made
           under Concepts, Poverty Dynamics and Economic Mobility, and Inter-
           generational Transmission. Appropriately slower progress is being made on the
           ‗explanatory‘ themes, with the exception of Insecurity, Vulnerability and Risk,
           where earlier substantial work on social protection has enabled a more rapid take
           off. There is a CPRC framework paper, and 4 theme papers in draft – a valuable
           set of guiding documents for the research programme.

Country level work highlights:

          Policy engagement and analysis: The Bangladesh State of the Poorest Report
           has been published, and a December 2006 workshop on ‗what works for the
           poorest‘ planned. In India there have been significant inputs into the 11th 5 year
           plan process and work on the national Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
           There have been initial thoughts about producing a Chronic Poverty Report for
           India in 2008/9, in time for the next national elections. In Uganda the team has
           been following up the policy agenda developed in the Uganda Chronic Poverty
           Report (2005) on social protection, education and agriculture. In particular,
           significant support is being given to the government Social Protection Task Force
           to develop a cash transfer pilot programme to feed into the next PEAP revision. In
           South Africa qualitative work on the impact of social grants for the Treasury has
           been completed, and the President‘s Office has accepted the utility of a
           qualitative component of the National Income Dynamics Survey (NIDS).
          Research: In West Africa there is a regional partnership of 5 countries which has
           had a Research Design Workshop, where draft Country overviews were
           presented and thematic reviews planned. A life histories workshop was also
           planned. In Kenya the programme has finally got off the ground, and a November
           workshop was planned to review 9 draft commissioned background papers. In
           South Africa much effort has gone into planning a conference in March 2007
           ‗Living on Margins‘ on the informal economy, and developing the NIDS. In
           Bangladesh there is ongoing Q2 work under the Poverty Dynamics theme, in
           collaboration with IFPRI, and there is a new programme to be built among CPRC
           partners, under the DFID programme for the poorest. In Uganda there has been
           discussion with stakeholders about the development of integrated Q2 work
           around a national panel survey in 2007/8, as well as work under the IGT and
           insecurity themes (the latter on northern Uganda). In India there has been a 2006
           wave of the long standing NCAER panel.

        3.1    Research outputs

        The purpose statement has been revised in line with comments received on the Inception
        Report. See Annex 1 for the revised logframe.

        Progress towards outputs is summarised below.

Outputs                OVIs                             Progress                      Recommendations/Comments
1. Deeper              a) CPRC research findings        a) Early days for citations   a) A system is in place to collect
   understanding          detectable in official,          of CPRC work from this        citations. Currently these refer
   among                  professional and                 phase to be detected          to work in the earlier phases
   researchers,           academic documents. 50                                         of the CPRC. Confident that
   policy analysts        citations by 2010.                                             this OVI will be met over 5
   and policy-makers                                                                     years.
   of poverty
   dynamics and        b) 50 Working papers, 50         b) 8 Working papers           b) Working paper programme
   particularly the       articles and other relevant      published                     well under way. At least 20
   nature and             materials published and                                        further working papers in
   causes of chronic      disseminated by 2010.                                          progress.
                       c) 5 Special editions of         c) The book ‗Chronic          c) Special issue of Margin,
                          reputable journals or            Poverty in India‘             journal of the NCAER India,
                          books dedicated to               published. Discussion         to be published soon. Special
                          specific CPRC policy             with several publishers       issue of Development Policy
                          areas by 2010.                   for other titles              Review in preparation. Book
                                                           underway.                     series being explored.
                                                                                         Concepts workshop to lead to
                                                                                         a book. Each thematic area
                                                                                         considering major output.

                       d) 10 Stakeholder requests       o   Government of             d) Continued effort to ensure
                          for CPRC to undertake             Uganda Social                stakeholders are aware of the
                          research projects,                Protection Task Force        possibilities is needed.
                          collaborate in projects, or       request to design a
                          produce publications.             cash transfer pilot
                                                        o   Ministry of Education,
                                                            Uganda, requesting
                                                            work on universal
                                                            secondary education
                                                            and school feeding.
                                                        o   Govt of Uganda Prime
                                                            Minister‘s Office, Plan
                                                            for the Modernisation
                                                            of Agriculture and
                                                            Ministry of Education
                                                            expressing demand
                                                            for 3 wave of
                                                            national panel data
                                                            and linked
                                                            qualitatative work to
                                                            evaluate key policies.
                                                        o   South Africa Treasury
                                                            qualitative work on
                                                            social grants impact.

2. Effective and        a) Policy analysis findings     a) None for this phase of           a) Progress against this OVI will
   sustainable policy      detectable in official,         research detected to                be monitored
   prescriptions           professional and                date
   identified through      academic documents. 10
   assessment of           occurrences by 2010.
   environments and     b) One international Chronic    b) Very intensive work              b) This will be a major output for
   key policy issues       Poverty Report published        underway for publication            the CPRC. Work is on
                           in 2008                         in 2008. 57 background              schedule.
                                                           papers produced.
                                                           Several chapters drafted.

                        c) Contributions to a Human     c) supporting work on               c) Exploring how major ambition
                           and a World                     labour markets and                  of the CPRC to influence
                           Development Report by           migration for WDR2008.              WDR2010 can be achieved.
                           2010                                                                Discussed with DFID Chief
                                                                                               Economist and north
                                                                                               American partners.

                        d) Policy dissemination         d) 2 policy briefs on social        d) This new series of CPRC
                           publications: including 20      protection produced, 4              publications has taken a while
                           demand-led policy briefs        more on other themes in             to initiate. Now a process has
                                                           progress. 3 policy briefs           been established a steady
                                                           for Uganda produced                 flow of policy briefs is

3. Governments,         a) The concept of chronic       a) CPRC events likely to            a) A good system to collect this
   policy-makers and       poverty gains currency in       generate media interest             information from all partners
   the public are          media coverage of               are just beginning to               will be established.
   aware of the            poverty – 25 media              happen, for instance
   specific needs of       citations citing the            launch of the
   chronically poor        concept of chronic              Bangladesh State of
   people and of the       poverty by 2010.                the Poorest report,
   neglect of their                                        Living on the Margins
   rights                                                  Conference and launch
                                                           of the CPR2

                        b) At least 10 invitations to        o     Invitation to speak at   b) CPRC is beginning to attract
                           engage with policy-                     GDN to IFPRI               more high-level invitations.
                           makers (e.g.                            session on Chronic
                           presentations, attendance               Poverty.
                           at conferences,                   o     Invitation to speak at
                           participation in                        Brookings June
                           workshops, working                      2006 on Asset-
                           parties etc. by 2010                    based approaches to
                                                                   poverty reduction.
                                                             o      Invitation to speak
                                                                   at WB/IFC Oct. 2006
                                                                   on Progress and
                                                                   policies for the

                        c) Disaggregation of poverty    c)       No new evidence for        c) This OVI will continue to be
                           goals, targets and                    this phase of research        monitored. For instance, one
                           monitoring to identify the                                          indicator known now is that
                           chronically poor                                                    the Plan for Modernization of
                           evidenced in 5 published                                            Agriculture in Uganda has

                          documents by 2010.                                          been tasked to take a
                                                                                      disaggregated approach to its
                                                                                      work and establish a link with
                                                                                      the CPRC. This will be

4. Active             a) Participation in at least 10   a)   None to date           a) A system for monitoring
   international         relevant formal and                                           these meetings will be
   partnerships for      informal meetings and                                         established
   research and          advisory missions by
   policy                2010.
   consolidated and   b) Establishment of regional      b) Started exploration of   b) This collaboration looks
   expanded              research & engagement             regional programme          promising.
                         networks in at least one          with SARPN around
                         region by 2008                    production of annual
                                                           report on poverty in
                                                           southern Africa.

                      c) 25 joint publications and      c) None to date             c) These relationships are
                         engagement activities                                         developing. For instance,
                         between partners                                              Uganda and South Africa are
                         (especially south-south                                       planning a joint activity
                         and south-north) by 2010                                      around poverty monitoring
                                                                                       and analysis

                      d) At least 2 country             d) None to date             d) The West Africa regional
                         comparative studies                                           network is likely to provide a
                         published by 2008                                             good context for comparative
                                                                                       work. Plans are also
                                                                                       developing for comparative
                                                                                       work across the Centre on
                                                                                       life history analysis and
                                                                                       panel data

                      e) Engagement partnership         e) CPEP established and     e) Prioritisation of the many
                         and engagement team               operating. The Policy       opportunities will be an
                         operating to agreed               Engagement Strategy         ongoing challenge.
                         priorities                        and workplan for the
                                                           CPRC finalised.

         3.2      Research impacts

         It is very early to assess the impact of the research programme. However, the following
         comments are made.

         3.2.1    Progress towards purpose

Purpose                       OVIs                              Progress                 Recommendation/Comments
To raise the profile of the   a) Increased references to the    a) Recognition by        a) Need to ensure country
chronically poor amongst         need for policy and action        Govt of Uganda           partners have adequate
researchers and policy-          to tackle chronic poverty by      Social Protection        weight in the partnership to
makers and policy to be          researchers, national             Task Force that          stimulate healthy national
better informed by               governments, aid agencies         chronic poor need        dialogues
evidence-based research.         and the media.                    to be included in     b) Ensure that CPEP is
                              b) Policy statements adjusted        any major social         working effectively at the
                                 to take account of a              assistance               international level
                                 disaggregated approach to         scheme.
                                 poverty analysis               b) DFID Bangladesh
                                                                   issued £250
                                                                   million programme
                                                                   focused on
                                                                c) Substantial
                                                                   funding from
                                                                   Ausaid for work on
                                                                   chronic poverty
                                                                   and fragile states.

         Evidence of interaction with policy-makers and other stakeholders

         There is ongoing interaction with stakeholders at a wide variety of levels. The CPRC has
         sought demand-driven work and as a result several ongoing pieces of work involve high
         levels of interaction with stakeholders. For example AusAID has financed work on the causes
         of and responses to chronic poverty in fragile states. In South Africa close involvement of
         CPRC partners with the National Income Dynamics Survey, commissioned by the
         President‘s Office to carry out a two wave panel survey with associated qualitative work prior
         to the next election (2009) will enable the CPRC to feed research results into the highest
         level of national policy. In Uganda the CPRC is contributing to the work of the government‘s
         Social Protection Task Force, whose task it is to produce a social protection policy for
         inclusion in the next PEAP revision (2008). Dialogue on chronic poverty has been initiated
         with many international and national organisations and stakeholders. Interacting with the
         poor themselves as stakeholders is also part of CPRC‘s concern and researchers are
         currently being trained in participatory video as a research and empowerment tool in Uganda
         and possibly in West Africa in 2007.

         Progress towards targets in the policy engagement strategy

         The PE strategy was completed in August 2006. Progress towards objectives cannot
         therefore be assessed at this stage; however, indications are that the strategy is developing
         as planned.

Challenges of policy engagement strategy

There is a very wide range of activities. Communicating about these interactions within the
Centre remains a challenging task, although the development of the PE strategy itself and
the re-development of the intranet should help.

