UR NU poverty of speech by MikeJenny

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									                 Cover Design
                    Judy Wu
School of Education & Social Policy, Class of 2013
Learning & Organizational Change / Economics
         The Ninth Annual
 Undergraduate Research Symposium
    in conjunction with Chicago Public High School students and teachers
             participating in the Meaningful Science Consortium

                 Monday, May 23, 2011
                       Norris University Center

                             Program Contents
Program of Events                                                        v
Symposium Steering Committee & Planning                                 vi
Faculty Judges for Undergraduate Poster Sessions                  vii-viii
Judges for the Meaningful Science Consortium Poster Presentations       ix
Floor Plan of the Louis Room                                             x
Guide to Presentations & Performances                               1-10
  Poster Session One                                                  2-3
  Lunch N’ Learn: Oral Presentation Session One                       4-5
  Lunch N’ Learn: Oral Presentation Session Two                       6-7
  Poster Session Two                                                  8-9
  Creative Writing Showcase                                            10
  Film Screening                                                       10
  Creative Performances                                                10
Presentation Abstracts                                             11-84
Guide to Undergraduate Research Programs at Northwestern           85-86
The Afterlife of Research                                              87
                                                Undergraduate Research Symposium, v

         Program of Events

9:30    Poster Session One: Louis Room (205)

11:00   Lunch N’ Learn Oral Presentation Session One: Lake Room (203),
        Arch Room (206), Rock Room (207), Armadillo Room (208)

        Meaningful Science Consortium Poster Sessions:
        Wildcat Room (101) & Big Ten Room (104)

1:00    Lunch N’ Learn Oral Presentation Session Two: Lake Room (203),
        Arch Room (206), Rock Room (207), Armadillo Room (208)

2:30    Poster Session Two: Louis Room (205)

4:00    Creative Writing Showcase Northwestern Room (202)

        Film Screening: The Struggle Garden Lake Room (203)

5:00    Creative Performances: Northwestern Room (202)

5:30    Awards Ceremony & Reception: Northwestern Room (202)
        presented by:
          Daniel Linzer
          Ronald Braeutigam
          Associate Provost for Undergraduate Education
Undergraduate Research Symposium, vi

                              Steering Committee
               Ronald Braeutigam, Associate Provost for Undergraduate Education
                 Stephen Carr, Associate Dean, McCormick School of Engineering
           Peter Civetta, Assistant to the Associate Provost for Undergraduate Education
                      Sally Ewing, Associate Dean, School of Communication
                Mary Finn, Associate Dean, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                  Celina Flowers, Administrative Assistant, Office of the Provost
     Richard Gaber, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Professor, Molecular Biosciences
              Linda Garton, Assistant Dean, Henry and Leigh Bienen School of Music
                 Jana Measells, Advisor, Undergraduate Research Grants Program
                 Susan Olson, Assistant Dean, School of Education & Social Policy
      Helen Schwartzman, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Professor, Anthropology


             Symposium Planning & Organization
                                            Peter Civetta
                                      Symposium Coordinator
                  Assistant to the Associate Provost for Undergraduate Education

                                          Jana Measells
                           Symposium Co-coordinator & Program Editor
                          Advisor, Undergraduate Research Grant Program

                                          Celina Flowers
                           Administrative Assistant, Office of the Provost
                                                   Undergraduate Research Symposium, vii

                  Faculty Judges
            Ravi Allada, Neurobiology and Physiology
                   Christine Bell, Art History
           Jianhua Cang, Neurobiology and Physiology
         Stephen Carr, Materials Science and Engineering
             Richard Carthew, Molecular Biosciences
               Wei Chen, Mechanical Engineering
                     Joan Chiao, Psychology
S. Hollis Clayson, Art History; Kaplan Institute for the Humanities
             Margaret Dempster, French and Italian
               Jaime Dominguez, Political Science
             Andrew Dudley, Molecular Biosciences
             Sally Ewing, School of Communication
      Elzbieta Foeller-Pituch, Center for Historical Studies
              Richard Gaber, Molecular Biosciences
               Gary Galbreath, Biological Sciences
             Darren Gergle, Communication Studies
               William Haarlow, American Studies
 Abraham Haddad, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
       Stephen Hill, African Studies; Office of Fellowships
Katherine Hoffman, Anthropology; Asian and Middle East Studies
                 Bonnie Honig, Political Science
        Jerome Hyun, Materials Science and Engineering
              Kyla Katz, School of Communication
            Peter Kaye, School of Continuing Studies
                   Michael Kluppel, Pediatrics
             Carole Labonne, Molecular Biosciences
              Robert Lamb, Molecular Biosciences
                    Hilarie Lieb, Economics
                 Joan Linsenmeier, Psychology
Undergraduate Research Symposium, viii

                              Faculty Judges, continued
                                   Eugene Lowe, Religious Studies
                             Maria Mastronardi, Communication Studies
                            Andreas Matouschek, Molecular Biosciences
                            David McLean, Neurobiology and Physiology
   Thomas Meade, Chemistry; Molecular Biosciences; Neurobiology and Physiology; Radiology
                                         Denise Meuser, German
                         Sonal Padalkar, Materials Science and Engineering
                                   Laura Panko, Biological Sciences
                                 Angela Ray, Communication Studies
                                             Jeff Rice, History
                               Andrew Rivers, Physics and Astronomy
                                  Andrew Roberts, Political Science
           William Rogerson, Economics; Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences
                                     Karl Rosengren, Psychology
                                          Eric Schulz, Economics
                                 Helen Schwartzman, Anthropology
                                         Mark Sheldon, Philosophy
                            Yumi Shiojima, African and Asian Languages
                                         David Smith, Psychology
                                Vera Teixeira, Spanish and Portuguese
                                     Regan Thomson, Chemistry
    Matthew Tresch, Biomedical Engineering; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiology
                                    Akbar Virmani, African Studies
                                          Emily Weiss, Chemistry
                                     Michele Weldon, Journalism
                                 Sadie Wignall, Molecular Biosciences
                                          Mark Witte, Economics
                           Bradley Zakarin, History; Office of Fellowships
                                  Nyree Zerega, Biological Sciences
                                                              Undergraduate Research Symposium, ix

 Judges for the Meaningful Science Consortium
                            Poster Presentations
                          David Bierschenk, The Graduate School
                           Colleen Buzby, The Graduate School
                            Karen Chien, The Graduate School
                            Parag Gupta, The Graduate School
Irma Kuljanishvili, Postdoctoral Fellow, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
              Kevin Li, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
                     Kevin Luo, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
             Ruilong Ma, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
                     Yuri Malina, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                 Christina Mamalis, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                     Anne Mills, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                             Brian Quist, The Graduate School
                         Andrew Radosevich, The Graduate School
                        Katya Siddall, School of Continuing Studies
                 Christina Thomas, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                 Joseph Walkowicz, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
                       Lu Yao, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
              Aleksandr Zhukhovitskiy, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences

         COFFEE/WATER                                    D
                                             1           O

              53         52      7           6

              51         50      11          10     8
    55                                              9

N   47                                              13
              49         48      15          14
              45         44      17          16

W                                                   18

S   43                                              19

              39         38      21          20

              37         36      23          22

              35         34      27          26
              33         32      29          28
Guide to Presentations & Performances
    *Denotes Office of the Provost Undergraduate Research Grant (URG) Recipient
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 2

 Poster Session One
        9:30-11:00, Louis Room (205)
Humanities & Arts
2.      Catherine Arney, “In Defense of Terroir: The French Wine Industry's Reaction to American
3.      Andrew Greenberg, “Spanish Names”
4.      Alex Kraus, “The Student's Aeneid: The Story of the Most Influential Schoolbook in
            Antiquity and its Pedagogical Afterlife in American Education”
5.      Anna Martin, “Healing More than a Disease: Catholic FBOs in Africa's Era of HIV/AIDS”
6.      Bryan Jewell, “Radiohead”
7.      Preeya Mody, “Move over Hollywood - Culture, Perception, and Marriage through the
            Bollywood Camera Lens”
8.      Julia Smith, “„Against this Systematic Crime‟: Contesting Human Rights Discourse during
            Argentina‟s Military Regime, 1976-1983”
9.      Rachel Waxman, “England a la Mode: The Critique of Anglomania in Eighteenth-Century

Natural Sciences & Engineering
12.     Samuel Carton and Mahmood Quaderi, “An Approach for Generating Explained
           Semantic Relatedness Measures from Wikipedia”
13.     Eugenia Miranti, “Identification of an Intermediate Zone in Growth Plate Cartilage”
14.     Brandon Alba and Brittany Borden, “Comparison of Antioxidant Capacity between
           Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee”
15.     Mark Anderson, “Rational Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a New
           Anticancer Probe”
16.     Liang Richard Cui*, “Synthesis and Evaluation of a Cell-Permeable Ca2+ Sensitive MR
           Contrast Probe: Towards Mapping Neuron Signal Patterns”
17.     Emma Dutton, “Pd-Substituted (La,Sr)CrO3 Oxide Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells”
18.     Bryant Smith, “Stripe 82 Co-Add Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy Catalog and
           XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog Coincidence”
19.     Caroline Walls, “Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Hibernating Species: Policy
           Implications for the National Park Service”
20.     Joshua Eassa and Janesh Lakhoo, “Effect of Isoflurane on Cerebrovascular
21.     Paul Foryt, “Diminished Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Lateral Occipital Cortex
           in Early HIV Infection”
22.     Marc Giesener*, “Porous Hybrid Materials for Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis”
23.     Hsiao-Tieh Hsu, “Investigation of Trinuclear Ruthenium Clusters as Probes of Weak
           Interactions of Ligand-Receptor Binding”
26.     Laura Markey*,“A Survey of the Huron River and Antibiotic Resistance in
           Acinetobacter spp”
27.     Anne Reihman, “The Impact of Exercise on Sleep in Adult Runners Training for a Half-
                                                              Undergraduate Research Symposium, 3

 Poster Session One, continued
28.   Margaret Sledd*, “A dsRNA Based Screen Identifies Novel Proteins Involved in
         Drosophila Hedgehog Signaling Pathway”
29.   Michael Tremmel, “The Evolution of X-ray Binaries on Cosmological Timescales”
32.   Eman Yousif, “Calcium Dynamics in Neurons Using Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime
         Imaging Microscopy”
33.   Aleksandr Zhukhovitskiy*, “Synthesis and Characterization of Porous Organic Polymers
         with Tunable Nucleophilicity and Pore Width for CO2 Sequestration”

Social Sciences & Journalism
34.   Zhen Cheng*, “Triumph of Neurobiology over Genetic and Social Essentialism in Mental
          Illness Stigma”
35.   Maggie Elmarakby, “Social Media, Youth, and Revolt: Egypt's Popular Uprisings”
36.   Jeffrey Geiger and Alice Lee, “Using Dyadic Mobile Eye Tracking to Study Verbal and
          Nonverbal Behaviors Used During Collaborative Reference”
37.   Emily Hittner*, “Musical Training and the Aging Auditory Systems: Evidence for
          Improved Cognitive and Speech-in-Noise Abilities”
38.   Eitezaz Mahmood, “HIV in Pakistan: On the Brink of an Epidemic”
39.   Emmaline Pohnl, “Leadership in Community Gardens: Cultivating Organizational Security
          and an Engaged, Educated Community”
40.   Olivia Brown and Matthew Singer, “The Brazilian Amazon: Analyzing Recent Declines in
          Deforestation Rates”
41.   Suzanne Chang, “Southwest to the Rescue? An Investigation of Hub Premiums and
          Southwest Airlines”
42.   Rebecca Crook*, “Relationship Power and Religion among Couples in Accra, Ghana”
43.   Zoe Fox and Tania Karas, “The Greek Orthodox Community of Istanbul: A Dwindling
          Population Clings to its Legacy”
44.   Sravya Tumuluru*, “Grasping Errors in Infants”
45.   Lisa Wang*, “Is Reassurance Seeking Specific to Depression?”
46.   John J. Lee, “Why Instructional Expenditures Matter in K-12 Public Education and How to
          Achieve Federal Title I Reforms”
47.   Emily Wright*, “Cultivating Community: Urban Gardens in Chicago‟s Humboldt Park
48.   Abbie Wesley*, “Cognitive Depletion Has a Negative Impact on the Rate of Implicit
          Perceptual-Motor Sequence Learning”
49.   Matthew Zellner, “The Power of Lies? The Effect of Deception on P300 in the Concealed
          Information Test”
54.   Brandon Zaharoff, “US-China Trade: A Vector Error Correction Model”
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 4

Lunch N’ Learn: Oral Presentation Session One

                              Scientific Discoveries and Innovations I
                                          Lake Room (203)
                             Moderator: Jason Brickner, Molecular Biosciences

        Jonathan S. Kim, “Systems Level Analysis of the Heat Shock Response Regulatory
           Network in C. elegans”
        Ian Lizarraga*, “Octupole-Scale Dynamics of Hierarchical Triple Systems”
        Brendan Lovasik, “The Influence of Systems and Processes on Cold-Ischemic Time in
           Liver Transplantation”
        Jay Meisner*, “Growth Factor Release from a Chemically Modified Elastomeric Poly(diol
            citrate) Scaffold Promotes Angiogenesis in vivo”
        Alexa Socianu*, “Reconstructing pCO2 Values during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal
        Abbey Thompson*, “Testing the Role of a Gene Recruitment Sequence in Controlling
           Gene Localization”

                                  How Can Belief Shape Our World?
                                         Arch Room (206)
                               Moderator: Antonio Terrone, Religious Studies

        Corinne Ellis*, “„God Will Pay You Ransomly‟: Christianity, Consumption, and Choice in a
           Ghanaian Seventh-Day Adventist Community”
        Aaron Houska, “That Thing in the Desert: Playing the Sacred at Burning Man”
        Patricia Radkowski*, “Liberty, Equality, and Brotherhood… and Secularism? The
           Codification of Cultural Values in France”
        Kate Stephensen*, “Jacob Bailey: Religion, Politics and Persecution in Maine before the
           American Revolution”
        Hana Suckstorff*, “A History of Love: Neoplatonism and Christianity in Renaissance
                                                             Undergraduate Research Symposium, 5

Lunch N’ Learn: Oral Presentation Session One,

            Know Thyself – How We Continually Search for Knowledge
                               Rock Room (207)
                            Moderator: Wendi Gardner, Psychology