Prioritising from the wide range of opportunities available remains a constant management

All members of the CPRC have very full agendas and there is a risk that researchers will not
have the time or capacity to undertake all the planned activities. In order to address this
CPRC will:
        Release as much funding as possible to facilitate communication activities
        Look for additional funding for some activities
        Support researchers where interested in training (for example in participatory
        Provide the services of the policy officer in communication activities where
        Link researcher skills to opportunities

CPRC findings may not be welcome in some political or institutional contexts. The CPRC will:
       Seek out powerful allies who can act as intermediaries in the communication
       Seek to understand local and institutional contexts in order to fully appreciate the
          contexts into which findings are released
       Work on issues of implementation (how to do something) as well as analysing
          what to do
       Seek to understand the perspectives and agendas of key target audiences
          (individuals and institutions) so as to maximize potential for agreement and for a
          sympathetic response to the chronic poverty perspective.

Research may be needed and wanted but capacity to find and use it may be limited. This
may be because accessible materials are not available. Alternatively the market place may
be overcrowded. The CPRC will:
        Develop a range of accessible materials
        Support policy makers in-country, where possible, to have access to CPRC
        Develop policy research which is demand-led
        Consider the demand for materials on chronic poverty and integrate this demand
          into the engagement strategy through selected interactions with government
          policy units, meetings with key potential users and networks and through CPEP.

Baseline evidence

Evaluating the actual ‗impact‘ of research based policy engagement and communication is
arguably an impossible task. Since any policy change can be attributed to multiple causes,
the particular influence of a research or policy output is difficult to trace. However, frequently
some attribution can be claimed.

The baseline for impact is composed of 3 elements: review of national policies in partner
countries; establishing the current level of disaggregation of poverty in PRSs; and through
the synthesis of profiles of aid agencies.

In order to assess its overall effectiveness in relation to its communication aims the CPRC

         Elicit feedback from stakeholders – a feedback study on CPR1 will be elicited
         Monitor written and visual dissemination activities
         Collect available website data
         Record key face-to-face and group interactions and the outcome of communications
         Monitor the coverage of chronic poverty in specialised media and at country level in
          mainstream media
         Record key approaches to CPRC members
         Record actual changes in policy relating to chronic poverty
         As part of its learning CPRC is monitoring the policy process in order to understand
          better how policy changes and this enhanced understanding will form part of the
          assessment of CPRC effectiveness.

Increased awareness of research findings

The CPRC has completed year one of a five year programme of work. Thus we do not yet
expect awareness of research findings. However, there is awareness of the CPRC as a
research centre among policy-makers, as a result of phase one and the high profile of
researchers and the first Chronic Poverty Report which was launched by Gordon Brown.

Clearly ongoing knowledge is important because it enables subsequent use of the work.

In some countries there is considerable awareness of CPRC work. For example in Uganda
the term chronic poverty has entered the vocabulary of policy-makers and parliamentarians
since the launch of the Ugandan Chronic Poverty Report. In South Africa, CPRC partners
are now centrally involved with the Governments National Income Dynamics Survey and
research findings will thus be implicitly owned by government.

Capacity development

Progress in this area is good, largely in response to demand from partners. See Annex 6 for
full details of activities to date.

4.        Lessons learnt

4.1       Working with partners

The CPRC has successfully formed a West African regional network. This has taken time,
and is still in the initial stages. However, once country level work takes off, it is expected that
a regional approach will yield dividends in terms of stronger southern leadership, south-south
collaboration, and opportunities for comparative work. The lesson is that we should have
held out for this in phase 1 (where we gave in too easily to countries‘ desires to work

Working with some partners over a long period of time (now 6 years for some) inevitably
sees partners developing their own strategies and momentum, which can be hard to contain
within a coherent centre. This requires flexibility, but also a strong intellectual coherence
around a conceptual and research framework. Finding innovative ways to get partners to buy

into that framework is a challenge. Travel and face to face connections, workshops, and joint
work are key.

Comparative work is difficult to initiate. It does not happen among partners spontaneously. It
has to be deliberately structured into the planning process.

The CPRC has resisted providing 100% funding (or near it) for any partners as this would
reduce the need for them to carry out ‗demand-led‘ policy analysis work, building on their
core CPRC work.

Big partner meetings are very expensive. They have been necessary to turn the corner from
phase 1&2 to phase 3, however, their frequency can now be greatly reduced, and contact will
rely more on directors travelling to partner countries/regions.

4.2    Good practice/innovation

The above West African regional network.

Multi-donor support for the second Chronic Poverty Report has been useful to get advance
buy-in to the project.

It is necessary to work with national statistical offices to get buy in for panel data collection
on a systematic footing. Kenya CBS is a part of the CPRC-Kenya core partnership. An
exercise to persuade the users of panel data results (Ministry of Finance, Office of the Prime
Minister etc) in Uganda to demand that it be in the regular UBOS survey programme.
(Persuading the World Bank that panel data should be regularly part of the poverty statistics
process is an objective the CPRC has set itself.)

Conferences are being used intensively to bring in cutting edge thinking both in research
(Concepts; Living on the Margins) and policy and practice (What Works for the Poorest?
Conference in Bangladesh).

The Inter-generational theme has produced a set of methodological notes from experts to
guide future research, and enable systematic choices to be made. This will also be a public

The analytical approaches to understanding chronic poverty in Kenya have included literary
and socio-linguistic analysis – integration between the social sciences and the humanities is
rare in poverty analysis, and should prove fruitful.

Kenya has also instituted an innovative quality control process in its inception phase –
starting with commissioning papers after a competitive bidding process; having workshops to
discuss concept notes, interim presentations, and final papers to be presented at the CPRC-
K launch in April 07.

Demand-led policy analysis represents an innovation. Significant work has to be put in to
derive that demand, however, as policy-makers are often not used to making demands of
researchers. Exceptions are in India where the 11th 5 year plan process has absorbed
considerable time of two core team members. In general, researchers (or non-researchers in
the network) need to ‗accompany‘ policy processes to be able to assess where useful
contributions can be made. This is being done in Uganda in a systematic way, since the

publication of the Uganda Chronic Poverty Report, with a focus first on social protection, and
now on education and agriculture.

4.3    Project/programme management

The appointment of a full time, senior programme manager has been absolutely critical to
managing what has become a large and complex operation.

Although encouraged by DFID to engage with country offices and to raise additional funding
for country programmes, this activity has taken up a huge amount of researchers‘ time.
Positive results emerged in Kenya (about which CPRC is delighted) but only after 3 years of
on-off discussion and quite unsatisfactory communication from DFID-K. A longer period of
discussion and negotiation with DFID India led to a negative result, despite a concept note
having been agreed by Government of India, numerous revisions to the project
memorandum, and despite two special visits by CPRC directors for discussions with DFIDI,
and huge inputs of time from the India CPRC team including discussions with researchers
and policy-makers at state level in India in preparation for a broader programme. At all
stages DFIDI expressed positive encouragement to the CPRC to continue the process. The
eventual negative result was not accompanied by any explanation. Earlier fund-raising
experiences with country offices were also not positive, in Uganda and South Africa, though
mercifully less protracted. This suggests that DFID country offices who are keen to fund
research could benefit from some of the systematic approaches now adopted by CRD, so
that the time of researchers is not excessively wasted in such chaotic processes. It might be
useful if CRD provided opportunities for DFID staff more widely to understand how to interact
with researchers.

The lesson here, is certainly not to rely on in-country DFID funding. Our analysis is that this
is only viable when it satisfies some instrumental requirement of the in-country programme
(for example, building the capacity, and supplying analytical capacity to the Central Bureau of
Statistics in Kenya).

4.4    Communication

A policy engagement (communication) strategy takes a significant input of time and expertise
to develop properly. This has to include analysis of the audience, development of strategic
priorities (not easy to justify), as well as a degree of reflexivity. Inevitably, given the absence
of ‗science‘ in linking research to policy, a scattergun approach has to be used, with creative
struggle over setting priorities.

It should be useful to have a ‗semi-detached‘ NGO ‗engagement partnership‘, which is to a
degree free to undertake processes of policy engagement and accompaniment a little
independently of the research, but which can also feed back demands and expectations to
the research centre. This idea is being tested out.

Getting partners to take communication seriously is a struggle with the more research-based
partners. This will require continued effort, and visits to partners by the Associate Director for
Policy Engagement as well as the Programme Manager.

5.     Programme Management

The Centre Director, Andrew Shepherd, is supported by 4 Associate Directors, Tony
Addison, Caroline Harper, David Hulme and Andy McKay.

From April 2006 David Hulme has taken up a Leverhulme fellowship and his time on CPRC
activities reduced from 64% to 14% FTE until 2009. Tony Addison, Professor of
Development Studies and Executive Director of the Brooks World Poverty Institute in
Manchester, became an Associate Director of the CPRC from 1 May 2006, at 50% FTE.
Thus, the overall time input from Directors remains as originally planned.

In September 2006 Andy McKay moved from the Department of Economics and International
Development at the University of Bath to the Department of Economics at the University of
Sussex. The move will not affect his inputs to the CPRC.

The CPRC Management Team comprises the Directors of the Centre, Chair of Coordination
Group (always a southern partner, currently Andries du Toit, South Africa), a full time
Progamme Manager (Julia Brunt) based at ODI and a part-time Finance Officer (Jayne
Hewitt) based at Manchester. Management Team met each month during the inception
phase of the Centre and now meets once every 2 months. The focus of Management Team
meetings is on the business of running the Centre with planning, monitoring progress and
coherence, finance and operational issues of primary concern.

Each country (or regional) programme and thematic research area has a Coordinator, who
reports to one Director. These relationships, supported by the Programme Manager, are key
to the effective operation of the Centre, ensuring effective communication to and from
Management Team.

The Coordination Group met twice during the first year of the Programme, in October 2005
and February 2006 (and again in October 2006). Coordination Group comprises the
Management Team, theme coordinators, country and regional coordinators, the Managing
Editor, Chronic Poverty Report, and representatives of the Chronic Poverty Engagement
Partnership. The first meeting focused on planning, the second on progress and coherence.
The role of the CG in decision making is to debate and elaborate overall strategy, and enable
co-ordinators to reach agreement on projects.

Now that extensive planning has been completed and relationships established, it has been
agreed that CG should meet less frequently and make full use of teleconferencing and video
conferencing facilities. Available funding will be used for more ad hoc meetings of sub-
groups of CG where discussion to facilitate coherence is beneficial. The number of content-
driven CPRC events is increasing and these opportunities will be taken for partners to meet.

Partners are closely involved in programme management of the Centre. This is achieved
largely through the Coordination Group, close links with a nominated Director, and through
the Programme Manager. Communication is good, although always a challenge in such a
diverse and dispersed programme. E-mail, telephone and face-to-face meetings are all used
extensively. The Chair, CG, has particular responsibility for raising any issues of Southern
partners at Management Team. Management information is available to all partners through
the CPRC intranet, which is currently being developed to enhance its usefulness. Updates on
outputs and activities are sent to all partners.

The management structure seems to be operating well, despite its complexity. The Director,
based at ODI, is maintaining good links with colleagues at the Universities of Manchester

and now Sussex to ensure that the Centre runs smoothly. The Programme Manager, also at
ODI, is in very frequent contact with the University of Manchester over administrative and
financial issues.

The Management Team is constantly looking at where processes and structures can be
streamlined, and has identified Policy Analysis and Policy Engagement as two overlapping
areas, which will effectively be merged, and jointly managed by Andrew Shepherd and
Caroline Harper.


Monitoring activities are extensive and on-going.