    Travis White-Schwoch, “Saying What We Don't Mean: Spoken Self-Statements Affect
       Emotional Behavior”
    Caroline Perry*, “Forgiveness: (Re)building Just Relationships After Wrongdoing”
    Samuel Johnson*, “The Psychological Metaphysics of Doing: Agency Attribution as a
       Heuristic Process”
    Thomas Gilbert*, “Kierkegaard and the Sociology of Ideas: Pseudonyms as Self-Produced
      Intellectual Network”
    Scott Beymer*, “When I Know Myself, Your Difference is Not a Threat: How Stabilizing
       the Self-Concept Leads to Acceptance of the Unfamiliar”

            Surviving Today – How Youth Struggle in the World Today
                              Armadillo Room (208)
                            Moderator: Michele Bitoun, Journalism

    Stephanie Arias, “Undocumented Latino/a Students' Perceptions of Legal Status”
    Kimberly Garza*, “Home Sweet Home: Stress and Health in Mississippi Adolescents with
       Metabolic Syndrome or Type 2 Diabetes”
    Ashley Lau and Samantha Michaels, “Escaping for an Education: Tibetan Youth Find
       Academic and Cultural Freedom in India”
    Anna Sara Morrow and Kathryn Rulon, “Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of a Novel
       Measure of Fat Talk”
    Humza Shaikh, “Children of the Caste: A Street Across but a World Apart. A Study of the
      Determinants of Different Child Health Outcomes between the Mir Behr and Mir Jat
      Castes of Rehri Goth, Pakistan”
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 6

Lunch N’ Learn Oral Presentation Session Two

                              Scientific Discoveries and Innovations II
                                           Lake Room (203)
                              Moderator: Richard Gaber, Molecular Biosciences

        Manuel Diaz*, “The Effects of the Addition of Si to AlScZr Alloys on Precipitation
          Hardening at Early Aging Times for Aerospace and Automobile Applications”
        Robert Hartemayer, “Inhibition of Cancer Metastasis Using a Transition Metal-DNA
        Jay Patel*, “Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A Novel Therapy for Spinocerebellar
            Ataxia Type 1”
        Kristen M. Unti, “The Effects of Promoter Architecture on CFTR Gene Transcription”
        Kolby White*, “Metal–Free Carbon–Carbon Bond Forming Reactions”
        Lu Yao, “Can Island Dwarfism Explain the Tiny Brain of the Flores Hominid?”

             How Media Representations and Perceptions Change Our World
                                  Arch Room (206)
                                Moderator: Galya Ruffer, International Studies

        Aubrey Blanche*, “Framing the Contractor: Arab Media Framing of Private Military
           Contractors and Coalition Forces in Instances of Civilian Violence”
        Casara Clark*, “Perception of the News”
        Lydia Hsu, “Remembering the 1994 Genocide: Addressing Genocide through Literature
           and Film”
        Kristen Sun, “What Does It Mean to Forget, Remember, and Recuperate the Korean War:
           Transnationality and Gender in The Host, Gran Torino, and Address Unknown”
        Kirk Vaclavik*, “Rhetoric of Latino Immigration in Photojournalism, As Seen in The Dallas
           Morning News, 2006-2010”
                                                              Undergraduate Research Symposium, 7

Lunch N’ Learn Oral Presentation Session Two,

     Perceptions of Each Other – How Interactions with the World Impact
                                  Our Lives
                              Rock Room (207)
                      Moderator: Susan Olson, Education and Social Policy

    Zhen Cheng*, “Asian American is Not a Homogeneous Group: Intra-Ethnic Differences
       in Mental Health Needs”
    Joellen Ornstein, “Worker Alienation and Job Satisfaction in Community Supported
        Agriculture (CSA) and Traditional Organic Farm Settings”
    Priya Suresh*, “Perception of Negotiation Counterparts: Professionalism and Expertise in
        Facebook Photos and Profiles”
    Cindy Teng*, “Examining the Relationship between Culture and Perception of Pathogens”
    Claire Waluch*, “CollegeACB.com: The Effect of Anonymity on Person Perception
       among Undergraduates”

                            How the Past Influences the Now
                                 Armadillo Room (208)
                          Moderator: Jessica Winegar, Anthropology

    A. George Bajalia, “Modal Orientalism: Globalization; Circulation; and Moroccan Identity”
    Lee Mason, “It „Isn't for Everyone, but It's for You‟: Chicago Punk Rock from 1977 to
    Kendra Sirak, “An Analysis of Limb Element Asymmetry in an Ancestral Puebloan
    Jennifer Skene*, “Healing for the Seventh Generation: Renewable Energy‟s Role in
       Bringing Balance Back to the White Earth Reservation and to Mother Earth”
    Colleen Werle*, “The Italian Puppet Theatre Tradition in Modern Italy”
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 8

Poster Session Two
         2:30-4:00, Louis Room (205)
Humanities & Arts
1.      Skyler Dylan-Robbins, “Un'Americana in Italia: The Spirituality of Food”
2.      Jasmin Ávila, “The Seven Cantigas De Amigo of Martín Codax, Minstrel and Regional Poet
           of Galicia”
3.      Jonathan Green*, “Promethean Fires and Original Sinners: Techné, Vice, and the Theology
           of the Ancient Stoa”
4.      Kristin Leasia, “Guardian Images in Ancient Egyptian Royal Funerary Art: Some
           Connections to Dynasty 18 Pharaonic Legitimacy and the Hathor Cult”
5.      Reed Wilson, “Top-Down vs. Bottom-up Up Ethnicity: Internal Ethno-Cultural Dialogues
           between the Cajun Community and the Council for the Development of French in
           Louisiana, 1968-2010”
6.      Emily Srisarajivakul, “Hallyu: Korean Popular Culture‟s Effects on the Perceptions of
           Masculinity, Interracial Dating, and Intraracial Dating Practices among Asian
7.      Margaret Whitesides, “Glenn Ligon‟s Neon Works: Race, Visibility and the Visual
           Construction of Race”

Natural Sciences & Engineering
12.     Asna Ansari*, “IC 10 X-1: A Computational Investigation into the Origins of the X-ray
           Binary System”
13.     Aaron Holsteen*, “Detection of Nanomechanical Resonators via Polarization Dependent
           Fiber-Coupled Interferometry”
14.     Timi Chu, Kevin Rogacki, Matthew Tong, and Sean Yu, “Northwestern iGEM 2010:
           Self-Regenerating Chitin INduction (SCIN)”
15.     Alysa Cortes, Anthony Guerrero, and Dokyung Lee, “Coffee Brewed from Previously
           Ground Beans Expresses Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Coffee Brewed from Freshly
           Ground Beans”
16.     Isabelle Ji, “Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Ligands on the Bioavailability of Mercury
           in Biological Sensors”
17.     Cameron Kadleck*, “Graphene Oxide as a Robust Electron Blocking Layer in Organic
           Solar Cells”
18.     Andrew Loveridge, “Analytical Expressions for the Envelope Binding Energy of Giants as
           a Function of Basic Stellar Parameters”
20.     Kevin Luo*, “Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibodies Targeting Alzheimer‟s Disease
           Relevant Particular Aβ Oligomers”
21.     Michelle Miller, “Nonadiabatic Laser Alignment of Biphenyl”
22.     Alexander Naka*, “Motor Neuron Recruitment in Larval Zebrafish Before and After
           Acute Spinalization”
23.     Justin O’Hare*, “Enhancing Memory for Musical Performance by Re-playing Learned
           Sequences during Sleep”
                                                               Undergraduate Research Symposium, 9

Poster Session Two, continued
24.   Matthew Stevenson, “Learning to Let Go: AMES Therapy for Treatment of Stroke
         Related Upper Extremity Dysfunction”
25.   Alvin Tan*, “Graphene Oxide Nanocolloids”
26.   Lisa Tang, “The Role of Graphene Oxide in Cellular Processes”
27.   Liuchuan Tong, “Progress towards the Total Synthesis of Maoecrystal Z and
         Macrocalyxoformin E”
28.   Nina Nosavan*, “The Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel MRI Contrast Agent for
         Tumor Targeting”
30.   Joseph Walkowicz*, “A New Ordovician Eurypterid from the Martinsburg Formation in
31.   Brad Weinberger*, “Lowering the Access Barriers to Advanced Rendering Technologies”
Social Sciences & Journalism
34.   Michael Alperin*, “Parent Engagement in Suburban Early Childhood Education”
35.   Carolyn Cook, “Associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with a Non-Affective
          Go/No-Go Task in Young Adults”
36.   Sophia Espinoza*, “Memory for Text in Line with and Counter to Our Preferences”
37.   Julie Kornfeld*, “The Effects of Overseas Cultural Orientation Programs on Refugees‟
          Perceptions of their Role in American Society”
38.   Judith Landeros, Latina/o Youth Aspirations and Expectations to Attend College:
          Exploring the Role of Student-Student Teacher Relationships and School Attachment”
39.   Eric Liang*, “The Effect of Phonological Awareness on the Acquisition of a Third
40.   Diana Hansen, “Public Parks and Economic Development: Examining the Relationship
          between Spending in the Chicago Parks District and the Economic Vitality of Chicago
41.   Christina Panton*, “Improving Therapy Outcomes by Enhancing Learning during Sleep”
42.   Anthony Rosado and Tommy Wells, “Mixed-Message Communication, Generalized
          Anxiety Disorder, and Distress in Couples”
43.   Kathryn Smiley*, “The “Glocalization” of Medical Choice and Decision Making in San
          Ignacio, Belize”
44.   Brandon Ng, “The Effects of Cultural Priming on Emotional Memory Biases and
          Interpersonal Relations”
45.   Katie Northcott, “Female Entrepreneurship in Dakar, Senegal: Factors, Pathways and
46.   Allyson Westling*, “Maternal Health and Nutrition in Ho, Ghana”
48.   Ellen Reynolds*, “The Effect of Maps on How Children Understand and Communicate
          Spatial Information”
49.   Kristina Rodriguez, “CMC Cues and Audience Behavior in Social Media”
50.   David Schieber*, “Keep Evanston „Evanston‟: How Morality, Economics, and Race Affect
          Prohibitionist Policies in a Local Community”
51.   Junzi Shi, “Tooth Loss and CRP Positively Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adult
          Filipino Women”
52.   Anita Shroff, “Birth Size and Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Predict Blood Pressure
          in Filipino Adults”
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 10

                        Creative Writing Showcase
                           4:00-5:00, Northwestern Room (202)
                                       Moderator: Eula Biss, English

Emily Anderson*, “Quaker Spirituality through Poetry”
Monica Guzman*, “Family, Science, Fiction: a Sci-Fi Memoir Exploring Bowen Family Systems
Alleliah Nuguid, “Divorce Poems”
Elizabeth Osisek*, “Updating a Classic: A Modern Adaptation of Aristophanes' Acharnians”
    with Karen Bullen as Chorus Member 1, Katie Flanagan as Chorus Member 2, Kimberly
    Johnson as Justin, and Laura Jok as Chorus Leader
Matthew Pacult, “Recipes for Success in Ocean City”
Jordan Puckett, “Remember the Present”

                                   Film Screening
                                        4:00-5:00, Lake Room (203)
                                           The Struggle Garden
                                           Directed and edited by

                                               Jack Davis*

A documentary, delving into the lives of 40 refugees from around central and east Africa, living in a
slum in Kampala, Uganda. With footage collected over six weeks with the community as well as
interviews conducted with refugee agencies around Uganda, The Struggle Garden illustrates the realities
of urban refugees who have run away from African camps and settlements to try their luck in the
city. The stories and testimonies in the film depict lives filled with hardship and despair, searching
for hope amidst utter hopelessness.

                            Creative Performances
                           5:00-5:30, Northwestern Room (202)
                   Alex Goldklang, Will Carlyon, Jon Harrison, and Brian Bohr

                                         “Excerpts from Waa-Mu”

For this year's 80th Annual Waa-Mu Show, School of Communication junior Alex Goldklang
composed eight pieces. He will perform a couple of them alongside two collaborators, Will Carlyon
and Jon Harrison, and a co-actor from the show, Brian Bohr.

                           Performers from the Bienen School of Music
Presentation Abstracts
     alphabetical by student’s last name
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 2


                                 Brandon Alba and Brittany Borden

                                           Faculty: Shelby Hatch

    Comparison of Antioxidant Capacity between Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee

Although some people choose to drink decaffeinated coffee to avoid the negative side effects of
caffeine, they fear they may not be receiving the same antioxidant benefits of regular caffeinated
coffee. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that decaffeinated coffee contained the
same quantity and strength of antioxidants as caffeinated coffee. We performed a Trolox equivalent
antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay to test the strength of the antioxidants contained in caffeinated
and decaffeinated coffee. Our results showed that caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee contained
nearly the strengths of antioxidants with TEAC values of 2105.27 for caffeinated coffee and 2141.02
for decaffeinated.


                                            Michael Alperin

                                      Faculty: Patricia Chase-Lansdale

                  Parent Engagement in Suburban Early Childhood Education

Parental engagement in children‟s early childhood education is a key predictor of student
achievement and social development, particularly for children from low-socioeconomic
backgrounds. In the present study, sixty parents were interviewed using a computer-assisted
protocol and rated for parent involvement levels at three non-urban early childhood education
programs in Evanston, Illinois. Parent and teacher responses were analyzed to create a clear
definition of parent involvement. A multivariate-OLS analysis was used to construct a model
predicting parent involvement. Multiple children in early childhood education, length of child
enrollment, marital status, ethnicity, parent education level, familial income assistance, measures of
self-efficacy, and variables of teacher relationships were found to be the best predictors of parent
involvement, consistent with previous research. These characteristics better predicted parent-rated
engagement than teacher-rated engagement, despite the two ratings being highly correlated (r2 =
.628). Implications for better defining parent involvement, as well as approaches to improving
parental involvement are discussed.