             The quality, quantity and timeliness of outputs are monitored by the Programme
              Manager and Management Team.
             The effectiveness of the management structure is and will continue to be
              monitored throughout the life time of the Centre.
             Management Team is responsible for close financial management of the
              Centre. This is a standing item on the MT agenda.
             Progress towards the policy engagement goals is also reviewed at each MT

Progress on expenditure:

(financial details omitted here)

Multiplier funding:

DFID Kenya has now funded a sub-centre in Kenya, with a budget of £850K for 3 years. This
is part of a wider programme of support to the Kenya Central Bureau of Statistics, and is led
by the Institute of Development Studies, University of Nairobi.

The CPRC has also had some success in attracting multiplier funding for the Chronic Poverty

             USAID have supported background work on growth and chronic poverty
             Austrian Development Co-operation through the Vienna Institute for
              Development Co-operation have supported work on agricultural growth and
              chronic poverty (€34,000)
             AusAID have supported background work on state fragility and chronic poverty
             The Dutch Government have supported background work on the ‗Politics of
              What Works‘ (€28,000)

VIDC have indicated their interest in further supporting synthesis work on a PRSP evaluation
in 2007 (€17,000).

In addition to multiplier funding for the Chronic Poverty Report, the CPRC in partnership with
our partners in Uganda, Development Research and Training, have attracted funding
(£76,000) from DFID-Uganda for a project to design a Cash Transfer Pilot Scheme for

We are also currently developing a proposal for the CPRC programme in West Africa, though

The decision by DFID-India not to fund the CPRC programme in India has been a big blow to
the planning of work across the Centre. It is not clear yet how we will accommodate desired
activities in India with current funding, but this is under active discussion. Depending on the
success of the West African bid to IDRC, a proposal in India may also be developed.

CPRC‘s partners in Bangladesh have been preparing to apply for funding for a substantial
new programme under DFID‘s programme for the poorest.

Pattern of expenditure by quarter:

(financial details omitted here)


The Centre Advisory and Review Group has been reconstituted and met in March 2006 to
review progress and plans. The next meeting is planned for Cape Town, South Africa, March
2007, linked to a conference to be held there entitled ‗Living on the Margins‘. The CARG
currently comprises:

Margaret Kakande (Chair)           Department of Finance             Uganda
Charles Abugre                     Christian Aid                     UK/Ghana
Jo Beall                           London School of Economics        UK
Ravi Kanbur                        Cornell University                USA
Pronab Sen                         Planning Commission               India
Kevin Watkins                      UNDP                              USA
Stephen Kidd                       DFID                              UK
Cath Porter                        DFID                              UK
Tracy Tasker                       DFID                              UK
Andrew Shepherd                    CPRC Director                     UK
CPRC Associate Directors           CPRC                              UK
Julia Brunt                        CPRC Programme Manager            UK

It is planned to invite other members, either permanently or on an ad hoc basis, where
additional expertise would be beneficial.

The CARG provided very useful input to the strategic planning process in March 2006.
Important work on research frameworks for the Centre are emerging and CARG members
will be asked to review these. They will also be asked to review the emerging structure and
content of the second Chronic Poverty Report. CARG has agreed to take a much more
‗hands on‘ role in this phase of research, through commenting on specific issues, proposals
and ideas as they come up.

Comments on inception report:

All comments on the inception report were responded to at the time, with the exception of
suggested changes to the overall purpose statement for the CPRC. This is addressed in this
report (see Annex 1).


        Annex 1: Logical framework

                                   Objectively Verifiable                  Means of Verification
Narrative Summary (NS)                                                                               Assumptions/Risks
                                   Indicators (OVI)                        (MOV)
Super Goal
To eliminate poverty in poorer countries (with a focus on South Asia and Sub-Saharan                Africa)
More effective policy        a) Key policies changed or        a) Published policies,                a) Governments and
prescriptions for the            introduced to address             government                           donors are committed
reduction of chronic             chronic poverty dimensions.       communications,                      to combating poverty,
poverty.                     b) Detectable shifts in national      legislation,                         and willing and able to
                                 and donor budgets to              independent                          extend this
                                 address chronic poverty.          evaluation reports                   commitment to chronic
                                                               b) Budgets,                              poverty.
                                                                   evaluation reports
                                                                   (study required)
To raise the profile of the  a) Increased references to the    a) Government, aid                    a)   Civil society and the
chronically poor amongst         need for policy and action to     agency and media                       media, research and
researchers and policy-          tackle chronic poverty by         documentation.                         policy analysis
makers and policy to be          researchers, national         b) Assessments of                          communities, and
better informed by evidence-     governments, aid agencies         quantity and quality                   governments are
based research.                  and the media.                    by independent                         willing and able to
                                                                   consultants and                        engage with CPRC‘s
                             b) Policy statements adjusted         DFID regional                          findings and
                                 to take account of a              advisors.                              recommendations.
                                 disaggregated approach to                                           b)   The continuation
                                 policy analysis                                                          and/or deepening of
                                                                                                          conditions that permit
                                                                                                          influence on policy
                                                                                                          (e.g. reasonably free
                                                                                                          media, manifesto-
                                                                                                          based elections,
                                                                                                          freedom of speech,
2. Deeper understanding            a) CPRC research findings               a) Citation indexes
   among researchers,                 detectable in official,                 and peer-reviewed
   policy analysts and                professional and academic               journals
   policy-makers of poverty           documents. 50 citations by           b) Physical copies,
   dynamics and                       2010.                                   website links and
   particularly the nature         b) 50 Working papers, 50                   distribution lists.
   and causes of chronic              articles and other relevant          c) Records of
   poverty                            materials published and                 requests and
                                      disseminated by 2010.                   outputs from
                                   c) 5 Special editions of                   stakeholder-
                                      reputable journals or books             requested research
                                      dedicated to specific CPRC              or policy analysis

            The £250 million UK aid programme to Bangladesh is once example.
            The 2006 PRS review will collect this kind of information – this will be a baseline.

                                   Objectively Verifiable             Means of Verification
Narrative Summary (NS)                                                                           Assumptions/Risks
                                   Indicators (OVI)                   (MOV)
                                       policy areas by 2010.               activities.
                                   d) 10 Stakeholder requests for     d) Assessments of
                                       CPRC to undertake research          quality by
                                       projects, collaborate in            independent
                                       projects, or produce                consultants and
                                       publications.                       DFID advisors.
5. Effective and sustainable       a) Policy analysis findings        a) Citation indexes and    a) researchers and
   policy prescriptions                detectable in official,           peer-reviewed               ‗engagers‘ are able to
   identified through                  professional and academic         journals.                   develop a quality two
   assessment of policy                documents. 10 occurrences      b) Physical copies,            way interaction.
   environments and key                by 2010.                          website links and       b) researchers able to
   policy issues                   b) One international Chronic          distribution lists.         identify contextually
                                       Poverty Report published in    c) Government, aid             feasible policy options.
                                       2008                              agency and media
                                   c) Contributions to a Human           documentation.
                                       and World Development          d) Assessments of
                                       Report by 2010                    quantity and quality
                                   d) Policy dissemination               by independent
                                       publications: including 20        consultants and
                                       demand-led policy briefs          DFID regional
6. Governments, policy-            a) The concept of chronic          b) Media citation          a) governments do not
   makers and the public              poverty gains currency in            records and media         exclude chronic
   are aware of the specific          media coverage of poverty –          reports                   poverty from policy
   needs of chronically poor          25 media citations citing the   c) Physical copies,            agenda
   people and of the                  concept of chronic poverty           website links and     b) researchers able to
   neglect of their rights            by 2010.                             distribution lists.       produce ‗good enough
                                   b) At least 10 invitations to      d) Records of                  news‘ stories.
                                      engage with policy-makers            requests and          c) media interest in
                                      (e.g. presentations,                 outputs from              chronic poverty.
                                      attendance at conferences,           engagement with
                                      participation in workshops,          policy-makers.
                                      working parties etc. by 2010    e) Published goals,
                                   c) Disaggregation of poverty            targets or
                                      goals, targets and monitoring        monitoring which
                                      to identify the chronically          distinguish chronic
                                      poor evidenced in 5                  poverty.
                                      published documents by
7. Active international            a) Participation in at least 10    a) Centre annual           a) The context within
   partnerships for research          relevant formal and informal       reports and direct         which the Centre
   and policy engagement              meetings and advisory              observation by             partner organisations
   consolidated and                   missions by 2010.                  DFID                       (especially southern
   expanded                        b) Establishment of regional       b) Citation indexes           partners) operate does
                                      research & engagement              and peer-reviewed          not become a
                                      networks in at least one           journals.                  constraint on research
                                      region by 2008                  c) Physical copies,           (e.g. researcher
                                   c) 25 joint publications and          website links and          salaries are reduced in
                                      engagement activities              distribution lists.        real terms, funding for
                                      between partners (especially    d) Assessments of             higher education
                                      south-south and south-north)       quantity and quality       slashed etc.)
                                      by 2010                            by independent          b) Country partners are
                                   d) At least 2 country                 consultants and            able to win resources

             To be established on the CPRC website.

                           Objectively Verifiable               Means of Verification
Narrative Summary (NS)                                                                     Assumptions/Risks
                           Indicators (OVI)                     (MOV)
                               comparative studies                 DFID regional              from research themes.
                               published by 2008                   advisors.               c) Funding is secured for
                           e) Engagement partnership and        e) Policy engagement          major
                               engagement team operating           and                        partners/affiliates (e.g.
                               to agreed priorities                communications             India, Kenya)
                                                                   strategy (by June
Activities                 Inputs
                           a. Theme papers and CPRC
                               Phase 3 conceptual
                               framework working papers
                               published and adopted by
                               Oct. 2006
                           b. Concepts workshop held
                               (Oct. 2006) and results
                               published (Mar. 2007)
                           c. CPRC India (2007),
                               Bangladesh (2007) and
                               Kenya (2008) established as
                               functioning affiliates
                           d. What works for the poorest
                               conference, Bangladesh
                               (Dec. 2006)
                           e. Living at the Margins                                        a) international reports
                               conference held in                                          remain open to influence.
                               Capetown (Mar. 2007)                                        b) adequate interactions
                           f. CPR2 draft available for                                     between thematic
                               comment (mid 2007)               a) Annual reports
                                                                                           research, policy analysis
                           g. CPR2 published and                b) Documents (WDR,
                                                                                           and policy engagement
                               disseminated (Mar. 2008)         HDR)
    1. Thematic research                                                                   takes place.
                           h. Consolidated input into           c) closing event
    2. Policy analysis                                                                     c) researchers have
                               Uganda PEAP revision (Mar.       output/record
    3. Policy engagement                                                                   adequate incentives to
                               2008)                            d) book used in training   engage with policy issues
                           i. Findings of major research        programmes, degrees,
                                                                                           d) researchers have
                               projects summarised for          and widely cited
                                                                                           adequate resources to
                               inclusion in WDR 2010 (mid.
                                                                                           produce quality research
                           j. Full Exit Strategy developed,
                               including plans for ‗big bang‘                              e) DFID India funding
                               conclusion to phase 3 (end
                           k. Substantial theme outputs
                               produced (end 2009)
                           l. Co-ordinated inputs into 3
                               wave PRSs (end 2008)
                           m. India Chronic Poverty report
                               published (Dec. 2008)
                           n Range of flagship
                               publications (CPR2, national
                               CPRs, journal special
                               issues, books) focusing on
                               the post-2015 agenda
                               available for dissemination
                               as WDR 2010 is published

Annex 2: Financial summary

(financial details omitted here)

Annex 3: Risk assessment matrix


                  Low                         Medium                      High

Impact   High     CPRC research does          Changes in the context      Co-funding for partners
                  not add value               within which CPRC           not secured
                                              partner organisations

                                              Countries unable to win
                                              resources from thematic
                                              research areas

                                              Unable to influence
                                              national policy-making

                                              Researchers unable to
                                              identify contextually
                                              feasible policy options
         Medium   Unable to undertake         Researchers and             Loss of key staff mid-
                  research due to political   ‗engagers‘ do not           research
                  instability                 develop a quality 2-way

                  Component(s) of CPRC        Q2 research does not        Changes in DFID‘s
                  develop(s) a bad            deliver innovation          priorities, structures etc.