                                                                      Undergraduate Research Symposium, 3

                                          Emily Anderson

                                          Faculty: Mary Kinzie

                                Quaker Spirituality through Poetry

This summer, using money from an Undergraduate Research Grant, I traveled to Pennsylvania to
spend a few weeks at Haverford College‟s Quaker Special Collections, reading twelve journals
written by relatively unknown Quakers and used my findings to write poetry about the Quaker
spiritual search. Since I selected these journals based solely on a few words listed under content in
the catalog, I encountered vastly different records, from nearly obsessive worshipful scribblings to a
meticulous account of a trip to Iowa in the mid-nineteenth century. Simultaneously, I read excerpts
from major Quaker writings, including the journals of George Fox and John Woolman in Quaker
Spirituality edited by Douglas V. Steere, as well as a few books published by members of my own
Meeting in Downingtown, Pennsylvania. These all illustrated individual spiritual paths and gave me a
better sense of the trajectory of Quaker thought from the 1650s to now. When I returned to
Evanston about halfway through the summer, I began writing poems about my own Quaker
experience, drawing upon the crash-course in Quakerism I had just undergone. This generated
poems both about myself and about other Meeting members. Thus began a pattern of creating
portraits of fellow worshippers with the intent of gaining insight into their spirituality, which led me
to undertake similar exercises with those people whose journals had especially intrigued me in


                                           Mark Anderson

                                         Faculty: Thomas Meade

     Rational Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a New Anticancer Probe

Cancer is the second largest cause of death worldwide and accounts for one quarter of deaths in the
US each year. Acridine-based pharmacophores, which have nitrogen heterocyclic structure, have
wide applications in anti-microbial and anticancer therapy. N-[2-(Dimethylamino) ethyl]Acridine-4-
CarboxAmide (DACA) is a topoisomerase-inhibiting anticancer agent currently being considered as
a second-line therapy in refractory non-small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancers. However,
detection and localization of these drugs in vivo is difficult. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) can
overcome these problems and provide an alternative to light microscopy and radiopharmaceutical
methods. MRI is based upon the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal from water protons.
Gadolinium-based contrast agents for MRI are designed to enhance signal intensity. Here, we
present synthetic strategies for the design of a group of bioactivatable, cell permeable, Gd(III)-
DACA conjugates for tumor imaging. The DACA portion of the target compounds will grant high
cellular uptake of the agent in tumor cells while the Gd(III)-chelate moiety can report its location
through MR imaging. Relaxation time, DNA-binding affinity, and cancer cellular uptake have been
determined to test the theranostic properties of the probe.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 4

                                                Asna Ansari

                                           Faculty: Vicky Kalogera

    IC 10 X-1: A Computational Investigation into the Origins of the X-ray Binary System

Black hole binary systems - in which a black hole or other compact object accretes mass from a
neighboring star - reveal their presence throughout our universe by emitting radiation as infalling
matter releases gravitational potential energy. One such system in the irregular galaxy IC 10, located
1.8 million light-years away in the Cassiopeia constellation, has garnered special attention since its
discovery by NASA satellites in 2006, as its mass appears to be between 24 and 33 solar masses,
making it the largest known stellar-mass black hole. By matching its observed properties with
models of possible progenitor stars, we have traced the evolution of this binary system and
determined the initial parameters of the system that have allowed it to evolve to produce the X-ray
source we observe today. Using observational data to constrain our models, we simulate the aging of
different types of progenitor stars for the system depending on various parameters including age,
luminosity, size, mass, and mass loss via stellar wind. In investigating the origins of this unusually
massive system, we seek a deeper understanding of the properties that have led to the record-
breaking size of the black hole IC 10 X-1, which has the potential to rework our current conceptions
regarding the physics of black holes and their binary systems.


                                              Stephanie Arias

                                      Faculty: Carol Lee and Jack Doppelt

                 Undocumented Latino/a Students' Perceptions of Legal Status

The number of undocumented Latino/as in the United States has been growing rapidly throughout
the last decade, with over 65,000 undocumented students graduating from U.S. high schools each
year. These students face limited prospects of attending college or finding a job given their lack of
access to federal financial aid and legal work permits. This study examines the perceptions of
undocumented Latino/a high school seniors regarding their undocumented legal status and the ways
it interacts with their journey through high school. Interviews with 25 Illinoisan Latino/a high
school seniors indicate that undocumented youth struggle with far more than their FAFSA and
college applications: who to talk to about their status, whether their guidance counselors are
providing them accurate information, different perspectives on alternative post-grad opportunities,
deportability, and stigmas related to “illegality” are some of the pervasive themes discovered among
the variety of challenges that undocumented high school students face. The qualitative data in this
research indicates that students‟ desire for a stronger support system includes, but is not limited to,
having teachers and counselors who are well-informed on issues related to undocumented youth, as
well as a national policy that will allow them to access the same economic opportunities that their
citizen peers are afforded. Having a stronger understanding of these students‟ perceptions informs
the types of resources needed by the undocumented Latino/a community. The knowledge gained
from this study could assist community organizations, schools, and politicians dedicated to
improving undocumented Latino/as‟ experiences on a local and national scale.
                                                                       Undergraduate Research Symposium, 5


                                           Catherine Arney

                                          Faculty: Sarah Maza

    In Defense of Terroir: The French Wine Industry's Reaction to American Prohibition

With the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in the United States, the French wine industry, still
reeling from the Great War, faced a particularly palpable cultural threat. In response, wine industry
members and their allies initiated a campaign expounding upon the virtues and civilizing effects of
wine. By framing the anti-Prohibition conversation in cultural terms, any sense of wine‟s connection
to alcoholism or to the conditions Prohibition intended to correct was severed. Through an analysis
of industry publications such as La Gironde vinicole and Le Sommelier, as well as more widely circulating
newspapers such as Le Figaro, one can see how the French wine industry amalgamated ancient
beliefs and current sensibilities to create a contemporary mythology whereby wine constituted
another front that must be patriotically defended in a battle against despotism, ignorance, and the
increasingly spurned imperialistic values of Uncle Sam. In particular, such analysis helps illuminate
how the French peasantry‟s wartime experiences impacted viticulturalists‟ perception of and
response to Prohibition. While historians have paid much attention over the years to interwar
French culture and the significance of the peasantry and wine to the French, a synthesis of these
aspects around the institution of Prohibition has remained noticeably absent. These long-overlooked
articles depict the dry legislation as a new marauder of French culture, a threat potentially more
dangerous and certainly more insidious than the German invasion had been: an ideological invasion
that called into question the legitimacy of the vine and all that it embodied.


                                             Jasmin Ávila

                                     Faculty: Darío Fernández-Morera

   The Seven Cantigas De Amigo of Martín Codax, Minstrel and Regional Poet of Galicia

My project focuses on the seven cantigas de amigo of Martín Codax as invaluable contributions to the
genre of medieval regional-lyric poetry. Martín Codax was a non-noble minstrel from the mid-
thirteenth century who contributed greatly to the medieval tradition of the Galician-Portuguese
cantiga de amigo, a form of lyric poetry that utilizes the female voice to express morriña, a lament and
longing for the absent beloved. Discovered as the paper covering of a copy of Cicero's De Officiis
manuscript in 1914, Codax's cantigas are important to the study of medieval Iberian literature because
they are one of the few surviving collections of cantigas that were written by a commoner. The seven
cantigas de amigo are unique from other cantigas of the Middle Ages, however, because Codax
incorporated the land that he was from to give a regional setting to his work: the land of Vigo,
Galicia. The purpose of my project is to determine if the cantigas actually function as examples of
popular regional poetry of the Middle Ages by examining their ability to convey the land of Vigo and
the theme of morriña through the style of performance poetry and as a literary text.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 6

                                          A. George Bajalia

                                         Faculty: Dilip Gaonkar

            Modal Orientalism: Globalization, Circulation, and Moroccan Identity

In my paper, I highlight connections between the transnational circulation of cultural texts and the
larger implications of these circulations for social and cultural development. I do so by examining
Morocco as a case study, chosen not only for its contemporary position as exemplary of a post-
colonial nation-state participating in international economic and cultural exchange but also because
of the clear history of American media depiction of Morocco and its cultures. I trace the
appropriation of these essentialist representations of Morocco, as historically depicted in American
media, by Moroccan filmmakers, authors, and performing artists with the goal of elucidating how
these processes influence individuals‟ self and group identifications. Much the ethnographic work in
this paper is based upon my own research in Tangier during the summer of 2010, though more
lengthy ethnographic studies and literature in the fields of comparative literature, sociology,
anthropology, and performance studies support my initial forays. In this way, my research methods
are interdisciplinary in nature and approach the problem of analyzing the socio-cultural effects of
transnational circulation from a variety of angles, with the goal of characterizing these effects in
specific and accessible terms in my senior honors thesis. Having done this work with regards to
Morocco, I hope my findings to be useful in determining how people in other Mediterranean post-
colonial states, namely those around North Africa and along the Eastern Mediterranean Basin
undergoing massive social and political restructurings, develop and maintain their identities both
locally and globally.


                                            Scott Beymer

                                         Faculty: Wendi Gardner

  When I Know Myself, Your Difference is Not a Threat: How Stabilizing the Self-Concept
                        Leads to Acceptance of the Unfamiliar

What it is that allows some people to open themselves up to new and different people and cultural
ideas, whereas others close themselves off? Although perceived similarity has been supported as
perhaps the strongest factor in facilitating interpersonal bonds, the question of why similarity is such
an important factor remains. Previous research has shown that threats to individuals' certainty about
who and what they are causes them to adhere more strictly to previously established worldviews
while denigrating others. Such a reaction drives individuals to seek out similar others because they
would confirm their worldviews. Thus, the present study follows the opposite path by examining if
stabilizing the self-concept will allow individuals to open themselves up to dissimilar others. The
first two studies establish a reliable and effective method of stabilizing the self-concept. The third
study inspects how individuals react to similar and different others after having their self-concepts
stabilized or not stabilized. Results suggest that stabilizing the self-concept is a potential way to
promote befriending people that are different from oneself. These findings are especially important
with regards to an increasingly multicultural world in which individuals are finding themselves.
                                                                       Undergraduate Research Symposium, 7


                                           Aubrey Blanche

                                      Faculty: Jonathan Caverley

Framing the Contractor: Arab Media Framing of Private Military Contractors and Coalition
                        Forces in Instances of Civilian Violence

This paper focuses on the way the Arab media distinguishes between violence committed by private
military contractors and Coalition forces in Iraq. I use two incidences of violence committed against
civilians by the groups to compare the frames and language used by various Arabic media sources to
describe the incidents. The study finds that the Arab media is much more likely to hold the US
government accountable for contractor misconduct, and most likely to show violence against
civilians as the continuation of a trend rather than an isolated incident. I argue that the pursuit of a
counterinsurgency strategy with a continued reliance on contractors may cause difficulties in future
US operations.


                                 Olivia Brown and Matthew Singer

                                         Faculty: Yael Wolinsky

          The Brazilian Amazon: Analyzing Recent Declines in Deforestation Rates

From 2004 to 2010 deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon underwent a dramatic decline. This
project seeks to find the explanation for this decline. Our research indicates that the Action Plan for
the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon (PPCDAM) enacted by the
Brazilian Government in 2004 is largely the cause behind this observed decline. In the paper we
analyze the three major components of the action plan: monitoring, enforcement, and protection
zones. We also address competing causal factors including commodity prices for agricultural frontier


                              Samuel Carton and Mahmood Quaderi

                                         Faculty: Douglas Downey

  An Approach for Generating Explained Semantic Relatedness Measures from Wikipedia

Semantic relatedness (SR) is a measure of the number and strength of relationships between any two
concepts and has numerous applications in artificial intelligence and natural language processing. We
introduce explanatory semantic relatedness, or SR+E, which seeks to not only measure the
relatedness between two concepts, but to explain that relationship to users. The addition of
explanations increases the utility of semantic relatedness in the field of exploratory search, a subfield
of information retrieval that addresses instances in which users are unable or unwilling to frame
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 8

specific keyword queries. We developed and trained a learned model that, when given two concepts,
simultaneously returns an assessment of their relatedness as well as a high-quality, human-readable
explanation for that assessment. The model is based on input from four different well-known
Wikipedia-based SR algorithms (WikiRelate, Wikify, Milne-Witten, and Explicit Semantic Analysis),
each of which we have implemented based on the descriptions in the literature and modified to
support explanations. Explanation generation is based on the language and context of relevant
snippets from Wikipedia articles. We present the results from our machine learning experiment and
demonstrate SR+E‟s performance on any arbitrary pair of concepts. SR+E was designed to support
Atlasify, a new platform for exploratory search, and we also exhibit SR+E in this high-performance


                                           Suzanne Chang

                               Faculty: Robert Gordon and Steffen Habermalz

    Southwest to the Rescue? An Investigation of Hub Premiums and Southwest Airlines

Empirical evidence supports the notion of the "hub premium" in the sense that airlines are able to
charge higher prices on flights originating or ending at one of their hub airports than on their other
flights. The ongoing changes endured by the airline industry with respect to the competitive
environment and recent key developments, including recession, legacy carrier mergers, and the
growing emergence of low-cost carriers, warrant investigation into how the hub premium has
changed over time. This research aims to disentangle the hub effect from a market share effect,
identify changes in the hub premium, and determine if an increased presence of low-cost carriers,
particularly Southwest Airlines, at the hub airports of legacy carriers has led to price decreasing
competition. In addition, this study explores if Southwest commands a hub premium of its own and
benefits from an "umbrella effect." Examining 2000 and 2010 airline data, this paper finds that the
existence of hub operations at an airport does have a positive effect on prices separate from the
effect of market share. Moreover, the hub premium has decreased for all of the legacy carriers. The
study further shows that Southwest's impact on the declining hub premiums has not been uniform.
When looking at Southwest's pricing habits, test results suggest that Southwest charges higher fares
for flights at its airports with larger operations and benefits from operating within the hub networks
of the legacy carriers.


                                             Zhen Cheng

                                          Faculty: Cheryl Judice

                         Asian American is Not a Homogeneous Group:
                        Intra-Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Needs

Recent estimates show that Asian Americans make significantly less use of almost all types of mental
health services when compared with European Americans. This underutilization of clinical services
is not an indication that Asian Americans are healthier, but rather they have to overcome various
                                                                      Undergraduate Research Symposium, 9

cultural barriers in seeking mental health services. In Chicago, there is a shortage of culturally and
linguistically competent clinical services. Because of such limited resources, many Asian Americans
and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) turn to social and mental health workers at Asian American
Community Based Organizations for their mental health needs. Through interviews and surveys, this
project found intra-ethnic differences, gender differences and age related differences in the mental
health needs of various AAPI communities. For example, PTSD was common among Vietnamese
and Cambodians while it was virtually not present for Chinese and Koreans. It was also found that
staff workers at working with Cambodian clients experienced higher rates of secondary trauma.
Overall, this project goes against the misconception that AAPI is a homogenous group by giving
voice to the unique needs and issues facing each underrepresented AAPI communities.