                                              Lack of media interest in   The contingent nature of
                                              chronic poverty             much policy-influencing

         Low                                  Unable to access the
                                              chronically poor

Annex 4: Communication strategy

                                 Engagement and Communications Strategy
                                               July 2006

                                     Caroline Harper, Associate Director, CPRC


The CPRC is a network of researchers and policy partners in the UK and in India,
Bangladesh, Uganda, South Africa and 5 countries in West Africa. The research centre also
has a formal engagement partnership with Development Initiatives (a consultancy) and
HelpAge International, and a looser network of NGOs and policy partners interested in the
Centre‘s work. This strategy has been developed over the first 9 months of the current phase
of CPRC. There have been two workshops involving research and policy partners and an
iterative process of strategy development.

Table of Contents

        1.        Chronic Poverty and International Development

        2.        CPRC communication purpose and objectives

        3.        Management of strategy

        4.        Risks and obstacles

        5.        The policy process

        6.        What is being communicated?

        7.        Country Partners

        8.        Audiences and Policy dialogue

        9.        Written and Visual Dissemination Materials

        10.       Learning, Monitoring and Evaluation

        11.       Policy Matrices

1.     Chronic Poverty and International Development

       “Obwaavu obumu buba buzaale. Abaana babuyonka ku bazadde baabwe, ate
       nabo nebabugabira ku baana. – Some poverty passes from one generation to
       another as if the offspring sucks it from the mother’s breast.”
                                                Source: group of disabled Ugandan women

Much poverty analysis has failed to distinguish adequately between types of poverty. Just as
wealth is distributed over several income groups, and is associated with various levels of
assets, inclusion and socio-political contexts, so poverty is distributed in different ways
among different groups of people. In addition the processes of escape from (or descent into)
poverty (poverty dynamics) are poorly understood. Many existing approaches to poverty
measurement and analysis (such as based on a one-off household survey) fail to capture
these dynamics, and so cannot provide sufficient policy insights. Different types of poverty
are recognised by the poor themselves as the above quote from Uganda illustrates. The
chronically poor are those who experience poverty of a critical depth, longevity and multiple
dimensions. Whilst poverty alleviation is an objective for most Governments and large
development agencies, attention to chronic poverty is much less apparent. It is the poor who
are easiest to reach, those fluctuating just above and below the poverty line who are the
main targets. Those poor entrenched in poverty and semi-permanently below the poverty line
are seen as the hard to reach and, by some, as ‗the poor who will always be with us‘.
Alternatively it is believed that growth alongside investment in human capital development
and attention to the ‗easy to reach‘ poor will ultimately benefit the chronically poor. It is the
intention of CPRC to challenge these assumptions and put the chronically poor squarely on
the poverty agenda; to illustrate both the necessity of specifically addressing chronic poverty
and of developing pathways into and out of chronic poverty.

Box 1: Poverty dynamics vs poverty trends in Uganda

Uganda experienced significant reduction in poverty during the 1990s. The aggregate
national poverty rate fell by about 20% over the 8 years from 1992 to 1999, with substantial
poverty reduction occurring everywhere in the country, except the Northern region. However,
this aggregate poverty trend tells us nothing about what happened to individual households.

In fact, it masks important poverty dynamics: about 19% of households were poor in both
1992 and 1999 (the chronically poor), and while almost 30% of households moved out of
poverty, another 10% moved in (the transitory poor). Clearly many households failed to
benefit from Uganda‘s impressive macroeconomic development over this period.

                                                     Source: Lawson, McKay and Okidi, 2003.

Five years after the introduction of the MDGs it is increasingly clear that several of the
targets will be significantly enhanced by attention to the chronically poor, whilst target 2
cannot be achieved without including chronically poor households, and thus with a more
nuanced appreciation of the type of poverty experienced by out of school children and their

Box 2: The Millennium Development Goals and the chronically poor

1 Eradicate      The target of halving poverty         5 Improve      Crucial for interrupting the
extreme          could lead policymakers to focus      maternal       inter-generational transfer of
poverty and      on the ―easy to reach‖ rather         health         poverty.    Addressing      other
hunger           than the chronically poor. But                       dimensions of chronic poverty
                 progress on other targets,                           would aid progress. However,
                 especially child       malnutrition                  national average targets may
                 reduction, will benefit from focus                   divert attention from chronic
                 on the chronically poor.                             poverty.
2 Achieve        Cannot be achieved without            6 Combat       Reducing chronic poverty is
universal        including     chronically     poor    HIV/AIDS,      likely to improve poor people‘s
primary          children and households.              malaria and    ability to afford treatment and
education                                              other          necessary nutrition.           All
                                                       diseases       indicators are important for the
                                                                      chronically poor, but again
                                                                      national     average     targets
                                                                      reduce their likely benefit for
                                                                      the chronically poor.
3 Promote        Essential for chronically poor        7 Ensure       Water        and       sanitation
gender           women and girls, but a short-         environmental improvements will benefit the
equality and     term focus on those easier to         sustainability chronically poor, but other
empower          reach could disadvantage them,                       targets may constrain their
women            or chronically poor men.                             livelihood options.

4 Reduce         Reducing the intergenerational        8 Develop a     Public support for aid is
child            transmission of poverty would         global          strongly based on desire to
mortality        greatly improve progress, but         partnership     help ―the poorest‖; a chronic
                 ―national    average‖      targets    for             poverty focus can help build
                 reduce its potential to stimulate     development     this partnership.
                 pro-chronically-poor policy.

Even if the millennium development goals are met, by 2015, 900 million people4 will still be
experiencing $1 a day poverty and just under half of these (420 million) will be trapped in
absolute chronic poverty.

2.        CPRC Communication and Engagement Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of the CPRC is to generate high quality research on chronic poverty and to
inspire and inform policy and practice leading to improved policies for the reduction of
chronic poverty.

CPRC research approaches are described in Figure 1 below:

    World Development Report 2000

Figure 1: The CPRC framework

                                         Research Approaches

                Conceptualisation       Empirical methods            Empirical methods for
               of poverty dynamics     for studying poverty        studying intergenerational
                                           dynamics and
                  and persistent                                    transmission of poverty
                                        economic mobility

                   META PROBLEM: Long-term poverty, life-course poverty, and
                           intergenerationally transmitted poverty

                Insecurity, risk and      Assetlessness, low                    Adverse
                   vulnerability         returns to assets and             incorporation and
                                               inequality                   social exclusion

                                              Explanatory themes

The research objectives are to deepen understanding by addressing researchable questions
and develop method: “The objective of the research is to deepen the understanding of
poverty dynamics and particularly of the nature, causes and remedies of chronic poverty ….
Through analysis and development of appropriate research methodologies”.

Whereas the communication objectives are to develop and deepen awareness,
communicate, build commitment to more effective poverty interventions, and have a policy
impact. Research questions cannot always be directly aligned to communication objectives.
However, communication and engagement aims have been developed, which encompass
the policy relevant research outputs (see below).

The CPRC is primarily a research centre, however, the member researchers are aware of
the vital importance of communicating their research in useful and inspiring ways and of
informing policy. One aspect of the engagement strategy is to better understand how
researchers may make research useful and accessible to a range of influential audiences.
Box 3 thus illustrates the seven ways in which CPRC recognises the research to policy
problem. This box is an extract from a forthcoming working paper. It is also clear that
different types of research serve different end purposes from revealing impact to improving
discourse or making change.

CPRC Communication objectives:

2.1   Keeping chronic poverty on the agenda and deepening awareness and

      Contribute to a wider awareness of Chronic Poverty among audiences: key donors
       and development specialists and practitioners.

         Deepen understanding of chronic poverty and the urgency of addressing it among
          audiences as above
         Communicate possible solutions to chronic poverty and contribute to new or better
          policy with specialist audiences, key governments and donors.
         Through all the above contribute to the development of commitments by key donors,
          governments and other actors to eradicating chronic poverty beyond 2015

2.2       Policy analysis and development: Core policies for addressing chronic poverty.

Policies for tackling chronic poverty are, in some areas, relatively well developed, in others
less so. Some policy areas are delivering clear messages and developing good practice.
The production of the Chronic Poverty Report 2007-08 will illustrate some of these areas and
is a major undertaking 2005-2008. The report is being produced over 2 years with a series of
background papers feeding into commissioned chapters. In addition a one year PRS review
is being undertaken in (approx.) 12 countries. The background CPR papers and the PRS
review will also be standalone products of high policy relevance. The Chronic Poverty Report
2007-08 will comprise the major policy statements of this phase of the CPRC. An additional
key stream of work is in the area of social protection and this is being strongly developed
during 2005-10. Other planned products include an annual policy synthesis and demand-led
policy analysis for example on chronically deprived countries or regions (cofunded by
AusAID). The communication objectives, under 2.1, support the four objectives of the
research centre.

2.3       Explanatory themes:     Understanding policy implications from explanatory

The three explanatory themes (see Figure 1) explore inter-linked causes of chronic poverty.
The CPRC hypothesis is that the causes of, and solutions to, chronic poverty lie within the
domains of assets, inequality, vulnerability, social exclusion and adverse incorporation.
Bodies of work will be produced on:
   o Land, savings and inheritance
   o Discrimination in education and labour markets
   o Scope for asset re-distribution
   o Public finance and chronic poverty reduction (including taxation and redistribution)
   o Social protection and state building, employment guarantee schemes, old age
       allowances, new forms of social assistance, Chile Solidario
   o Clientism to citizenship and rights; unequal social and power relations
   o Social movements and chronic poverty

Communication objectives:
  o Explain and contextualise the importance of these domains as causes and potential
     solutions to chronic poverty
  o Develop and communicate policy solutions within national and international spheres

2.4.      Core research: Explaining what data, method and concepts can and should do
          for policy

The three core research approaches are rolled into one for the purpose of communication to
a non-specialised audience. Poverty concepts, poverty dynamics and intergenerational
poverty all refer to different patterns of poverty, movements in and out of poverty, and
poverty transfers. The communication objectives are:

         Re-iteration of why chronic poverty is important as an idea
         Demonstration of the implications of intergenerational poverty transfers and policy
         Deepen understanding of the importance of data and research methods (which are
          able to identify who and where the chronically poor are and the issues they face) and
          its relevance to policy including: the value of integrated quantitative and qualitative
          data for policy development; a set of outputs on combining methods, life histories and
          understanding longitudinal data sets for non specialist (and specialist) audiences; and
          developing and strengthening engagement with national statistical offices, LSMS
          processes and international organisations
         Develop wider understanding of ‗measurement‘ and policy including what
          measurement can and can‘t offer policy makers: from money-metric to assets and
          vulnerability, to multidimensional human development, to social capital, to social
          relations approaches
         Demonstrate pathways from poverty through illustration of abilities to move out of
          chronic poverty and, conversely, what factors block these pathways
         Understanding ‗actors‘ strategies for leaving or living with poverty and how these can
          be re-enforced or undermined by policy.