                                             Zhen Cheng

                                       Faculty: Galen Bodenhausen

  Triumph of Neurobiology over Genetic and Social Essentialism in Mental Illness Stigma

Recent estimates show that one in four adult Americans suffers from a diagnosable mental disorder
in a given year. In order to improve mental health, social stigma that prevents people from seeking
mental health services must be addressed. Since one of the key ways to reduce stigma is through
education, this project sought to answer the question, what is the best way to educate the public
regarding the causes of mental illness that will best lower their level of stigma? According to
psychological essentialism, individuals tend to explain people‟s behavior and personal characteristics
depending on what they believe to be the underlying essence of a person. As these essentialist
beliefs play a key role in shaping people‟s stenotypes, prejudice, and discriminatory behavior, we
tested the effects of a genetic, neurobiological (imbalances of brain chemicals), and social
explanation for mental illness on people‟s level of stigma. Results indicated that, compared to both
genetic and social explanations, a neurobiological explanation led to lower stigma in terms of
people‟s willingness to associate with, help, and hire those with a mental illness. This pattern can be
explained by the fact that neurobiology might be perceived to be more malleable and not a
permanent and immutable essence of an individual.


                    Timi Chu, Kevin Rogacki, Matthew Tong, and Sean Yu

                                         Faculty: Joshua Leonard

            Northwestern iGEM 2010: Self-Regenerating Chitin INduction (SCIN)

The International Genetic Engineered Machines competition (iGEM) is an international synthetic
biology competition consisting of over 120 teams from over 20 countries. It is a unique
interdisciplinary opportunity for a group undergraduates to design and execute a synthetic biology
project to tackle a problem of their choosing. Using biological and engineering skills, students design
and develop biological parts that perform a novel function. These unique parts are added to an
iGEM Parts Registry which is a central component of iGEM that aims to promote contribution and
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 10

ingenuity. The iGEM competition culminated in the Fall with the Jamboree, a gathering of all the
iGEM teams for a weekend of presentations and posters at MIT. As Northwestern‟s inaugural
iGEM team, we represented Northwestern in its first ever iGEM competition and contributed the
first ever chitin synthesis part to the iGEM Parts Registry. As a result, we were awarded a bronze
medal for our work on Self-Regenerating Chitin Induction. For our project, we designed a distinct
system for regulated chitin production and release in E. coli which would function as a self-healing
biofilm material. Chitin is found in the protective exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans and is one
of the most abundant substances in nature. Our chitin expression platform involves a lawn of E. coli
that generates a layer chitin in response to an external molecular cue. This cue induces chitin
synthesis (fast) and apoptosis (slow), allowing for a build-up of chitin within E. coli followed by cell
lysis and subsequent release into the top layer of the lawn. Abrasions expose cells to the external
cue, allowing for self-repair. Our system does not require the addition of any external chitin
precursors because the chitin monomer unit, UDP-N-Acetylglucosamines, is readily produced in E.
coli. Such a system for achieving self-regeneration has never been implemented before in E. coli. This
technology platform for creating a regenerative chitin biolayer would have many potential medical
and industrial applications.


                                             Casara Clark

                                       Faculty: Renee Engeln-Maddox

                                       Perception of the News

A recent “60 Minutes”/Vanity Fair poll indicated that 74% of Americans trust broadcast news
sources more than The New York Times or The Wallstreet Journal (Calderone, 2010), suggesting that
news anchors play a key role in presenting and interpreting the news. The purpose of this study was
to examine the impact of an anchor‟s age, gender, and story angle on evaluations of the anchor‟s
competence and warmth. We created 12 different versions of a newscast (all on the same topic) for
this study. Newscasts varied by anchor gender (male, female); anchor age (we hired a make-up artist
to manipulate age within the same person); and story angle (emotional focus, scientific focus, or
neutral focus). We randomly assigned participants to watch one of the newscasts. Initial results
indicate that the older female and younger male anchor were perceived as the least competent
overall. However, if the story slant was emotional, participants rated the female anchor as most
competent. If the story slant was scientific, participants rated the male anchor as most competent.
We hope that knowledge gained from this type of research will shed light on where gender and age-
based biases in news media begin and help minimize their impact.

                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 11

                                           Carolyn Cook

                                         Faculty: Susan Mineka

  Associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with a Non-Affective Go/No-Go Task in
                                     Young Adults

Several personality traits are implicated in causal pathways for internalizing psychopathology;
however few studies have investigated associations of personality traits with certain cognitive tasks.
The present study examined the relationship between a non-affective go/no-go cognitive task and
personality measures of neuroticism and extraversion. Participants are a subset (n = 163) of the
Northwestern-UCLA Youth Emotion Project sample, which began as a group of 17-year-old high
school juniors oversampled for high neuroticism. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed
through multiple baseline questionnaires. Participants completed the non-affective go/no-go task
over the internet on their personal computers as part of a larger cognitive test battery. Correlational
analyses indicated that there were no significant relationships between the Behavioral Inhibition
System/Neuroticism and false alarm rate or between the Behavioral Activation System/Extraversion
and hit rate during recovery from inhibition. “Recovery from inhibition” refers to trials immediately
following X trials, which represent a demand for response inhibition. Factor analysis of task
performance variables supported the creation of two composite scores. Examination of an
efficiency composite score and a cognitive control composite score revealed a negative correlation
of one measure of neuroticism with efficiency (r = -.17, p < .05), which also approached significance
with cognitive control (r = -.14, p = .084).


                       Alysa Cortes, Anthony Guerrero, and Dokyung Lee

                                         Faculty: Shelby Hatch

Coffee Brewed from Previously Ground Beans Expresses Higher Antioxidant Capacity than
                      Coffee Brewed from Freshly Ground Beans

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, and is known to be a notable
source of antioxidants. In this study, differences in antioxidant levels in coffee brewed with pre-
ground coffee and coffee brewed with freshly ground coffee were investigated. Total antioxidant
capacity (TAC) of each type of coffee was calculated through the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant
Capacity (TEAC) assay and the total polyphenolics measurement (Folin-Ciocalteau reagent assay).
Pre-ground coffee was hypothesized to express lower antioxidant levels due to a greater surface area
of the coffee bean being exposed to the atmosphere for a longer time. However, results from the
TEAC assay indicate 21.15% higher TAC in pre-ground coffee. This is consistent with a significantly
higher TAC in pre-ground coffee from the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, which expresses a TAC of 22.33
for two-week old coffee and a TAC of 4.47 for freshly ground coffee. A possible explanation is that
prolonged exposure to oxygen in the air oxidizes the antioxidants, which increases their reducing
capacity. Because these data suggest that pre-ground coffee expresses higher TAC, coffee consumers
must strive to consume coffee brewed from pre-ground coffee for its increased antioxidant benefits.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 12

                                           Rebecca Crook

                                           Faculty: Eva Lam

               Relationship Power and Religion among Couples in Accra, Ghana

One of few studies to examine relationship power in West Africa, this study identifies how married
couples initiate and make final decision regarding finances, childcare, and family planning, as well as
how husbands‟ and wives‟ religious beliefs influence their decision-making approaches. Fifteen
husband and wife dyads from the Presbyterian Church of Ghana and 15 from the Church of
Pentecost were interviewed separately (60 participants). Interviews indicated that although men
consult their wives when making decisions, they hold the final decision-making power, particularly in
the domain of finances. Couples‟ Christianity was found to both support and challenge traditional,
patriarchal gender norms. This study illuminates the complex role religion plays in couples‟ decision-
making processes and understanding of gendered responsibilities, and suggests that given the
centrality of the Bible and Christian faith in many Ghanaians‟ understanding of roles in decision-
making, it is important to consider arguments within the Bible for the equality of women and men
and to involve churches in women's empowerment initiatives.


                                         Liang Richard Cui

                                        Faculty: Thomas Meade

 Synthesis and Evaluation of a Cell-Permeable Ca2+ Sensitive MR Contrast Probe: Towards
                             Mapping Neuron Signal Patterns

Calcium (Ca2+) is an important secondary messenger in numerous cell processes including muscle
contraction, exocytosis of neurotransmitters, apoptosis, and neural transduction. Much of what is
known about Ca2+ signaling has been discovered through the use of fluorescent probes and optical
microscopy. However, these methods have limited resolution and depth penetration, which restricts
the study of Ca2+ dynamics to superficial tissues and cell cultures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging
provides the necessary tissue penetration as well as spatial and temporal resolution for in vivo
studies. MR imaging is non-invasive as well as non-toxic and is therefore ideal for studies of live
subjects over extended periods of time. Existing MR contrast agents sensitive to Ca2+ cannot cross
the cell membrane and require microinjection. The goal of this project is to enhance an existing
Ca2+-sensitive MR contrast agent (Gd-DOPTA) by enabling cell-permeability to better understand
the dynamics of changing intracellular Ca2+ levels characteristic of normal versus diseased states. The
approach towards enabling cell-permeability on Gd-DOPTA involves masking the four carboxylates
using ethyl esters. This strategy has been used successfully in intracellular Ca2+ fluorescent probes.
Once inside the cell, endogenous esterases will hydrolyze the esters and allow Gd-DOPTA to
function as designed. Here, we present the synthetic strategies for the design of the Gd-DOPTA
analogue as a cell-permeable, calcium-dependent MR contrast agent. This approach further tests the
hypothesis that effects of altered lipophilicity increases cellular accumulation of the agent.

                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 13

                                            Manuel Diaz

                                        Faculty: David Dunand

   The Effects of the Addition of Si to AlScZr Alloys on Precipitation Hardening at Early
                 Aging Times for Aerospace and Automobile Applications

The aluminum-scandium-zirconium alloy has been proposed as a cheaper, lighter alternative material
for both automotive and aerospace applications. Currently cast iron is used for automobile brake
rotors, while the support structure near the airplane‟s auxiliary power unit is made from a titanium
alloy. The goal is to prove that AlScZr is a viable replacement by providing sufficient strength,
coarsening resistance and toughness to replace both cast iron and titanium. Two different amounts
of Si (0.02 and 0.06 at.%) are added to a base Al-0.06 Sc-0.06 Zr at.% alloy to study the effects of Si
on the nucleation kinetics of Sc in Al at low concentrations of Sc. The alloys were induction melted,
cast and homogenized at 640°C for 72 h and aged at both 275 and 300°C up to one day. The alloys
were then studied employing microhardness, electrical conductivity and atom-probe tomography;
these results were then supplemented with first-principles computations. Si is found to increase the
number density and volume fraction of precipitates at early aging times, which leads to an increase in
microhardness and electrical conductivity. This is because Si increases the chemical driving force for
precipitation due to strong partitioning of Si to the (Al,Si)3Sc precipitates, and lowers both the
vacancy formation energy near Sc and the migration energy of Sc in Al, in turn increasing the
diffusivity of Sc in Al.


                                           Emma Dutton

                                         Faculty: Scott Barnett

             Pd-Substituted (La,Sr)CrO3 Oxide Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Pd-substituted (La,Sr)CrO3 mixed with 50 wt% Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ were tested in La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ -
electrolyte supported fuel cells at 600-800° C with humidified H2 fuel. The Pd-substituted chromite
was synthesized by solid-state reaction and a modified Pechini method. The products and secondary
phases were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. Solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated and
characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cell performance was assessed by
comparing polarization resistances, and differences were attributed to variation in secondary phase
content. The response of the anodes to a redox cycle, a temporary exposure of the fuel electrode to
air, was assessed at 800° C.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 14

                                       Skyler Dylan-Robbins

                                        Faculty: Thomas Simpson

                         Un'Americana in Italia: The Spirituality of Food

Today, the 'experience' of food has become a societal obsession. Filmmaker Sky Dylan-Robbins
decides to get to the root of it all by moving to the food capital of the world, Italy, for a year to
discover the gastronomic secrets that lie inside the most simple - yet arguably the most delicious -
food on earth. Join Sky as she eats her way to the core...and discovers the spirituality of food. See
the film at www.skymedia.tv.


                                  Joshua Eassa and Janesh Lakhoo

                                       Faculty: Robert Linsenmeier

                     Effect of Isoflurane on Cerebrovascular Autoregulation

Brain circulation is autoregulated to provide a constant supply of nutrients despite changes in blood
pressure, cellular metabolism, or oxygenation. Cerebral blood flow is regulated less well during
anesthesia. However, the impact of anesthesia on the autoregulation of brain tissue oxygen tension
(PO2) has not been measured. To investigate the impact of isoflurane on cerebral autoregulation, we
recorded PO2 with oxygen sensitive electrodes in the somatosensory cortex of rabbits before and
during isoflurane anesthesia. Chambers were implanted over the cortex in a sterile surgery. At least
ten days later, rabbits were restrained for the measurements. After a period of electrode stabilization,
PO2 was recorded while the awake animal breathed air (baseline) followed by a 90 second episode
of 100% oxygen (hyperoxia). For each episode, ΔPO2, the hyperoxic PO2 minus the baseline PO2,
was computed. Following several episodes of hyperoxia, the animal was anesthetized with 0.5% or
1.5% isoflurane, and the hyperoxic episodes were repeated. The anesthetic was then terminated and
responses were again recorded in the awake animal. Brain PO2 increased during hyperoxia in both
awake and anesthetized rabbits, but under 1.5% isoflurane, the hyperoxic ΔPO2 was significantly
larger than during air breathing in all four rabbits studied. The responses during 1.5% isoflurane
were 2.15 +/- 0.6 (mean and SD) fold greater than when the rabbits were awake. The effect of 0.5%
isoflurane was variable. These results indicate that cerebrovascular autoregulation in response to
hyperoxia is worse during anesthesia, which may have implications for respiratory management
during clinical anesthesia.

                                                                     Undergraduate Research Symposium, 15

                                             Corinne Ellis

                                       Faculty: Katherine Hoffman

   "God Will Pay You Ransomly": Christianity, Consumption, and Choice in a Ghanaian
                         Seventh-Day Adventist Community

The Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) church is an international denomination that promotes a specific
religious ideology focused on literal Biblical interpretation and Saturday Sabbath-keeping, as well as
ideas about what members can eat, wear, and participate in, all related to a health-conscious and pro-
modesty stance. Because of its origins in the United States, all of its materials are influenced by an
American perspective, which plays a role in creating an attitude of cultural essentialism. This can
lead to vast gaps between the members' cultural values about their country of origin and their
proclaimed religious values. In a small, rural Ghanaian SDA congregation, these differences play out
through language and practice, signifying changing values related to consumption. As a result of my
research on this congregation, I suggest links between religion and beliefs about consumption. In
direct and indirect ways, language demonstrates some of the effect of the global church on local
economies. An analysis of language use within the church and its members' multiple discourses
surrounding consumption helps to draw out relationships between these members and ideas about
religion, colonialism, and the increasingly global economy. Through their choice to adopt or reject
new consumption ideologies, my informants express an identity situated in both religion and
Ghanaian culture.


                                         Maggie Elmarakby

                                          Faculty: Karen Hansen

                  Social Media, Youth, and Revolt: Egypt's Popular Uprisings

Key political factors and chronic economic hardships coalesced to make the January 25 Revolution a
political reality for Egyptians in 2011. Egypt‟s authoritarian system, created by former President
Gamal Abd Al-Nasser, still contributes to the decline of civic institutions, particularly education and
civil bureaucracy. Egyptian youth, experiencing the inequalities of a neglected education system,
utilize spaces available through their universities and the internet to stage protest and publicize their
discontent with Egyptian politics. The private American University in Cairo (AUC) allows students
to physically demonstrate on campus and express their views through its journalism program. All
Egyptian youth in Cairo often use social media like Facebook and Twitter to publicize their political
discontent. The April 6 Movement is the most prominent Egyptian youth movement, was created
on Facebook, and uses social media to spread its message and to organize large-scale protests. Using
my observations as a study-abroad student at AUC, and of Egyptian internet usage, I demonstrate
that safe, public spaces are available as forums of youth discourse. Previous scholarship has not
significantly contributed to this field of study; many authors explore topics like the failures of the
education system, authoritarian political structures, or the effects of the Muslim Brotherhood on
Egyptian politics. My research addresses gaps in scholarship on Egyptian youth by addressing
contemporary factors contributing to the Revolution, emphasizing the internet‟s role before and
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 16

during the Revolution. This scholarship illuminates the causes, methods, and consequences of the
Revolution while offering a firsthand account of preceding events.


                                          Sophia Espinoza

                                          Faculty: David Rapp

                 Memory for Text in Line with and Counter to Our Preferences

Text comprehension is influenced not just by the content of the material, but also readers‟
preferences for narrative events. Recent work has shown that readers‟ preferences for characters‟
successes or failures influence comprehension of and decisions about unfolding story events (Rapp,
2008). However, these studies have ignored the potential impact of preferences on reader memory.
The present experiment examines whether readers‟ wishes for what will happen in a text influences
memory for what was actually read. Participants read stories that included a preference (designed to
lead readers to root for or against a character‟s success), a context (suggesting a success or failure
was likely), and an outcome sentence (indicating success or failure). After reading these stories,
participants were immediately prompted to complete a recall task. They were asked to write down as
much as they could remember from the stories, with only the title of each story as a cue. Overall, the
length of participants‟ recalls did not differ as a function of condition. Participants generally omitted
more information from context sentences than from preference or outcome sentences, but this did
not differ by condition. Participants also made relatively few errors, and the errors produced did not
differ by condition. While previous work has shown that readers have difficulty processing events
inconsistent with what they want to happen, reader memory for these events does not seem to be
similarly influenced. Currently, we are investigating whether a longer delay between reading and
recall reveals the same impact on memory for text.


                                              Paul Foryt

                                           Faculty: Ann Ragin

        Diminished Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Lateral Occipital Cortex
                                  in Early HIV Infection

HIV infection is associated with considerable risk of brain injury. Resting-state functional
connectivity MRI has been used to evaluate connectivity between brain networks. This study, part of
a larger multiparametric quantitative imaging investigation of early HIV infection, examined
differences in resting state functional connectivity in HIV+ subjects within the first year of infection
and in age-matched controls. Fifteen HIV+ and fifteen control subjects were enrolled. During
resting scan period on a 3T scanner, subjects were instructed to rest and with eyes open. The
imaging protocol included a T1 anatomic volume sequence and resting-state fMRI volumes acquired
using a gradient echo EPI sequence. Resting-state analysis was done using MELODIC.
Preprocessing consisted of motion correction, brain extraction, spatial smoothing, and high-pass
temporal filtering. fMRI volumes were registered to the individual‟s structural scan using FLIRT.
                                                                   Undergraduate Research Symposium, 17

Preprocessed functional data for each subject were concatenated across subjects to create a single
4D data set and decomposed into 36 ICA components. ICA components were back-reconstructed
for each subject's 4D data to estimate subject-specific spatial maps using the dual-regression
technique. The two groups were included in our statistical design and hypotheses tested included
HIV0, CONTROL0, CONTROLHIV and HIVCONTROL. Nonparametric permutation testing
corrected for multiple comparisons. Out of 36 ICA components, one component involved with the
visual network shows patients have diminished connectivity within the lateral occipital cortex (LOC)
network, one of the main resting state networks. This set of regions is related to visual or
visuospatial attention. HIV+ patients have diminished connectivity within the LOC network in the
left LOC. Ongoing brain injury in early HIV infection may be clinically silent and not detected by
neurologic examination or by neuropsychological tests for prolonged periods in the clinical course.
This in vivo imaging investigation finds prominent changes in functional connectivity of the LOC
network early in the course of HIV infection. The findings suggest that this network may be affected
due to the dramatic burst of viremia that is known to occur. Further studies aimed at clarifying
factors associated with HIV neurological vulnerability will replicate these methods in a larger sample
and examine the brain functional connectivity at follow-up evaluations.


                                    Zoe Fox and Tania Karas

                                        Faculty: Michele Bitoun

The Greek Orthodox Community of Istanbul: A Dwindling Population Clings to its Legacy

The Greek Orthodox minority community of Istanbul (known as Rum, an abbreviation of Roman)
has been living in the city they still call Constantinople for 17 centuries. Today, the population‟s
survival is at its most unsure moment in history following a century of tribulations. In 1923, Turkey
and Greece signed the Treaty of Lausanne agreeing to a population exchange between Turkey‟s
Christian and Greece‟s Muslim populations. Istanbul‟s historic Rum community was allowed to
continue living in the city as a protected minority. Nearly a century later, the Rum community of
Turkey has been almost completely annihilated by targeted pogroms and discriminatory policies. A
community that once numbered 120,000 strong today hardly counts 2,000. One particularly
debilitating issue was the shutdown of Turkey‟s only Orthodox seminary, which has a long tradition
of educating the church‟s ecumenical leadership. While the Turkish government rejects the
ecumenical role of the Orthodox Patriarch, he is the leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians
around the world. Through interviews with community leaders, school principals, newspaper
editors, concerned citizens and the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, our research found reasons
to be both hopeful and cautious about the Rum community‟s future. We studied church and school
attendance, two of the strongest measures of the community‟s pulse, and found several leaders who
proudly and stubbornly continued operating their local schools and churches despite dwindling
attendance. Some believe that Turkey‟s new fundamentalist leadership, with its pro-minority stance,
will allow the Halki seminary to reopen after 40 years. In addition, Greece‟s current economic crisis
is leading several young Greeks to relocate to Istanbul, with the potential to repopulate the fading
community. Despite these signs of hope, the Rum‟s meager numbers are reason enough to wonder
if anything can revitalize the community.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 18

                                             Kimberly Garza

                                          Faculty: William Leonard

Home Sweet Home: Stress and Health in Mississippi Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome
                                or Type 2 Diabetes

Childhood obesity is a major problem in the US, with overweight and obese children facing
increased risks of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in adulthood. While much research has
focused on the contributions of dietary and activity patterns to childhood obesity and metabolic
health, less attention has been given to the influence of stress. This study examines the relationship
of stress to the health of adolescents in Mississippi, a state with the highest rates of obesity in the
country. A sample of 13 adolescent and mother pairs were recruited through a Tupelo, Mississippi
endocrinologist‟s office to participate in interviews, collect anthropometric measures and complete
surveys measuring dimensions of stress and self-esteem. Adolescents who participated were
diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or with metabolic syndrome. Mothers and
adolescents were obese (mean BMI = 42.9 ±9.7 and 41.0 ±8.5 respectively). Interviews and open
ended comments reflected feelings of worry about the health and weight of the adolescent by the
individual and their mother. Interviews with medical and community leaders reflected a strong
concern over the effects of long-term stress on the health of adolescents. Concerns include school
pressure, technology influx, socioeconomic changes, cultural dietary challenges, and how to mitigate
these influences. These findings suggest that while diet and culture are major influences in the cause
of adolescent obesity, stress is also an important factor shaping the health of Mississippi teens.


                                       Jeffrey Geiger and Alice Lee

                                           Faculty: Darren Gergle

Using Dyadic Mobile Eye Tracking to Study Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors Used During
                              Collaborative Reference

In order to create intelligent collaborative systems able to appropriately interact with and respond to
users, it is important to understand mutual gaze monitoring during human-to-human interactions.
Previous studies into the nature of mutual gaze monitoring indicate that during collaborative tasks,
speakers attend to their partners' gaze in order to monitor the physical objects under focus. In order
to achieve joint attention, speakers often rely on nonverbal behaviors (e.g. deixis) and verbal
references (e.g. "this one") to shift the focus of their partner. However, these nonverbal and verbal
behaviors that speakers use to shift their partners' focus have yet to be clearly understood and
defined. Using a dyadic eye tracking methodology, we observed the collaborative interactions
between pairs of participants during a task designed to induce naturalistic conversation. We
observed systematic trends in participants' gaze shifts with the intent of detailing the effectiveness of
gesture and linguistic reference as tools for shifting conversational focus. Our results contribute to
models of human-to-human interactions that can be used to inform the further development of
intelligent systems that are able to respond to the many demands of naturalistic human
                                                                     Undergraduate Research Symposium, 19


                                           Marc Giesener

                                       Faculty: J. Fraser Stoddart

                  Porous Hybrid Materials for Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis

Recent advances in high-throughput screening have greatly increased the demand for producing
chemical compounds. In an attempt to meet such a demand, organic chemists have turned to solid-
phase organic synthesis (SPOS). SPOS is a robust method for synthesizing molecules with benefits
including ease of purification, automation, and high yields. Unfortunately, directly applying solution
phase chemistry to SPOS is not straightforward and tedious time-consuming reoptimization of
reactions is typically required. Therefore, I aim to create materials that combine SPOS with the
favorable attributes of solution-phase chemistry without the need for such tedious reoptimization.
This approach will be general and thus applicable to the preparation of a diverse range of materials.
In order to accomplish this task, I have designed and fabricated a metal-organic framework (MOF) -
a hybrid, porous, and crystalline material - that will serve as the scaffold upon which peptides can be
synthesized. MOFs have pores that allow diffusion of substrates in and out of the cavities while
providing a rigid structure ideal for the post-synthetic modifications required for SPOS. The target
MOF was designed to achieve (i) large pore sizes, (ii) easily functionalized sites for the covalent
attachment of amino acids, and (iii) favorable stability under the mildly acidic and basic conditions
necessary for peptide synthesis. This MOF-based approach could eliminate the current bottleneck in
chemical syntheses (i.e. purification) while greatly simplifying the transition from solution phase
chemistry to chemistry performed on solid supports. Such knowledge facilitates the realization of
environmentally friendly processes.


                                          Thomas Gilbert

                                         Faculty: Albert Hunter

Kierkegaard and the Sociology of Ideas: Pseudonyms as Self-Produced Intellectual Network

The literature on how philosopher Søren Kierkegaard‟s use of pseudonyms affects the meaning of
his works is extensive, but it lacks the causal connections between thought and environment that
sociology can uncover. Pioneered by Randall Collins, the “sociology of ideas” explores how ideas are
produced by contact between individuals within historical networks. But it is not clear how this
applies to Kierkegaard, who was an intellectual loner. My research analyzes Kierkegaard‟s writings
and 1840s Copenhagen to show that his pseudonyms represented the creation of a fictional
interpersonal network in which he developed his ideas. Kierkegaard was influenced by German
Romanticism, but as he did not personally know its luminaries, he created pseudonyms that
embodied that movement‟s internal philosophical contradictions, thus “linking up” with writers who
would otherwise have been inaccessible. Furthermore, Kierkegaard‟s acknowledgement of the
pseudonyms in his later works helped collate these fictional voices into a unified framework, thus
transitioning them from a loose intellectual network into different parts of a single philosophical
system. While philosophers typically group these pseudonyms according to their respective places
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within Kierkegaard‟s doctrine of distinct “spheres of being,” my research instead organizes them
according to their respective purposes within Kierkegaard‟s self-produced network, such as
“network organizer” or “stand-in for Schlegel.” This research promises to both improve
philosophers‟ understanding of Kierkegaard‟s motivations when expressing his ideas, as well as
refine the sociology of ideas through a case study of how a single philosopher possessed the agency
to discover his own path to creative genius.


                                           Jonathan Green

                                          Faculty: John Wynne

Promethean Fires and Original Sinners: Techné, Vice, and the Theology of the Ancient Stoa

From their basic belief in the providential, harmonious design of the cosmos, the ancient Stoics
possessed a strongly normative conception of nature and natural man. We humans act virtuously,
they held, when fully actuating the perfect rationality and humanity of our original design (e.g. acting
reasonably, moderately, and contentedly). Since the Stoics also recognized the manifest presence of
vice and sin in their own time, however, they were compelled to provide a historical account of the
corruption of nature, specifically the corruption of human nature. Given an originally perfect world,
whence comes this manifest decadence? In the current paper, I investigate the role that technology
plays in competing Stoic narratives of human moral degeneration. After explaining the theoretical
gap that technology is meant to span, I argue that technology cannot, in fact, account for existent
human viciousness. Insofar as techné is itself anti-natural, the Stoics‟ moral commitments preclude
them from legitimately ascribing the birth of sin to technology.