2.5       Cross cutting research themes: Chronic Poverty and its importance to wider
          development debates.

Four themes cut across the above and feature strongly in country and international research.
These are chronic poverty and: health, gender, growth and policy processes. Limited work
will also be forthcoming on conflict and the environment. In addition pre-existing research
from earlier phases of the CPRC will continue to be communicated as appropriate, for
example work on urban poverty. Communication objectives with respect to these areas are
     o Integrate chronic poverty into mainstream debates on these issues
     o Develop and communicate the added value of a chronic poverty perspective to policy

3.        Management of strategy

The CPRC management team (director, associate directors and programme manager) are
responsible for implementation of the engagement strategy. All researchers in the Centre
also have roles and responsibilities. Each member of management team has responsibility
for specific country partners and/or research themes incorporating both research and
engagement. In addition, specific management team members take responsibility for the
cross cutting themes. The associate director with responsibility for policy engagement has
overall oversight, responsibility for strategy development and for work on policy processes.
Particular activities are delegated according to individual skills and interests such as
speaking at launch events, with key audiences and donors. All researchers in the centre are
expected to think about engagement issues with regard to their research outputs, develop
and maintain policy engagement matrices and carry out engagement and communication
activities as appropriate to their research area, the purpose of the research and their own
skills. The CPRC has an engagement partnership CPEP – the Chronic Poverty Engagement
Partnership – comprising Development Initiatives and HelpAge International. They will help
the CPRC develop and implement an engagement strategy; help establish a constituency of
concerned actors in partnership with CPRC; network widely and disseminate the findings and
materials of CPRC; bring in a wider range of partners with similar concerns and interests;
work with CPRC partners at a national level and as possible.

4.       Risks and obstacles

4.1      Researchers do not have time or capacity to carry out planned work

      All members of the CPRC have very full agendas and there is a risk that researchers will
      not have the time or capacity to undertake all the planned activities. In order to address
      this CPRC will:
           Release as much funding as possible to facilitate communication activities
           Look for additional funding for some activities
           Support researchers where interested in training (for example in participatory
           Provide the services of the policy officer in communication activities where
           Link researcher skills to opportunities

4.2      Opposition to the research findings

     CPRC findings may not be welcome in some political or institutional contexts. The CPRC
        Seek out powerful allies who can act as intermediaries in the communication
        Seek to understand local and institutional contexts in order to fully appreciate the
          contexts into which findings are released
        Work on issues of implementation (how to do something) as well as analysing
          what to do
        Seek to understand the perspectives and agendas of key target audiences
          (individuals and institutions) so as to maximize potential for agreement and for a
          sympathetic response to the chronic poverty perspective.

4.3      Research is not taken up by intended groups

      Research may be needed and wanted but capacity to find and use it may be limited. This
      may be because accessible materials are not available. Alternatively the market place
      may be overcrowded. The CPRC will:
          Develop a range of accessible materials
          Support policy makers in-country, where possible, to have access to CPRC
          Develop policy research which is demand-led
          Consider the demand for materials on chronic poverty and integrate this demand
            into the engagement strategy through selected interactions with government
            policy units, meetings with key potential users and networks and through CPEP.

5.       The Policy Process

The policy process itself is of concern to CPRC. Aspects of the process are captured in Box
3. The work of the research centre and the way it works will provide researchers with an
opportunity to reflect on the policy process from a wide variety of perspectives. These
lessons will be part of CPRC learning and will be an output of the centre. The work with
participatory video, which is under development, will comprise part of this learning
experience and may be analysed in collaboration with another research centre. Some
country partners are particularly interested in policy processes and will be following the
process in relation to specific policy change over the CPRC research cycle. The CPEP
partners are also actively engaged in the policy process at national (north and south) and
global level

 Box 4

 Research to Policy – Seven aspects of the problem

 This box lays out the principles underlying the CPRC engagement strategy. It suggests
 ways in which researchers should think about communication and engagement.

 1.   What is the role of individual researchers? Reflexivity and impartiality

 Researchers themselves are significant actors. They have individual skills and capacities to
 make their research make a difference. In some cases the researcher is part of the process
 of change. They cannot always claim to be an impartial observer because their very
 presence makes a difference to the way a process unfolds – sometimes with great subtlety,
 at other times, explicitly. Their research over a period of time becomes part of the story of
 change. They are both observer and observed. Nevertheless, in many cases, researchers
 can retain at least a significant impartial and objective standing in relation to the research.
 In multidisciplinary research centers, reflexivity and activism on the part of the researcher
 varies between disciplines and contexts and underlies, not just the potential variety of
 activity, but also the potential for misunderstanding and internal conflict.

 2. What is the authority of knowledge? The relationship between knowledge and

 The policy process can be seen as fundamentally about the relationship between
 knowledge and power (Foucault). In this context political problems can be recast in more
 neutral language based on research and its claim to neutrality, objectivity and sometimes
 ‗truth‘ or ‗fact‘. An alternative reality is a playing field where knowledge is, in fact, highly
 contested. Either way the knowledge itself is seen to play a key role and researchers (within
 this understanding of the policy process) invested with considerable power. They are core
 actors in the policy process. However, there is an alternative scenario where the power of
 knowledge is devalued. Development policies, far from being based on learning and
 research, are based on arguments, scenario‘s and narratives that some feel do not stand
 up to close scrutiny. This may lead to calls for more rational policy making and the use of
 more evidence-based policy. However, it is concurrently argued that the ideas of rationality
 and learning do not fulfill the needs that narratives do – because narratives can transform a
 chaotic reality into an ordered and comprehensive sequence of events. The researcher and
 their knowledge in this case appear powerless unless prepared to more creatively engage
 in the policy process.

3.   Do policy makers care about method?

Method itself is an important contributor to policy understanding. It is clear that there is a
multiplier effect when research from different disciplines and different methodologies is
used concurrently. It becomes all the more powerful and convincing. An economist
supported by a sociologist provides powerful knowledge to the academic community and, if
appropriately combined, also to the policy community. More recently the debate about Q
squared (combining quantitative and qualitative approaches) has become a popular
academic activity with clear policy implications. Quantitative and qualitative evidence is
sought by policy makers and there is an increasingly supported view that, in some contexts,
evidence-based policy making is becoming more normal. Policy makers who are seen to
use evidence will seek a wide range of types of evidence including statistical, qualitative
and evaluative evidence, analysis of cultural norms, public attitude surveys, and ethical
perspectives. This suggests that researchers should consider the range of available
evidence outside their particular approaches, methods and disciplines since its general
availability will lend to greater consideration of the issues under research.The quality and
availability of data can be very influential in policy decisions. Disagregation of poverty data
places particular groups on the ‗policy map‘.

4.   Do politics and socio-economic contexts shape all research?

Critical to increasing the uptake of research is an understanding of policy contexts. This
understanding can be part of the research and policy analysis process. Indeed the
researchers as actors also comprise part of the policy context. Some of the issues to
consider are: how dominant discourses may crowd out important research; how elites and
political constraints may influence receptivity to ideas; analysis of whether researchers are
talking only to the converted or opening up more challenging space; how to create the
space for debate; how and whether to undertake institutional analysis; what the frameworks
of possible thought (Chomsky) are in particular contexts, for example the possibilities for
redistributive policies may be very limited, and may be ‗unthinkable‘.

5. Communications methods – from participation to confrontation and everything in-

Actions taken to ensure the uptake of research and policy analysis involve a wide range of
methods. Participatory approaches are classically used either to better inform the research
or to empower the ‗researched‘ to take action based on knowledge or to do some of both of
these intents. Participatory approaches tend to involve a great deal of negotiation once
issues become clear. Some research requires a more confrontational approach, for
example to challenge dominant discourses. Other approaches may be less strategic but
effective in simply allowing compelling research to percolate through the academic and
wider community, especially if the research is from a high profile researcher. Other methods
to ensure research is used involve partnerships with wider networks from different sectors
or professions (such as NGOs or medical doctors) with similar interests, the use of written
and verbal communication and the strategic use of the media. The development of key
relationships is very important and requires good networking skills and, as well, a political
understanding of policy contexts and frequently the development of a trusting relationship
between research-provider and audience. The researchers can themselves act as a
knowledge broker, persuading, dealing, compromising, isolating and defeating ‗opponents‘.
These are all skills well-used within the academic community and can be extended to policy
contexts. In all research it is important to be able to change the terms of engagement, if
necessary, and ensure that, whilst being seen as an ally in some contexts, in other

 situations the role of the researcher is to ‗lift the eye of the policy-maker‘ to new horizons.

 6.    Providing solutions alongside analysis; describing and defining impact,
      effective policy and evaluating.

 Research which extends to actual policy design as opposed to underlying policy principles
 is frequently welcomed. Often national governments ask for advice not just on what to do
 but on ‗how‘ to do it. Research which has involved stakeholders in the research process is
 better able to design appropriate policy. Frequently, however, policy for the poor involves
 more then well designed pro-poor policy and extends to institutional or attitudinal change to
 accommodate policy. The wider context when considering policy design must also be taken
 into account.
 Effective Policy and Evaluation:
 Researchers are good at identifying problems but tend to be more cautious about solutions.
 However, understanding the effective implementation of policy is an important part of the
 research and policy engagement process. Whilst evaluations are commonplace in
 development programmes, they may not necessarily be integrated into a broader research
 programme on poverty. Budget monitoring is widely used to track effective expenditure and
 is another way into understanding effective policy.

 7. Does ‘ownership’ of the research matter? Is ‘ownership of’ different from
 ‘commitment to’?

 Related to methods is the issue of research ownership. Whilst not classically viewed as
 method there is a strong case to be made that for research to be used it needs to be
 ‗owned‘ by those who are intended to use it. The method in this is to be found in developing
 research ideas in collaboration with end users. The importance of ownership is sensibly
 disputed (Booth) since the logistics of developing research in this way can be difficult, but
 that does not necessarily mean that governments and other end users cannot be
 ‗committed‘ to the ideas contained within the research. Commitment to these ideas,
 however, does involve developing good long term relationships and initial sensitivity to
 demand driven agendas. The question remains whether ‗ownership of‘ is different from
 ‗commitment to‘ and whether in the latter policymakers or other stakeholders have been
 sufficiently allowed to shape the agenda.

6.     What is being communicated?

It is important to understand that these are flexible plans that may change according to
demand, new opportunities and changing relevance. The CPRC research proposal
constitutes the key deliverables and log frame. The engagement strategy is of necessity a
more flexible document intended to be a useful working document that will be changed as
necessary. It is accompanied by a constantly updated work plan.

Aim 1: Keeping Chronic Poverty on the agenda and deepening awareness and
       understanding (2005-2010)
Aim 2: Highlight core policies for addressing chronic poverty (2006-10)
Aim 3: Understanding policy implications from explanatory themes: assets, inequality,
       vulnerability and exclusion/ adverse incorporation. (2008-10)
Aim 4: Explaining what data, method and concepts can and should do for policy (2007-10)
Aim 5: Promoting the issue of chronic poverty and its importance to wider development
debates (2006-10)

Aim 1: Keeping Chronic Poverty on the agenda and deepening awareness and
understanding (2005-2010)

      Engagement will be sequenced. The first two years will focus on policy engagement
       aimed essentially at keeping chronic poverty on the policy agenda and deepening
       awareness among key donors and governments of the scale and importance of the
       problem and potential solutions. This is particularly appropriate to efforts to meet the

Aim 2: Highlighting core policies for addressing chronic poverty

Chronic Poverty Report 2007-08 (2005-2010)

      The report will revisit the scale of worldwide chronic poverty, emphasise the
       importance of both long-term social change, engagement in markets for the
       chronically poor, and approaches to pro-poor taxation, public finance and
       redistribution. Social protection, a strong theme of the first report, will continue to be
       emphasised within the context of integrated social policy (see also below).
      The report will be launched early in 2008 and throughout 2008 in different locations.
       There will be a US launch of the report in April 2008 (tbc)
      A set of policy papers and selected policy briefs will be published from background
       papers to the report and will be made available through the website and key mailings.

PRS review (2005-2008)

      PRSP evaluation – a one year evaluation of PRS‘s. A major multi-country study,
       comprising a mix of fieldwork and desk studies and involving a team of contracted
       researchers – focussing on implementation processes and blockages. This will feed
       into CPR2.
      PRSP review (completed Dec 05), identifying the extent to which PRSPs employ
       disaggregated poverty analysis incorporating the chronically poor. Findings in brief –
       some promising building blocks but little in the way of integrated strategy

Developing and promoting social protection (2006-9)

Social protection as a means to end chronic poverty was established in earlier work of the
CPRC. The aim of the current phase is to challenge the view that social protection cannot
make a difference to the very poor and is unaffordable, and illustrate the potential synergies
between social protection, on the one hand, and growth on the other. Developing more clarity
around types of protection and impacts for the old and very young and investigating issues
around costs and sustainability will also be outputs. There is an extensive range of activities
and dissemination in all countries and through the Chronic Poverty Report 2007-08. This
includes the production of policy briefs, structured work with the government of Uganda on
implementing cash transfers, demand-led policy analysis commissioned by the South African
treasury and the Indian Government.

Engagement is aimed at national governments where impact evaluation, guidelines and
piloting are sought; and in countries where governments have yet to be convinced. Also with
key donors who are interested in mechanisms and impacts including and multilateral
organisations where social protection remains contested.

Aim 3: Understanding policy implications from explanatory themes: assets and
       inequality, vulnerability and exclusion/ adverse incorporation. (2008-10)

       How to move from clientism to citizenship and rights

       This theme incorporates knowledge on social movements and change. The theme
       will develop a critical understanding of exclusion, discrimination, exploitation and
       adverse incorporation. These elements are central to the realities of the chronically
       poor. Whilst some areas, such as labour markets, can be regulated, other forms of
       exclusion or adverse incorporation are not so policy-sensitive.

       Assets and inequality

       This theme will analyse the importance of assets in accounting for chronic poverty,
       and of asset accumulation or loss in accounting for poverty transitions. This will focus
       on a range of assets including physical assets such as land; human capital including
       health; and social and political capital. This will consider the processes of asset
       accumulation (e.g. savings) and loss (e.g. ill health); it will also consider the extent to
       which the chronic poor face discrimination in the accumulation of key assets or in
       labor markets. This stream of work will offer important policy messages on the extent
       to which the chronic poor are kept poor by processes of being unable to accumulate
       assets, of being unable to insure themselves against adverse shocks and of suffering
       from poor terms of trade in markets, including labour, product and credit markets.

       Chronic poverty will often be associated with high and persistent levels of inequality,
       in particular in the ownership of key assets. One important policy question will be on
       the scope for asset redistribution measures as a means of increasing the assets
       owned by the poor.


       Work on social protection as detailed above comprises the main output from this
       theme. Vulnerability is clearly wider than social protection, however, this will be the
       focus for the next two years.

Aim 4: Explaining what data, method and concepts can and should do for policy (2007-

The CPRC will explain how policy suffers by not having sufficient data and methods. A major
output of the CPRC will be a range of methods and data analysis (quantitative and
qualitative) which will enhance our understanding of chronic poverty and the processes of
escape from (or descent into) poverty. Many existing approaches to poverty measurement
and analysis (such as based on a one-off household survey) fail to capture these dynamics,
and so cannot provide sufficient policy insights on the processes by which people escape
from poverty, or become trapped in poverty. The centre will highlight the value and
importance of methods that capture these dynamics adequately, in particular longitudinal or
panel surveys and life history methods. The centre will also argue strongly for the insights
provided by an integrated qualitative and quantitative approach to studying poverty dynamics
and chronic poverty, and will illustrate this based on large scale studies in Bangladesh and
one or more African country (tentatively Uganda and/or Ghana). The CPRC will also argue
for the importance of disaggregation in analysis to capture groups among which chronic
poverty may be disproportionately concentrated, such as ethnic minorities.

On the longer term agenda, the Centre will also advocate for these data collection and
analysis approaches to be more widely used. At national level this will be done in liaison with
statistical offices and government departments charged with poverty reduction strategies. At
the international level there will be close liaison with international agencies advising and
funding data collection as well as statistical coordination mechanisms.

Other relevant audiences for this include NGOs, who have long voiced concerns about the
unreliability of data, particularly in relation to special interest groups, and
national/international researchers.

By the end of 2008 there will be two examples of best practice from Bangladesh. An event
will be planned in West Africa. The CPRC toolbox will also be re-launched.

Aim 5: Promoting the issue of chronic poverty and its importance to wider
development debates (2006-10)

      Health and Chronic Poverty: Health problems are intimately linked to chronic
       poverty. The CPRC is not in a position to add value to debates on health systems but
       will rather focus on underlying health determinants and non-health interventions
       which contribute to improved health outcomes. Research will be carried out under
       existing themes.

      Gender and Chronic Poverty: Gender remains one of the pivotal issues underlying
       chronic poverty. Deprivations in nutrition and education, control over resources, legal
       rights, and so on. In 2005 the global community missed the 2005 goal, set at Beijing
       in 1995, of eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education. The
       CPRC anticipates that the attention drawn to this failure in the 2005 DAC
       Development Cooperation Report will mean that bilateral donors will be looking for
       research and policy conclusions that can help them improve their performance on
       gender. CPRC will integrate gender issues into ongoing research and policy work.
       They will feature strongly in the Chronic Poverty Report 2007-08. Specific issues will
       be highlighted in particular the MDG failure and girls education (under the assets
       theme) and legal inheritance and discrimination (under the assets theme). A
       gendered analysis of chronic poverty will be considered

      Growth and Chronic Poverty: The CPRC is undertaking analysis on the extent to
       which the chronically poor connect to – or are excluded from or harmed by – growth
       process. Looking at more and less positive experiences based on an analysis of
       several country case studies can help identify the key processes which underlie
       these. This will offer important policy lessons for the countries studied; and may offer
       more general lessons. Important themes are likely to include the sectoral patterns of
       growth (and how this can be influenced); the spatial pattern of growth (whether
       significant regions fail to participate in growth); and the impact of growth on inequality,
       including of key assets.

       Lack of assets as well as possible exclusionary processes (e.g. in markets or in
       access to key services) may mean that it is difficult for the chronically poor to
       participate in growth to the same extent as the less poor and the non-poor.
       Nevertheless growth can be an important source of government revenue which can
       then play an important redistributive role, depending on the nature and pattern of
       public spending. Research across a number of countries conducted by the CPRC

       should be able to offer important lessons about how this can be done more

      Policy Process and Chronic Poverty. Informing policy for the chronically poor
       involves working in a contested policy space where some influential parties do not
       engage with the issue or do not think it requires additional analysis. Others are not
       aware of the complexity. Yet others suggest the solutions are already in place. The
       process to be undertaken by the CPRC is complex and involves multiple channels
       and actors. Reflection on this process will form part of the learning experience of the
       CPRC and inform wider debates on policy processes. It is desirable in any policy
       process to also consider aspects of participation. This can contribute to the depth and
       relevance of policy information, stimulate researcher ideas and allow for inclusion to
       different degrees of the ultimate stakeholders. The CPRC will be developing
       participatory projects to enable some of these objectives in West Africa and Uganda.

Also considered but with lower priority:

      Environment and Chronic Poverty

   Two papers have been written to inform the CPRC‘s agenda on environmental aspects:

      a working paper on chronic poverty and the environment, which recommends that the
       CPRC works on environmental health and access to natural resources as two under-
       researched environmental issues of particular relevance to the chronically poor, and
       entries into and exits from poverty. The latter will feature strongly in the cross-cutting
       ‗agrarian change‘ project (part of the growth cross-cutting theme) to be developed by
       country partners in October 2006. The former will be considered in the context of the
       health cross-cutting theme.
      A working paper on Climate Change and Chronic Poverty. This has explored the
       possibility that scenarios could be developed which would reflect on future chronic
       poverty. This information will be used alongside other scenario work in the second
       Chronic Poverty Report.

      Conflict and Chronic Poverty.

       Initial work will look at ‗chronically-deprived countries‘ (CDCs), many of which are in
       conflict, emerging from conflict, or have a high chance of falling into conflict (making
       them ‗fragile states‘). Chronically-deprived regions within countries will also be
       examined; these are regions left behind by national development, they have severe
       poverty problems, and they are often in (or close to) rebellion—grievances over the
       regional distribution of public spending frequently compounding their disenchantment
       with central government.

       The CPRC will undertake a demand-led piece of work for AusAID to improve our
       understanding of the causes of chronic poverty, particularly in the selected Asia-
       Pacific countries (PNG, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Solomon Islands).
       Moreover, the science of making Fragile States (FS) robust and resilient is still young.
       This study should therefore contribute to this larger FS debate by yielding concrete
       policy recommendations that enhance FS strategies which at the moment generally
       ignore the problem of chronic poverty or only weakly address it in poverty reduction.
       Being demand led the donor funding agency already has an interest in the product.

7.     Country Partners

CPRC country-led research in this phase is themed as the research design in Figure 1
illustrates. Outputs thus fit within the objectives and engagement aims as outlined above and
with the range of activities and outputs described in this strategy. However, there is also a
national dimension to the research which means that each country has a unique set of
research and engagement objectives and aims. These are currently summarised in the
matrix below. In summary:

IED Afrique, Senegal (Leading West Africa Group – Senegal, Ghana, Benin, Niger,
Burkina Faso) has a focus on the impact of PRSP processes, global economic processes
on poor farmers, governance, and poverty and social protection. Immediate priorities to be
covered in all countries include, social protection, agricultural growth and migration. From
2008 governance and economic growth will be prioritised. The outputs will feed into PRS
reviews (2008-11), PRS M&E, and the launching of regional economic agreements and
policies including the West Africa PRS. Social protection is a major policy development in
the region with a number of countries producing social protection strategies. The region is
also particularly interested in participatory video making for social change and policy

Development Research and Training, Kampala,Uganda launched its Chronic Poverty
Report in 2005 attracting considerable attention. Key issues prioritised in the Uganda
Chronic Poverty Report include education, especially topical in the light of the government‘s
USE election commitment; and public sector support for agricultural growth, a hot topic
following the critical PMA evaluation. It is now involved with consolidating parliamentarian
and policy maker interest through the poverty eradication action plan (PEAP) and other
political processes. Particular attention has been paid to the issue of social protection and
CPRC Uganda is much engaged with enabling a better understanding of the potential and
limitations of social protection. The CPRC is contributing to the work of the government‘s
Social Protection Rask Force, whose task it is to produce a social protection policy for
inclusion in the next PEAP revision (2008). They are also interested in participatory video for
social change and will produce a popular version of the Uganda Chronic Poverty Report.

Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Dehli, India maintains a focus on
measuring and understanding chronic poverty in the Indian context and providing a range of
multi-dimensional solutions. It is therefore aiming to continue to raise awareness and deepen
understanding of chronic poverty through State level processes. They also have an interest
in social protection and will be monitoring the implementation of the national rural
employment guarantee act. Efforts to date have focused on engaging with national level
policy makers, especially in the Planning Commission, as well as the Ministry of Rural
University of the Western Cape, School of Government, South Africa has a particular
interest in national income dynamics and thus the movement of the poor into and out of
poverty. Close involvement of CPRC partners with the National Income Dynamics Survey,
commissioned by the President‘s Office to carry out a two wave panel survey prior to the
next election (2009) will enable the CPRC to feed research results into the highest level of
national policy. A major additional focus will be on economic growth, and engagement in the
vivid policy debates on the informal economy, where a majority of chronically poor people
earn their living. This research will lend itself both to keeping chronic poverty on the policy
agenda and explaining solutions. The long term interest in social grants will continue and the
poverty dynamics survey will add weight to policy solutions in this area. They will also

contribute to a better understanding of what method and data can and cannot do in better
understanding chronic poverty.

Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka, Bangladesh is conducting
research on the impact of government and NGO policies and programmes for the poorest
and is also conducting a poverty dynamics panel survey which will inform policymakers on
the causes of, and solutions to, movements into and out of poverty. They maintain an interest
in the MDG monitoring process and will be evaluating the impact of PRSPs and producing a
State of the Poorest Report. CPRC has three main foci for its outputs - the National Poverty
Reduction Strategy, the large NGO's (especially BRAC) and DFID. Its policy engagement
work seeks to:
        (i) Help ensure that the PRS focuses on the country's poorest people through
        dissemination of the 'State of the Poorest' Report and meetings with national
        (ii) Provide consultancy services to DFID with regard to its programmes to support the

8.     Audiences and Policy dialogue

It is intended that particular streams of work can be strategically developed into policy
dialogue with identified policy makers and broader audiences as described under the
engagement aims. The dialogue will be linked to strategically chosen external events or
events organised by the CPRC. The CPRC will develop opportunities for open discussion, for
example around the launch of the Chronic Poverty Report in 2008, in relation to which a
seminar series will be developed, through journal special issues, or through policy debates,
such as on the World Development Reports.

Stakeholder analysis has been undertaken at various stages during CPRC1 and 2. It is a
constantly updated activity. According to specific themes we will endeavor to identify what we
wish the audience to do – in some cases think differently, in other cases act differently –
perhaps communicate with a wider range of people, in other cases make changes to actual

Broad/ International
The dialogue will be developed taking into account the production of key reports and papers
(HDR 2008; WDR 2010); core institutions and actors (all party parliamentary groups; core
institutions and teams in institutions and standing commissions and regular events (e.g.
commission for social development).

The idea of ongoing policy dialogue will be developed in the CPRC through the use of the
policy matrix, an engagement work plan and the coordinated production of policy-related

Dialogue has already been initiated with many of the identified organisations and processes
This will be sustained – but the costs and benefits of deepening engagement will be kept
under review.

The CPRC is developing a ‗North American‘ strategy with a view to engaging with key
organizations in the region, especially with a view to influencing the 2010 WDR.

Based on further discussion and experience, over the first year of CPEP‘s work the identified
targets will be refined and segmented into the ten (max) key target agencies, and 200-300

individuals who can influence the effective aid debate and the mainstreaming of chronic
poverty issues into their relevant constituencies. The matrix and profiles which are under
development will clarify why different actors are seen to have part to play in the CPRC/CPEP

It is expected that some of the key contacts and audiences will contribute to the launch and
dissemination of the Chronic Poverty Report 2007-08.

Policy Audiences – National
Country partners of the CPRC have investigated multiple policy engagement opportunities.
They will remain actively engaged with a range of central government ministries and regional
authorities. This is related to work on policy design, impacts and implementation as well as
on explanations for poverty dynamics. Donor agencies are also well known to CPRC
researchers where relevant and demand-led research and policy analysis complements core
CPRC funding. For example, in South Africa the partnership has been commissioned by the
government to contribute to the national income dynamics survey. In Uganda, the CPRC is
working closely with government on social protection. In Bangladesh CPRC is an institutional
member of the PRSP monitoring committee.

9.     Written and Visual Dissemination Materials

In designing a range of dissemination materials consideration is paid to different products for
different people, different levels of complexity and who is responsible for production.

Working papers represent the ‗work in progress‘ of the CPRC. They are an important and
valued resource for all those working on Chronic Poverty. Papers for academic publication
will be promoted through the usual route – journals, book chapters and conference papers. A
selection of working papers will also be complemented with a policy brief or a research
summary. Additional policy briefs may be developed not specifically linked to a working
paper. Working papers will be made more accessible as part of the redesign of the website.

Policy Syntheses of a general or themed nature are under consideration. These will be a
compendium of policy-relevant knowledge created through policy analysis, research themes
and policy engagement. Inputs will be policy implications from research, specific pieces of
policy analysis and evaluation and lessons from policy engagement. An ID21 ‗highlights‘ may
be produced for each synthesis.

Policy Briefs and Research Summaries planned up to 2007 include: Social protection x 2;
Urban areas; PRSPs; Land reform; Growth and the Poorest; Social movements;
Discrimination; what measurement can and can‘t do for you; Chronic Poverty facts – selected
stats, tables, graphics.

Country Working Paper Series: India and Bangladesh currently run their own working
paper series. Kenya is planning a series. Selected papers from these series will also be
developed into policy briefs.

The Chronic Poverty Report 2 will be published in 2008. This report represents CPRC‘s
steer regarding chronic poverty and policy. Chronic Poverty reports have also been
produced in Uganda and will be produced in India and Bangladesh, and possibly West

Journals, Books and Conference Papers

The CPRC is planning to produce a book series. And pursue journal publications and special

ID21 linked outputs: Discussions have been held with ID21 and some of the following are
under consideration:
    Theme-related issues of insights
    country outputs options:
          o A themed insights across 3-4 of our countries
          o A joint insights with other research centres on recent research from X country
          o An insights focused on (for example) India CPRC work (but this may not have
              a wide audience on its own).

Each product will be distributed according to particular audience receptivity and needs. ID21
will support dissemination through their e-mail alerts.

Book launches will be considered at strategic venues.

Website Development
The website will be developed with the intention of becoming the site of choice for
researchers, policy analysts and NGOs working on chronic poverty. The research side will be
strengthened with the addition of more accessible versions of the top quality papers,
research summaries and categorisation of the main research themes. Outputs from
workshops and seminars will be made available and the Links section constantly updated.

Policy on chronic poverty will be developed on the website. Policy briefs on key topics will be
developed; and policy analysis will be developed around policy development, impact and
solutions as well as key themes. Policy pages will be written on issues such as: the
relevance of the MDG‘s to solving CP; PRS‘s – are they reaching the chronically poor; the
politics of what works.

In an earlier phase the CPRC set up a bibliographic database. This will be further developed
under the revision of the website to make it more accessible and promote its wider use:

Additional resources will be available from the website including short films (under
discussion), photos and testimony to enable actors in the policy community to easily use
materials from the CPRC.

The website links will be improved and Eldis will be consulted on how to enable this.

After the end of the project the website will be maintained for 5 years as a resource for the
policy and research community.

For international media coverage the CPRC will be supported by ODI‘s communication team
to link into appropriate journalists‘ ‗breakfasts‘ hosted by the institution. The CPRC would
approach UK media with two primary aims – firstly to influence UK politicians of all parties on
aid and good uses of aid, and secondly to support DFID‘s aims of supporting long-term
research on development by demonstrating its importance to a public and political audience.
Ongoing monitoring of, and dialogue with, a wide range of policy-makers and opinion-formers
helps the CPRC identify opportunities to highlight chronic poverty issues.

Experience shows that opinion polls can be effective ways of helping to broaden the attention
attracted to research findings and reports, so when the CPRC has major outputs that it wants
to publicise, it will consider commissioning an opinion poll in the UK and up to two developing
countries (Uganda and India) to help raise profile. The launch of the Chronic Poverty Report
2007-08 may be one such opportunity. At a national level media strategies are various
depending on changing local contexts.

10.       Learning, Monitoring and Evaluation

Evaluating the actual ‗impact‘ of policy engagement and communication is arguably an
impossible task. Since any policy change can be attributed to multiple causes, the particular
influence of a research or policy output is difficult to trace. However, frequently some
attribution can be claimed. In order to assess its overall effectiveness in relation to its
communication aims the CPRC will:

         Elicit feedback from stakeholders – a feedback study on CPR1 will be elicited
         Monitor written and visual dissemination activities
         Collect available website data
         Record key face-to-face and group interactions and the outcome of communications
         Monitor the coverage of chronic poverty in specialised media and at country level in
          mainstream media
         Record key approaches to CPRC members
         Record actual changes in policy relating to chronic poverty
         As part of its learning CPRC is monitoring the policy process in order to understand
          better how policy changes and this enhanced understanding will form part of the
          assessment of CPRC effectiveness.

11.    Policy Matrices
(on request)

Annex 5: Products and publications

    Type of output       Output
1   Peer-reviewed        CPRC Working Paper No 58 Tinkering on the fringes? Redistributive
    publications         land reforms and chronic poverty in Southern Africa [A.O. Chimhowu]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 59 Intergenerational transmission of poverty
                         in sub-Saharan Africa – a select annotated bibliography with special
                         reference to irreversabilities associated with poor nutrition, health and
                         education [B. Smith and K. Moore]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 60 Poverty: causes, responses and
                         consequences in rural South Africa [E. Francis]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 61 On the links between violent conflict and
                         chronic poverty: how much do we really know? [Patricia Justino]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 62 Chronic poverty and the environment [L.
                         CPRC Working Paper No 63 Social movements and the politicization
                         of chronic poverty policy [A. Bebbington]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 65 Social movements and chronic poverty
                         across the urban-rural divide: concepts and experiences [D. Mitlin and
                         A. Bebbington]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 66 The determinants and consequences of
                         chronic and transient poverty in Nepal [S. D. Bhatta and S. K. Sharma]
2   Publications in      CPRC Working Paper No 64 The role of collective action and urban
    press or             social movements in reducing chronic urban povert [D. Mitlin]
    submitted            CPRC Working Paper No. 67 Extending Social Assistance in China:
                         Lessons from the Minimum Living Standard Scheme [Jiandong Chen
                         and Armando Barrientos]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 68 Methodological Note: Using Micro Data to
                         Understand Better the Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty in
                         Low Income Developing Countries [J. R. Behrman]
                         CPRC Working Paper No 69 An annotated bibliography on adverse
                         incorporation and social exclusion [B. Smith]
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? A conceptual framework for understanding
                         and explaining chronic poverty [A. Shepherd]
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? Climate change and chronic poverty
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? Political Sociology in India [A. Kumar]
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? PRSP review [U. Grant and R. Marcus]
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? Farmer suicides [A. Kapur Mehta]
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? The politics of what works: a synthesis [S.
                         CPRC Working Paper No ? The politics of what works in Bangladesh
                         [N. Hossain]
3   Books or book        Chronic Poverty and Development Policy in India
    chapters             Edited by Aasha Kapur Mehta and Andrew Shepherd, Sage
                         Publications, 2006, 408 pp..
4   Policy briefs        CPRC Policy Brief No. 2 Social protection transfers and chronically
                         poor people
                         CPRC Policy Brief No 3. Tackling obstacles to social protection for
                         chronically poor people
                         CPRC-Uganda Policy Brief No. 1 Does chronic poverty matter in
                         CPRC-Uganda Policy Brief No. 2 A social protection agenda for
                         Uganda‘s poorest of the poor
                         CPRC-Uganda Policy Brief No 3 Targeting and protecting the
                         chronically poor in Uganda: a case for the elderly
5   Publicity material   An introduction to the CPRC
6   Website links        137 known. Including partners, UNDP, Panos, ID21, University of
                         Laval etc.