                                         Andrew Greenberg

                                         Faculty: Brian Bouldrey

                                           Spanish Names

This novella is about Marion, a woman from Nebraska who is selected to be a contestant on a
popular game show in California. She takes her teenage daughter, Sophie, with her, but while in
Hollywood, Sophie disappears. The story is narrated by Marion some years after the events, and
slowly the reader gains insight into Marion's life through her observations of and relationship to her
missing daughter.

                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 21

                                          Monica Guzman

                                           Faculty: Eula Biss

    Family, Science, Fiction: a Sci-Fi Memoir Exploring Bowen Family Systems Theory

Bowen Family Systems Theory is a behavioral science based on evolution, (epi)genetics, and
neuroscience. Every web of relationships, or emotional system, manages anxiety in certain ways, and
that anxiety can manifest in any combination of physical, emotional, or social dysfunctions.
Epigenetic proteins responsible for switching genes on and off can be affected by anxiety
management, and so our emotional environment and our relationships can have long-lasting and
immediate effects on our health. According to the theory, understanding the emotional “laws” that
govern the system and practicing anxiety management skills can potentially improve our physical,
emotional, and social health. My project aims to illustrate Bowen Theory in the form of a personal
essay. Recounting family experiences and meditating on self-awareness, I explore the effects that
Bowen Theory has had on my life. I use science fiction as the substrate for my essay not only
because sci-fi plays a part in my family‟s identity, but also because it provides unique metaphorical
opportunities for Bowen Theory.


                                           Diana Hansen

                                        Faculty: Monica Prasad

Public Parks and Economic Development: Examining the Relationship between Spending
   in the Chicago Parks District and the Economic Vitality of Chicago Neighborhoods

Public parks have been credited with a variety of social benefits including increased opportunities
for exercise, arenas for community building, and a general improvement in the aesthetics of the
surrounding environment. Additionally, parks have been studied as economic assets to communities
due to their positive influence on surrounding property values and their ability to attract skilled
employees or other affluent residents. What has not been fully analyzed, however, is how public
parks influence the economic situation of less affluent individuals or those living in economically
disadvantaged areas. To study this, I explored the relationship between spending across the Chicago
Parks District during the late 1980's early 1990's and several economic indicators, including poverty
and vacancy rates drawn from the 1990 and 2000 censuses for each park listed in the CPD budgets.
My findings showed no significant relationship between parks funding and the economic variables,
which suggests that the funding of public parks does not alleviate poverty or vacancy rates in
historically disadvantaged areas. While parks may be an integral asset to the social and environmental
well-being of communities and individuals, economic inequalities indicated by poverty and vacancy
rates persist in neighborhoods across Chicago regardless of the allocation of funds in the Chicago
Parks District.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 22

                                         Robert Hartemayer

                                         Faculty: Thomas Meade

          Inhibition of Cancer Metastasis Using a Transition Metal-DNA Conjugate

The zinc finger transcription factor Slug has been implicated in neural crest development in
vertebrates as well as in the migration of metastatic cells from primary tumors to secondary organs.
Slug binds the DNA Ebox consensus sequence 5'-CAGGTC-3' through five tandem His2Cys2 zinc
finger regions in its C-terminal domain. This interaction promotes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal
transition (EMT), which involves the down-regulation of proteins associated with the maintenance
of cell to cell adhesions. Additionally, this process increases the expression of proteins that promote
cell migration and invasion. Since these events lead to cancer metastasis, the Meade group developed
the drug Co(III)-Ebox to inhibit Slug. Co(III)-Ebox contains a Co(III) Schiff base that is conjugated
to a short DNA oligonucleotide containing the Ebox consensus sequence 5'-CAGGTC-3'. The
presence of the Ebox consensus sequence allows the drug to specifically target Slug, while the
Co(III) Schiff base irreversibly inhibits Slug by disrupting the conformation of His2Cys2 zinc
fingers. This research project focuses on cloning, expressing, and purifying various segments of the
Slug zinc finger region because this is the domain that binds the Ebox consensus sequence. In this
report, we demonstrate that Slug zinc finger region constructs can be consistently expressed and that
they bind their DNA target. Using these constructs, information about the thermodynamic and
kinetic interactions between Slug and Co(III)-Ebox will be obtained. These data are essential in
understanding the mechanism of Co(III)-Ebox inhibition of the Slug transcription factor.


                                            Emily Hittner

                                          Faculty: Nina Kraus

 Musical Training and the Aging Auditory Systems: Evidence for Improved Cognitive and
                               Speech-in-Noise Abilities

Human communication rarely occurs in optimal environments; rather, we are often surrounded by
background noise. Understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone and it becomes
increasingly difficult as we age. This age-related decline in speech-in-noise perception cannot be fully
accounted for by peripheral hearing ability; biological aging of the central auditory system and
decreased cognitive skills also contribute to the difficulty older adults experience when listening in
noise. Musical training strengthens the perception of speech in noise in young adult musicians, but it
has not yet been determined if these benefits extend across the life span. Here, we investigated the
effects of musical training on speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults by comparing the
performance of musicians and nonmusicians between the ages of 45-65 years. Consistent with the
findings in young adults, middle-aged adult musicians demonstrated better behavioural speech-in-
noise performance, more acute temporal resolution skills and higher auditory working memory
ability. Our results indicate that musical training may mitigate the impact of the age-related cognitive
and perceptual decline, specifically for the perception of speech in background noise. Coauthors for
publication currently in press: Alexandra Parbery-Clark, Dana Strait, Samira Anderson, AuD, Emily
Hittner, Nina Kraus, PhD.
                                                                      Undergraduate Research Symposium, 23


                                            Aaron Holsteen

                                         Faculty: Lincoln Lauhon

    Detection of Nanomechanical Resonators via Polarization Dependent Fiber-Coupled

High sensitivity displacement detection is fundamental to characterize nanoelectromechanical
systems (NEMS) such as nano-scale piezoelectric transducers and force detectors. Within the past
decade, optical interferometry has been used as a cost-effective and viable method for nano-scale
displacement detection that can achieve displacement detection sensitivities down to 0.3 pm/√Hz.
My research this past year under the MRSEC and MSE Senior Project programs has focused on the
design and construction of a polarization dependent fiber-coupled interferometer capable of
measuring the mechanical displacement of resonating nanostructures. By making use of optical
interference due to the path-length difference between a reference reflection and a focused sample
reflection, the high-frequency nano-scale motion of the sample can be monitored and a quality
factor can be calculated. The quality factor is a measure of the rate of energy loss within a vibrating
oscillator tied to the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics that limit a resonator‟s sensitivity to an
externally applied force. This interferometer system will be used as a viable technique to study the
quality factors of vanadium dioxide nanowires undergoing a strain- or temperature-induced
structural phase transition.


                                            Aaron Houska

                                 Faculty: Sarah Taylor and Susanne Sklar

                 That Thing in the Desert: Playing the Sacred at Burning Man

At the end of August, tens of thousands of individuals make their way deep into the desert of
northern Nevada for the annual experiment in temporary community known as Burning Man. Most
participants describe it as a deeply meaningful and spiritual experience and yet insist that the event
has no singular meaning or significance. The event's shocking aesthetic juxtapositions combined
with its apparently paradoxical aims force participants into a playful, immediate experience that
allows for personal and communal realization and transformation. Play can be found in every human
activity but is especially pronounced and powerful in sacred, cultural, carnivalesque performances.
Burning Man exemplifies such a performance in its most recent and most American incarnation.
Building primarily on the work of Lee Gillmore and Erik Davis this paper provides a theoretical
framework for a holistic understanding of Burning Man‟s playful or “ludic” tensions. My sources
include: original data I collected during participant/observer fieldwork at BM 2010: “Metropolis;”
first-person narrative accounts of the event's founding and evolution; the many documents the
festival's organizers publish to their website; and the small but growing secondary literature on
Burning Man. To these I apply anthropologist Andre Droogers' concept of “ludic religion” to reveal
the essential role of what I term “tensive play,” and at times “sacred play,” in the organization,
evolution, and experience of Burning Man. It creates meaning by bringing participants into playful
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 24

realms where the dichotomies of freedom and institutionalization, personal identity and unifying
community, are reconciled and converge in image and reality.


                                          Hsiao-Tieh Hsu

                                        Faculty: Thomas Meade

 Investigation of Trinuclear Ruthenium Clusters as Probes of Weak Interactions of Ligand-
                                     Receptor Binding

Weak interactions between small molecules and proteins, such as van der Waals forces and hydrogen
bonding, are important in living systems but are difficult to measure directly. Marcus theory of
electron transfer relates these weak interactions to reorganization energy and electron transfer rate.
Therefore, information on weak interactions can be obtained through electrochemical experiments
to measure the rate of electron transfer and reorganization energy. Initial studies were performed
using the biotin/avidin system. Utilizing two different avidin binding ligands, 4-DMP and 4-BMP,
monovalent and bivalent trinuclear ruthenium clusters were synthesized. Experiments were
performed to investigate the strength of binding of these clusters to avidin. The clusters were
incorporated into self-assembled monolayers to facilitate electrochemical experiments. Cyclic
voltammetry (CV) and alternating current voltammetry (ACV) were performed on these monolayer
systems before and after protein binding. The redox potential, current, and amount of charge
transferred upon oxidation and reduction of the clusters were measured. The data before avidin
binding and after avidin binding were compared. In the 4-DMP and monovalent 4-BMP systems,
changes in CV and ACV data were negligible. This means there is no measureable change in electron
transfer rate and reorganization energy upon protein binding for these systems. For the bivalent 4-
BMP system, a shift in redox potential of -43 mV was observed upon avidin binding. In the future,
trinuclear ruthenium clusters with different binding ligands will be synthesized to maximize
electrochemical changes upon protein binding. This research has potential applications in the
development of protein biosensors.


                                             Lydia Hsu

                                         Faculty: Evan Mwangi

    Remembering the 1994 Genocide: Addressing Genocide through Literature and Film

Within the large scope of literature that has emerged after the 1994 Rwandan genocide, one specific
voice remains glossed over and largely absent in the genocide dialogue: the voice of the Rwandan.
Little research exists on Rwandan literature and films in part because of the limited accessibility and
circulation of texts and the relatively recent development of the film industry. My research brings the
Rwandan voice to the forefront by examining the commemoration of the genocide in literature and
film through the lens of trauma theory. I specifically examine two Rwandan works, 100 Days (2001)
and Hyena's Wedding (2007), in addition to two better-known works, Hotel Rwanda (2001) and
Sometimes in April (2005). To incorporate Rwandan voices and better comprehend the aesthetic
                                                                       Undergraduate Research Symposium, 25

choices and intentions behind both works, I conducted in-person interviews in Rwanda with Eric
Kabera (director of 100 Days), Davis Kagenza (actor), Kennedy Mazimpaka (actor), and John
Rusimbi (author of Hyena's Wedding). These interviews supplemented my argument that the films and
literary texts I examine are in a way less about the genocide than about humanity‟s ongoing struggle
to understand why it happens. As time passes, that impulse broadens into an attempt to explore and
understand humanity‟s very efforts to understand. Time demands new approaches to
comprehending genocide that mirror the passage of time in moving us further and further away
from the actual events of 1994.


                                            Bryan Jewell

                                          Faculty: John Keene


“Radiohead,” is a short story adaptation of the song “Super Shiny Metal” by the funk-rap band
Optimus Rhyme. It was initially conceived as an exercise in appropriation, while the story itself was
to explore the themes of communication and how it is mediated. The creation of the story itself
raises questions of adaptation and appropriation, though: how does art in one medium translate to
another? What components of the original text are absolutely vital to its identity, and what can be
sacrificed during the adaptation process? How do the parameters, demands, and limitations of each
different medium affect how the artwork is shaped and reshaped into other forms? This dialogue
exists between all varieties of art: music, creative writing, visual media, and performance. My short
story is but one example of how inspiration, translation, and adaptation operate in the social and
cultural spheres; I will also explore how film and television as visual media have caused modern
artists to re-inspect the past (both recent and distant) as a source of inspiration (primary texts will
include The Simpsons‟s rendition of Edgar Allen Poe‟s “The Raven” and the 2010 film Howl based off
of Allen Ginsberg‟s poem of the same name).


                                              Isabelle Ji

                                     Faculty: Jean-Francois Gaillard

      Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Ligands on the Bioavailability of Mercury in
                                    Biological Sensors

Inorganic mercury is released to the environment as part of several industrial processes such as coal
burning. In sediments and waters, microorganisms transform the inorganic mercury to
methylmercury. Methylmercury is a toxin that bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain, with high
concentrations found in many species of fish consumed by humans. Ingested methylmercury
produces neurotoxic and fetotoxic effects in the body. Therefore, from both an environmental and
public health perspective, methylmercury has become an alarming pollutant. In order for
methylation to occur, inorganic mercury must first be bioavailable, or able to enter microorganisms.
Our research investigates how the bioavailability of mercury changes in the presence of natural and
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 26

anthropogenic ligands: cysteine and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). Bioavailability was measured via
bioluminescence assays performed on a genetically engineered whole-cell mercury biosensor
(Escherichia.Coli ARL1 with merR::luxCDABE fusion). Our results show that bioavailability is
greatly enhanced in the presence of the amino acid cysteine (100 µM to 1000 µM), suggesting that a
mercury-cysteine complex facilitates the cross-membrane transfer. NTA results show increase in
bioluminescence at 10 µM and 100 µM levels, but decrease at 1000 µM levels, presenting unexpected
results which are discussed. Given that ligands can change the bioavailability of mercury, microbial
methylations of mercury, and therefore the toxicity of mercury, will strongly depend on the
composition and quality of an aquatic system.