7   Research    CPR2 background work:
    programme      o Tinkering on the fringes? Redistributive land
    reports           reform and Chronic Poverty in Southern Africa
                      (Admos Chimhowu)
                   o Education policies and chronic poverty (P. Rose
                      and C. Dyer)
                   o Mapping the linkages between health and chronic
                      poverty (Ursula Grant)
                   o Social protection workshop (2005) Various papers
                   o Health and Social Protection workshop (2005)
                      Various papers
                   o Review of integrated programmes tackling
                      extreme and persistent poverty in Latin America
                      (Claudio Santibanez)
                   o Review of global social protection experience in
                      the Ugandan policy context (Ursula Grant, with
                      Charles Lwanga-Ntale)
                   o Health, health systems and chronic poverty
                      (Mickey Chopra, David Neves, Alexander Tsai,
                      and David Sanders)
                   o Pro-poorest growth – a review of 16
                      operationalising pro-poor growth studies (Ursula
                   o Growth and the Poorest: A Panel Data Analysis
                      for Uganda (Andy McKay)
                   o Growth incidence analysis for non-income welfare
                      indicators: evidence from Ghana and Uganda (Ed
                   o Brief literature reviews on agriculture,
                      infrastructure and urban growth (Manjistha
                   o Country study: Vietnam (Nguyen Thang, Le Dang
                      Trung, Vu Hoang Dat and Nguyen Thu Phuong)
                   o Country study: Uganda (Sarah N. Ssewanyana,
                      Lawrence Bategeka)
                   o Country study: Nicaragua (Steve Wiggins)
                   o Country study: Ethiopia (Stefan Dercon, John
                      Hoddinott, Tassew Woldehanna)
                   o Country study: India (Shashanka Bhide, Aasha
                      Kapur Mehta)
                   o Escape routes from the rural poverty trap:
                      evidence from three African countries (Paul
                      Mosley, Abrar Suleiman, & Blessing Chiripanhura)
                   o Agricultural policies against severe and chronic
                      poverty (Paul Mosley and Abrar Suleiman)
                   o The poverty-reducing effect of increased food crop
                      productivity in Ethiopia: A multi-market Analysis
                      (Abrar Suleiman and Paul Mosley)
                   o Agriculture policies in Ethiopia (Lidia Cabral)
                   o Agriculture policies in Ethiopia and India (Usher)
                   o Urban economic growth and chronic poverty
                      (Ursula Grant)
                   o Agricultural growth and chronic poverty (Andrew
                      Shepherd and Martin Prowse)
                   o Fragile states, economic growth and chronic
                      poverty (Malawi, Nepal, Sudan and Zimbabwe)
                      (Kate Bird, Martin Prowse, Andrew Shepherd)

                        o   Pro-chronically poor growth: synthesis paper
                            (Andy McKay, Ursula Grant Andrew Shepherd)
                        o   POWW synthesis report (Sam Hickey)
                        o   POWW study – Bangladesh (Naomi Hossein)
                        o   POWW study – India (Anand Kumar and Navneet
                        o   POWW study – Mozambique (Claudio
                            Massingarela and Virgulino Nhate)
                        o   POWW study - Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa
                            (Lissa Pelham )
                        o   POWW study – Uganda and Zambia (Sam
                        o   Social movements and the politicization of chronic
                            poverty policy (Anthony Bebbington)
                        o   Urban social movements (Diana Mitlin)
                        o   Social Movements – synthesis paper (Diana Mitlin
                            and Anthony Bebbington)
                        o   Anti discrimination policies (Tim Braunholtz)
                        o   PRSPs and Chronic Poverty (Ursula Grant and
                            Rachel Marcus)
                        o   Full Case Study 1: Bangladesh
                        o   Full Case Study 2: Ethiopia (Taylor Brown and
                            Amdissa Teshome)
                        o   Full Case Study 3: Niger (Roch et al.)
                        o   Full Case Study 4: PNG (Diana Cammack)
                        o   Full Case Study 5: Indonesia (Adrian Wells)
                        o   Full Case Study 6: The Philippines
                        o   Full Case Study 7: Tanzania (Tamahi Yamauchi)
                        o   Desk Based Study 1: Benin (Ann Floquet)
                        o   Desk Based Study 2: Kyrgyzstan (Roman
                        o   Desk Based Study 3: Nicaragua (Steve Wiggins)
                        o   Desk Based Study 4: Uganda (Sam Hickey and
                            Rosetti Nabbumba)
                        o   Desk Based Study 5: The Solomon Islands
                            (Matthew Clarke)
                        o   Desk Based Study 6: Vietnam (Pham Anh Tuan)
                        o   PRS implementation and chronic poverty:
                            Synthesis Paper (Alison Evans)
                        o   Global numbers (David Lawson)
                        o   Annex update: global indicators (David Lawson)
                        o   Annex update: characteristics of chronic poverty
                        o   Country classification work (Ed Anderson)
                        o   Scenarios – interviews with policy makers (Tim
                        o   Scenarios – key data (Sharon Lindo)

8   Dissemination    Public meeting PLAAS, South Africa, September 2005
    events           CPR Uganda Launch October 2006

9   Other products   Chronic poverty in Uganda 2005
                     Report of the Q2 workshop February 2006

Annex 6: Capacity Development

The CPRC defines capacity development as any activities that make more effective the
abilities of partner researchers and/or research organisations to plan, undertake, manage
and monitor research, policy analysis and policy engagement that contribute to policies and
actions that reduce poverty.

Capacity development activities during 2005-2010 will include joint planning and managing of
research; improving command over theory, methodologies and analytical techniques; writing
and publishing; disseminating policy messages; and raising resources for future work.

In the first year numerous capacity development activities have been undertaken and are on-

Main achievements include:

          Research planning and management
            o All partners were engaged in the detailed planning exercise throughout the
               inception phase. Each partner has developed a 5-year strategy and an
               annual workplan in tune with the objectives of the whole Centre.
            o The Director or an Associate Director takes the lead in assisting all
               Coordinators of countries, regions or themes to plan and manage their area
               of research.
            o The Coordination Group provides a forum for discussion
            o Significant inputs into the planning of the work of CPRC Affiliates in Kenya
               has now resulted in funding and a planning workshop will take place in
               November 2006.

          Fundraising
            o Significant support was provided to CPRC-India in its bid to DFID-India.
                Although the proposal was ultimately unsuccessful, useful capacity building
                occurred and the proposal may be able to be adapted for other donors
            o Support to CPRC-Kenya with planning and bid to DFID-Kenya
            o Support has been given to CPRC-Bangladesh in considering its bid to
                DFID-Bangladesh. This is likely to be a significant area in coming months
            o A proposal to IDRC in West Africa was developed by IED Afrique in
                Senegal with support from the Centre
            o A proposal jointly developed by the CPRC centre and DR&T in Uganda to
                develop a Cash Transfer Pilot Scheme has attracted funding from DFID-
            o The Centre has gained experience in attracting funds from USAID, VIDC,
                the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and AusAID.

          Conceptual work
            o A workshop on Concepts and Methods was held in Manchester 23-25
               October 2006, with participation by all partners. This meeting attracted a
               very diverse and influential group of speakers, to explore the latest ideas on
               poverty analysis and methods.
            o A half-day workshop to consider the implications of the Concepts and
               Methods workshop for the CPRC was held immediately after the Workshop.
            o A new framework paper for this phase of CPRC has been written by Andrew
               Shepherd and has been discussed widely across the partnership.

            o   4 thematic papers by theme coordinators mapping out the conceptual areas
                and how work within the Centre will address them are nearing completion.
                Again these have been widely discussed across the partnership
            o   A one day workshop to discuss health and chronic poverty was held on 1
                March 2006

          Methodology
            o A 2-day workshop on panel survey and life history methods (Q2) was held
               24-25 February 2006.
            o A research design workshop was held in Senegal for partners in West Africa
               in July 2006
            o A workshop on life history methodologies for all partners is planned for
               Senegal 11-15 December 2006
            o A further workshop on panel data methodology is planned for 2007.

          Writing and publishing
            o The book ‗Chronic Poverty & Development Policy in India‘ jointly edited by
                 Aasha Kapur Mehta and Andrew Shepherd was published in 2005
            o Peer review of research outputs undertaken, for example a number of
                 working papers from CPRC-India have been reviewed and will be revised
                 and published as CPRC working papers

          Policy Engagement
            o Collaborative development of policy engagement strategies for all partners
                 is underway
            o A template and process for producing policy briefs has been developed and
                 the first in-country policy brief produced jointly with CPRC-India
          Other:
            o External capacity support to South African NIDS process
            o Participatory Video. A number of researchers are now using Participatory
                 Video with a variety of aims in mind and as part of a wider research
                 process: As a research methodology; to enable the researched to
                 communicate more effectively with researchers; to allow the poor to
                 communicate directly with the more powerful; to develop some sense of
                 control and ownership by researched communities over the process of
                 research –so that they feel they are getting something tangible and useful
                 from the research; to illustrate complex situations; to allow difficult issues to
                 surface. It can be used in creative ways to allow researchers to
                 communicate back their findings to the ‗researched‘ and to receive back
                 further insights. PV has very successfully been used at conferences and to
                 communicate succinctly key policy messages to particular audiences. It is
                 also now being used to monitor and evaluate the impact of research through
                 the ‗most significant change‘ methodology. The CPRC has sponsored a half
                 day introduction for participants at the recent co-ordination group meeting in
                 October. Two Ugandan partners are to be trained in PV in November and it
                 is hoped to set up a West African training in 2007. An analysis of research
                 and PV is to be run alongside this experimental methodology in
                 collaboration with the Citizenship and Participation DRC.

The main challenge for capacity development is in responding to the many demands from
partners within the funding available. Synergy through cross-Centre activities is sought
wherever possible, for example the planned West African workshop on life history
methodologies in December 2006 has been opened up to the whole partnership. A balance

is sought to satisfy the needs of each partner and expertise within and outside the
partnership enlisted.


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