                                          Samuel Johnson

                                          Faculty: Lance Rips

    The Psychological Metaphysics of Doing: Agency Attribution as a Heuristic Process

The question of how we judge whether something counts as an action seems at first so basic as to
evade analysis. But while psychologists have been largely content to study agency from
developmental and perceptual perspectives, philosophers have asked many higher-level questions
about what it means to “do” something. In this presentation, I address how the presence of
information about counterfactual alternative choices affects decision-making about responsibility for
outcomes. To investigate this question, I presented subjects with vignettes about actions and
outcomes and asked to decide whether the character in the story “saw to it” that the outcome occur;
I varied the probabilities of success given the choice the character made, and some possible choice
the character did not make. This evidence does not support two influential views found in the
causality literature in psychology (the probabilistic contrast and power PC models). Instead, these
data suggest that people use simple heuristic judgments when reasoning about agency; people are
sensitive to whether an action made a difference in the likelihood of an outcome, but not to the size
of that difference. If people use agentive heuristics, this has substantial implications for philosophy
and psychology: For philosophy, because this suggests that we do not derive judgments about
actions top-down from a concept of agency; for psychology, because it helps to elucidate how we
carve up reality at a basic level, and also opens up the door to investigating cognitive biases for
agency, like those discovered by Kahneman and Tversky in other domains.


                                         Cameron Kadleck

                                         Faculty: Mark Hersam

         Graphene Oxide as a Robust Electron Blocking Layer in Organic Solar Cells

Graphene oxide, a planar nano-material, has the potential to move organic solar cells closer to large-
scale viability. Organic photovoltaics in their current device geometry require what is known as an
electron-blocking layer between the anode and the active layer to ensure that current flows in the
proper direction. PEDOT:PSS, an acidic, conducting polymer, is widely used as the electron-
                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 27

blocking layer in organic photovoltaics, but its acidic nature tends to degrade the solar cells over
time, and solar devices made with PEDOT:PSS have been shown to vary their performance widely
over the area of the device. These factors have led researchers to engineer an electron-blocking layer
that is uniform, robust, and flat on the nanometer scale. The electron-blocking layer I have explored
in the Hersam research group, graphene oxide, has been shown to possess all of these qualities.
Specifically, graphene oxide has been shown to offer a platform for excellent device longevity, as
well as atomic stacking compatibility with one of the most cutting-edge organic active layers, PTB7.
Graphene oxide can help organic photovoltaics reach their full cost-saving potential by helping the
devices to withstand the test of time and heating.


                                          Jonathan S. Kim

                                       Faculty: Richard Morimoto

   Systems Level Analysis of the Heat Shock Response Regulatory Network in C. elegans

Protein misfolding is a hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer‟s,
Parkinson‟s, and Huntington‟s disease. It is imperative that cells respond to these physiological
challenges by coordinating protective stress response pathways, such as the heat shock response
(HSR). The HSR has been extensively studied at the cellular level, but there is evidence for
additional complex layers of regulation at an organismal level. Previously, a genome-wide RNAi
screen was performed using a HSR pC12C8.1::GFP reporter in an intact multicellular organism,
C. elegans, and 40 genetic negative regulators (HSR Suppressors) were identified in the absence of
stress. Due to the high frequency of false negatives in genome-wide screens, I developed two
independent secondary approaches (functional approach and interaction approach) to identify and
characterize additional HSR Suppressors missed in the primary screen. In total, I identified 12 new
HSR Suppressors (30% increase) that function in an HSF1-dependent and tissue-selective manner.
To extend my results, I participated in the development of an additional HSR reporter that was used
to confirm the tissue-selective responses of the HSR Suppressors. These results help confirm that
metazoans customize the HSR defense for different tissue contexts. Additionally, I examined the
effects of the HSR Suppressors on the oxidative stress reporter pgcs-1::GFP and discovered that a
subset of HSR Suppressors also induce the oxidative stress response. These results outline 2
different classes of HSR Suppressors: one class which specifically regulates the HSR and another
class which regulates both the HSR and the oxidative stress response. Finally, because of
polyglutamine‟s integral role in Huntington‟s disease, I developed a novel polyglutamine HSR
reporter to examine changes in the HSR regulatory network in the presence of a toxic protein.
In summary, I present a systems level analysis of the HSR regulatory network. This study provides
mechanistic insight into specific HSR regulators, an investigation into the tissue-selective nature of
the HSR, and the identification of distinct classes of HSR Suppressors that regulate specific stress
responses. Our results provide a basis for future analysis of the HSR regulation during development
and aging, as well as analysis of tissue-specific neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington‟s

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 28

                                            Julie Kornfeld

                                          Faculty: Galya Ruffer

 The Effects of Overseas Cultural Orientation Programs on Refugees’ Perceptions of their
                                Role in American Society

At the beginning of 2011 there were 10.4 million refugees in the world and the U.S. committed to
resettling 80,000 refugees. This study examined the role overseas cultural orientation (CO) played in
shaping refugee perceptions about their role in American society by addressing three main concepts:
content and sources of refugee preconceptions; content and structure of CO; and, resettling in
American society. Through qualitative interviews and surveys with resettled refugees and
caseworkers, this study fills a gap in the field of refugee studies. Interviews with refugees evoked the
teaching methods used in CO and what specifically was taught to them about American society.
Qualitative analyses confirmed that many refugees formed their preconceptions of American society
from the media, resettled friends and cultural inherencies. The findings indicate that aspects of CO
are ineffective at conveying crucial concepts of American culture to refugees because the class is too
general and too short. Refugees‟ preconceptions and transition process into American society varied
based on nationality and skill level. Implications regarding the restructuring of CO to make it more
effective are made.


                                              Alex Kraus

                                       Faculty: Francesca Tataranni

  The Student's Aeneid: The Story of the Most Influential Schoolbook in Antiquity and its
                      Pedagogical Afterlife in American Education

The tribute of admiration paid to Vergil through the ages as the Roman Homer (Propertius,
Quintilian), the Plato of poets (Alexander Severus), a prophet of Christ and the father of every virtue
(Dante Alighieri), the Mantuan Sage (Phyllis Wheatley), and the classic of all Europe (Thomas S.
Eliot) earned him a unique position in the history of Western literary tradition as a figure of
authority in every branch of learning and the poet of the greatest value in education. The success of
his epic poem was immediate and lasting. My thesis aims to investigate the circumstances under
which the Aeneid became the leading textbook in Roman schools of grammar and rhetoric, and after
establishing itself as a cornerstone in late-antique, medieval, and Renaissance pedagogy, eventually
entered and struggled to survive in the American curriculum. Grammatically, linguistically, and
lexically flawless, the Aeneid served a long and full life in Roman antiquity as the premier educational
textbook which both taught children accurate Latin and illustrated fundamental Roman moralities.
As I investigated the work's pedagogical afterlife in American education, I discovered how its early
authority as a Latin grammar manual in colonial and antebellum America diminished in the mid to
late nineteenth century as the study of the text in its original Latin grew less common and separate
from the examination of the text in English translation. Ultimately, through an exploration of the
College Board's AP Vergil Exam, it is my intention that this thesis illuminates in greater detail the
components of modern Latin education.
                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 29


                                          Judith Landeros

                                        Faculty: Geraldo Cadava

   Latina/o Youth Aspirations and Expectations to Attend College: Exploring the Role of
             Student-Student Teacher Relationships and School Attachment

Academic disparities among students based on race or ethnicity are evident when we compare
national high school completion rates, test scores, and grades. In 2008, Latina/o adolescents had an
18.3% high school dropout rate compared with 9.9% of blacks and that of 4.8% of white students
(NCES, 2010). As the fastest and largest growing minority population it is not only critical to close
this gap for the future of our country, but also to provide an equal education to all youth regardless
of race/ethnicity or background. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent
Health, this study seeks to further understand the role student-teacher relationships and school
attachment plays on Latina/o youth‟s perceived aspirations and expectations to attend college.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to help better understand the broader question of why Latina/o
youth are not graduating from high school and obtaining college degrees? I argue that all Latina/o
student experiences are not the same, and those vary by factors such as parent‟s educational
background and expectations, immigrant generation, and social economic status. However, all
students do have the ability to learn and earn a high school diploma if provided with the


                               Ashley Lau and Samantha Michaels

                                         Faculty: Michele Bitoun

 Escaping for an Education: Tibetan Youth Find Academic and Cultural Freedom in India

Since the failed Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule about 50 years ago, more than 100,000
Tibetans have crossed the Himalayan mountains for India, seeking refuge, cultural freedom and the
chance to rebuild their lives. While the plight of these Tibetan refugees occasionally surfaces in the
news, very little attention has been paid to the situation of the new generation of Tibetans in exile.
Last summer we traveled to India to document - through print, audio, photos and video - how these
young refugees are rebuilding their community through education. In Dharamsala, Delhi and
Bangalore, we visited villages of Tibetan children who live together, receive a free education and
embrace their traditional Tibetan culture. We also visited the very first Tibetan college in exile,
established just two years ago. As we spoke with students, teachers and government officials, we
found that education in exile is a means to freedom for the Tibetan community, an opportunity to
pass on religious and cultural practices that are forbidden in their homeland. It is even more
important of late, because the Dalai Lama decided to abdicate his political role this spring, thereby
shifting his power to an elected representative. Because many Tibetan refugees arrive in India with
little to no proper education, one of the community‟s strongest needs now is the development of
human resources - a base of informed people to lead and serve the Tibetan community in its years
to come.
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 30


                                           Kristin Leasia

                                         Faculty: Ann Gunter

                Guardian Images in Ancient Egyptian Royal Funerary Art:
         Some Connections to Dynasty 18 Pharaonic Legitimacy and the Hathor Cult

This thesis attempts to account for the sudden inclusion of nurse and guardian images in Egyptian
funerary art during the New Kingdom (c. 1540-1070 BCE), as images of these figures are not found
earlier in ancient Egyptian history, nor are they often seen after this era. Scholarship on the
nurse/tutor position indicates that these functionaries were at the time afforded significant social
status. Yet to date, available academic study has not suggested why the nurse/tutor suddenly rose to
both social and artistic importance. My thesis seeks to link the social and visual developments of the
nurse/tutor both as a role and as artistic subject matter, and provide a possible reason for their new
prominence. It synthesizes a visual analysis of selected nurse/tutor images with scholarly research
addressing social, religious, and political developments of Dynasty 18 (c. 1570-1293 BCE), along
with the history of the nurse/tutor position. I discovered that at the same moment that the
nurse/tutor rose in importance, both as a functionary and as artistic motif, the cult of the mother
goddess Hathor became centered at the royal court. Furthermore, this centralized worship was tied
to legitimizing the pharaoh‟s rule. My thesis posits that it was the increased importance of Hathor‟s
nurturing relationship to the king that contributed to the nurse/tutor‟s sudden prominence as a
ritual, mortal manifestation of this paradigm. Such a rapid social rise thus would explain why this
subject then abruptly proliferated in royal funerary art, and was unique to the New Kingdom.


                                             John J. Lee

                                       Faculty: Laurel Harbridge

               Why Instructional Expenditures Matter in K-12 Public Education
                        and How to Achieve Federal Title I Reforms

On January 25th, 2011, President Barack Obama delivered his second State of the Union Address,
drawing much needed attention to what it will take financially to sustain the future of our nation‟s
public education system. However, even today, the central question at the crux of this debate
remains controversial, and has yet to be resolved by competing scholars of education finance: do
instructional expenditures even matter? The empirical evidence that has accrued over the past few
decades lends credence to both camps, and thus the literature as a whole appears either
contradictory or inconclusive. To harmonize this discord, scholars must adequately control for the
confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES) when investigating the link between instructional
expenditures and student achievement. In a case study of 196 public elementary school districts in
Illinois, I disaggregate districts based on income level and rely on separate OLS regression models to
show that teacher salaries matter, but only after certain spending thresholds are met. Further, I
demonstrate that these thresholds also vary depending on the SES profile of the school district.
Analyzing data from the same case study, this paper concludes with policy recommendations for
                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 31

how the U.S. Department of Education, can sharply increase the efficiency of its Title I funding
methodologies by eliminating wasteful spending, and targeting the nation‟s neediest schools with
heightened precision.


                                             Eric Liang

                                         Faculty: Patrick Wong

       The Effect of Phonological Awareness on the Acquisition of a Third Language

It has been well established by the linguistic community that bilinguals tend to have a wide range of
advantages over monolinguals, manifesting as general cognitive advantages that include greater
inhibitory control and selective attention. These advantages extend past non-linguistic tasks to
include language learning. However, while extensive research has been carried out comparing
bilinguals and monolinguals, fewer studies have compared different bilingual groups to each other.
Specifically, what are the relative abilities of multiple bilingual groups to acquire subsequent
languages based on previous language experience? To investigate this question, a set of two
experiments are being conducted that will determine whether bilingual advantages in language
acquisition are a result of the general bilingual advantage or a product of experience with specific
language features present in the language to be acquired. The first experiment compared a bilingual
group to a monolingual one, while the second experiment will further compare two different
bilingual groups sharing one common language (English). The results of this study will contribute
significantly to existing knowledge of how bilingualism affects subsequent learning and will
demonstrate in greater detail the benefits of being bilingual.


                                            Ian Lizarraga

                                         Faculty: Frederic Rasio

                   Octupole-Scale Dynamics of Hierarchical Triple Systems

In the wake of nearly 1300 newly discovered candidates for extrasolar planets, an ancient problem in
physics takes on contemporary significance: understanding the motion of more than two mutually
gravitating objects. Advances in computation, as well as the utility of new theoretical ideas such as
chaotic dynamics, provides not only an exploration of the regimes giving rise to stable astrophysical
systems, but also a means to probe the startling array of exotic behaviors that we have observed. A
more complete understanding of these behaviors is required before we can begin to address deeper
questions, such as habitability and formation. In this presentation the researcher will first motivate
and describe the theoretical framework underlying the physics of a hierarchical triple. The
significance of the so-called octupole level perturbations in the resulting dynamics of the system will
be illustrated. In particular, the strange observed phenomenon of flipped, retrograde orbits will be
addressed, in which the inner orbit flips its orientation at seemingly random intervals over secular
timescales. Numerical simulations performed on the astronomy department's FUGU servers will
then be used to provide evidence of the parameter ranges over which orbits flip, become highly
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 32

eccentric, and exhibit other unusual behaviors. Finally, a statistical analysis will be used both to
correlate these behaviors as the planets evolve over timescales of millions of years, and to examine
questions of chaotic motion.


                                          Brendan Lovasik

                                        Faculty: Daniela Ladner

 The Influence of Systems and Processes on Cold-Ischemic Time in Liver Transplantation

Systems and processes of care are essential to coordination of procurement and liver transplantation.
They influence the length of cold ischemic time (CIT) and hence liver transplant (LT) recipient
outcomes. The aim is to examine the correlation between the time of liver procurement and CIT.
We hypothesized that systems and processes of care at certain times of the day were apt to achieve
shorter CIT. UNOS data was used to identify 9,027 adult recipients of a primary deceased-donor LT
between 1/06-12/08. Recipients were stratified into 24 groups based on procurement
(crossclamping) time. Adjusted multivariate analysis was conducted. The primary outcome was CIT.
Secondary outcomes were graft- and patient-survival at 1, 3, and 5 years measured using Kaplan-
Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Mean CIT for the population was 6.8 hrs. The longest
mean CIT occurred for procurements conducted at 0200h, while the shortest mean CIT occurred
for procurements conducted at 1500h (p=0.001). This was consistent across all UNOS regions. The
LT recipients of organs procured at 1500h demonstrated higher 1, 3, and 5 -year survival rate for
both grafts (88% vs. 85%, 78% vs. 74%, 74% vs. 67%) and patients (90% vs. 87%, 80% vs. 77%,
76% vs. 70%) compared to those procured at 0200h. Procurement time correlates with length of
CIT, with longest CIT for LT start time coinciding with first morning elective cases, when resources
are most scarce. Scheduling of procurements through hospital independent procurements might
mitigate this issue and improve patient outcomes.


                                         Andrew Loveridge

                                        Faculty: Vicky Kalogera

 Analytical Expressions for the Envelope Binding Energy of Giants as a Function of Basic
                                    Stellar Parameters

The common-envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in the evolution of binary stellar
populations. The most common way to compute the change in orbital period during a CE is to
relate the binding energy of the envelope of the Roche-lobe filling giant to the change in orbital
energy. Especially in population-synthesis codes, where the evolution of millions of stars must be
computed and detailed evolutionary models are too expensive computationally, simple
approximations are made for the envelope binding energy. In this study, we present accurate analytic
prescriptions based on detailed stellar-evolution models that provide the envelope binding energy
for giants with metallicities between Z=.0001 and Z=0.03 and masses between 0.8 and 100 solar
masses, as a function of the metallicity, mass, radius, and evolutionary phase of the star. Our results
                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 33

are also presented in the form of electronic data tables and Fortran routines that use them. We find
that the accuracy of our fits is better than 15% for 90% of our model data points in all cases, and
better than 10% for 90% of our data points in all cases except the asymptotic giant branches for
three of the six metallicities we consider. For very massive stars (M50 solar masses), when stars lose
more than ~20% of their initial mass due to stellar winds, our fits do not describe the models as
accurately. Our results are more widely applicable (covering wider ranges of metallicity and mass)
and are of higher accuracy than those of previous studies.


                                             Kevin Luo

                                         Faculty: William Klein

    Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibodies Targeting Alzheimer’s Disease-Relevant
                                Particular Aβ Oligomers

Toxic soluble Aβ oligomers (ADDLs) accumulation is now widely accepted as a primary and
necessary event in Alzheimer‟s disease (AD) pathology. Antibody-based therapies targeting ADDLs
have been shown to reduce AD pathology in both animal models and AD patients. In particular,
usage of antibodies targeting conformational epitopes on ADDL molecule has emerged as a
promising approach to effectively rescue neural function in AD. Starting from a synthetic library of
human single chain antibodies (scFv), we used phage display to isolate a unique set of scFv‟s that
efficiently distinguished Aβ oligomers from either monomeric or fibrillar Aβ, as well as transgenic
mouse models of AD from wild type brain extracts. ADDLs bound to neuronal surface in primary
cultures were readily detected by anti-ADDLs scFv‟s. In addition, a purified, phage free form of one
of these scFv‟s, NUsc1, blocked ADDLs neuronal binding by neutralizing oligomeric ligands in
solution. Importantly, NUsc1 also recognized endogenously-produced Aβ oligomers in human AD
brain extracts and tissues, indicating that ADDLs prepared in vitro assume a disease-relevant
conformation. NUsc1-reactive Aβ oligomers in AD human brain sections and cultured neurons are
partially distinct from Aβ species detected by previously characterized anti-ADDLs full length IgG‟s
obtained using animal vaccination. Size-exclusion chromatography conjugated with NUsc1-based
detection analysis revealed a novel Aβ oligomeric species of 30 kDa abundant in both synthetic
ADDLs and AD human brain extract. These novel anti-ADDLs scFv‟s may help to decipher the
conformation of the actual pathological assemblies of Aβ, highlighting their potential as more
efficient diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for facing AD.


                                         Eitezaz Mahmood

                                          Faculty: Owen Priest

                         HIV in Pakistan: On the Brink of an Epidemic

While the funding for HIV/AIDS prevention worldwide has declined for the first time in 15 years,
Pakistan, the second largest Muslim country in the world, is on the brink of a deadly epidemic. This
study, originally published in the Journal of Global Health, examines the current state of HIV/AIDS in
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 34

Pakistan and the future of the epidemic based on personal interviews with those involved and
scholarly research on the epidemiology behind the spread of HIV/AIDS in Asian countries.
Specifically, I personally interviewed the Director of the National AIDS Control Program of the
Ministry of Health and read previous research on the status on the epidemic to grasp the state of the
health crisis in Pakistan. What became obvious is that the rate of HIV/AIDS spread in Pakistan has
been rapidly rising and threatens to flow from the most at-risk population (drug users, prostitutes,
etc.) to the general population as a whole. Although the Pakistani government recognizes and has
taken many steps to prevent the impending disaster, including enacting major initiatives to stymie
the spread of the virus, with the recent floods that displaced millions, most HIV/AIDS funds have
been diverted to help out those affected by the flood. In conclusion, unless funds are immediately
donated from foreign aid, the rapid increase in HIV/AIDS will not stop and Pakistan will be facing
a much larger problem in the future.


                                             Laura Markey

                                Faculty: Chuanwu Xi, University of Michigan

         A Survey of the Huron River and Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter spp

Due to the negative impact on the treatment of human disease, the spread of antibiotic resistant
bacteria is a current public health concern. In this survey of the aquatic ecosystem of the Huron
River (in and around Ann Arbor, MI) the level of antibiotic resistance and multidrug resistance in
Acinetobacter spp was measured. A previous study indicated that wastewater treatment increased levels
of antibiotic resistance (Zhang, Yongli et al 2009). The Huron River was sampled at four different
sites; upstream of the plant, within the plant, and at two downstream sites. Acinetobacter spp were then
cultured and isolated from each sample and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to seven antibiotics
(colistin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and rifampin) using
the disc diffusion method. At the site within the plant (taken from the final effluent) and at the
second downstream site, there was a significant increase in multidrug antibiotic resistance (compared
to the upstream site). Such an increase in resistance in the final effluent corresponds with the
previous study; given the decrease in multidrug resistance at the first downstream site and drastic
increase at the second downstream site, the survey indicates another factor influencing antibiotic
resistance in the Huron River.


                                              Anna Martin

                                          Faculty: Laurie Zoloth

          Healing More than a Disease: Catholic FBOs in Africa's Era of HIV/AIDS

Sub-Saharan Africa contains 68 percent of all AIDS cases but only 10 percent of the world's total
population. Over the years, fund raising and awareness of HIV/AIDS has increased drastically, but
new infections occur every day. My research examines Catholic faith-based organizations (FBOs)
providing HIV/AIDs care because of their heavy involvement in Africa and their view regarding
                                                                    Undergraduate Research Symposium, 35

contraceptives. Opponents of FBOs fear that the religious will impose their ideas regarding sexual
purity on the marginalized and create more obstacles in HIV/AIDS prevention by propagating
stigmas and presenting an unrealistic strategic plan. However, my research shows that Catholics can
be an effective governmental partner and in some cases have an advantage in fighting HIV/AIDS.
Global health studies indicate that the disease has social, economic, and cultural components that
are strongly influenced by the surrounding environment and that these factors must be addressed
for successful prevention and treatment. Catholics have established ties in African communities and
a commitment to development, giving them much strength in addressing all aspects of the disease.
Personal accounts of fieldwork in Africa indicate that practices on the ground concentrate on issues
other than sexuality, and an analysis of ethics show that historic views on contraceptives may be
waning. Even with the development of new medical techniques, holistic approaches to HIV/AIDS
are still needed. My research concludes that all future HIV/AIDS support strategies need to
consider the disease beyond biomedical parameters.


                                             Lee Mason

                                        Faculty: Michael Sherry

       It "Isn't for Everyone, but It's for You": Chicago Punk Rock from 1977 to 1983

Scholarship on the 1970s frequently grapples with the decade‟s reputation as the “Me Decade,” a
period of cultural malaise, by addressing the vitality of smaller communities. Punk rock has played a
central role in this story, as the subculture that most directly questioned the legacy of the 1960s and
expressed strong dissatisfaction with the condition of postmodernity. My study engages this critical
literature with an examination of Chicago punk rock‟s development from 1977 to 1983. Literature
on punk tends to focus on punk and hardcore‟s originators in New York, London, Los Angeles, and
Washington D.C., ignoring the musical style‟s impact across the country. This study complicates
critical interpretations of punk while bringing Chicago punk rock into scholarship on American
culture of the period. Chicago punk emerged in two distinct waves. The first was a club scene based
around La Mere Vipere, America‟s first punk disco. Chicago punk was differentiated by its close ties
with gay subculture, and its emphasis on fun and physicality, a contrast with punk‟s usual nihilism.
In the wake of the “Disco Sucks” movement, the dance-oriented new wave which grew out of La
Mere became Chicago‟s most popular dance trend, displacing disco. Alienated by new wave‟s
popularity, hardcore punks formed an alternative network of clubs, record stores, and fanzines to
facilitate a new hierarchy of musical taste. This second wave adapted a more “serious” tone towards
music, seeking to separate itself from the mainstream musical industry. Chicago punk‟s defining
feature was ultimately its participants‟ determined search for relevance and meaning. From the
outset, anxieties over the creation of a Chicago scene propelled divisions and contradictions between
communalism and individualism, inclusivity and exclusivity, and the political and apolitical.
Cobbling together elements of British and American punk, gay culture, and Midwestern pride,
Chicago punks sought a balance of these ideals to create their own community using the
mechanisms Lasch identified as emblematic of the “Culture of Narcissism.” Through this urge to
importance, punks sought to escape the cultural malaise of the 1970s and affirm Chicago‟s place in
American culture.

Undergraduate Research Symposium, 36

                                             Jay Meisner

                                         Faculty: Arun Sharma

 Growth Factor Release from a Chemically Modified Elastomeric Poly(diol citrate) Scaffold
                             Promotes Angiogenesis in vivo

Attempts to regenerate functional urinary bladder tissue have been hampered by obstacles including
appropriate scaffold choice and poor vascularization of developing tissue. The elastomeric
properties of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) scaffolds have recently been shown to aid in
urinary bladder regeneration when seeded with epitope defined, human mesenchymal stem cells in
the context of a nude rat urinary bladder augmentation model. In order to further promote increased
tissue growth and development, we sought to create heparan sulfate binding POC (POC-HS)
scaffolds that would allow for the binding and extended release of growth factors conducive to
localized angiogenesis. POC scaffolds were prepared as previously described. POC-HS were created
by activating the POC in MES buffer containing EDC and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. Heparan sulfate
was activated. POC scaffolds were incubated in the activated heparan sulfate solution. Subsequently,
human growth factors (GF) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth
factor (bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) were individually mixed into a PBS solution
containing BSA and added to POC-HS scaffolds. Scaffolds were removed then underwent GF
release and quantification with the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Assay.
Athymic nude rats underwent subcutaneous implantation with either Condition A)POC scaffold
alone, B)POC-VEGF, or C)POC-HS-VEGF. Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-implantation.
In vitro cumulative GF release from POC-HS based scaffolds demonstrated an extended GF release
profile compared to POC-GF control samples. Gross subcutaneous specimens of Conditions A-C
demonstrated increased vascularity with POC-HS-VEGF. Data demonstrate that POC can be
chemically modified to release pro-angiogenic GFs over time and promote localized angiogenesis.


                                           Michelle Miller

                                        Faculty: Tamar Seideman

                            Nonadiabatic Laser Alignment of Biphenyl

The alignment of molecules is a critical consideration to many physical and chemical processes. The
need to control this characteristic encompasses an interdisciplinary variety of problems in such fields
as stereochemistry and reaction dynamics, molecular junctions, and quantum information
processing. Traditionally, molecular alignment has been pursued through collision events or static
electric fields. However, as these processes are capable of disrupting the underlying chemistry or
physics of the system they address, the application of intense optical fields to induce alignment
represents an interesting alternative. The use of a short, intense laser pulse to rotationally excite a
molecular species causes strong spatial alignment with the field maximum followed by periodic
alignment revivals in the absence of the laser field. This study extends this technique to a
computational study of the torsional behavior of a biphenyl molecule following impulsive alignment
through circularly polarized light. Biphenyl molecules, possessing electronically critical torsional
activity, are a relevant subject for laser alignment: control of the conformation of the molecule
                                                                   Undergraduate Research Symposium, 37

through laser alignment could be used for applications demanding charge transport control, such as
within molecular junctions. Expansion of the torsional Hamiltonian by a basis of solutions to the
Whittaker-Hill equation is performed to exhibit the four-fold symmetry of the potential barrier of
biphenyl. It is shown that form of the barrier determines the structure of the post-laser dynamics,
but that the maximum torsional alignment achieved is unchanged by the presence of the potential


                                         Eugenia Miranti

                                        Faculty: Andrew Dudley

               Identification of an Intermediate Zone in Growth Plate Cartilage

Bone growth is regulated in the growth plate cartilage, which is composed of four zones: resting,
proliferative, prehypertrophic and hypertrophic. These zones differ in cell-orientation and cell
morphology. We suggest that there is a fifth 'intermediate' zone between the resting and proliferative
zones, and that polarization of cells in this zone may depend upon non-autonomous Frizzled-7
signaling. To investigate the existence of an intermediate zone, cross-sections of resting and
proliferative zones of mouse and chick femurs were photographed. The orientation of the cells was
measured with respect to the long axis of the cartilage, and morphology was analyzed with the
length-to-width ratio. The angle of cell-division was measured using a three-dimensional
mathematical model. To investigate the autonomy of Frizzled signaling in the intermediate zone, we
over-expressed Frizzled-7 in patches and measured the orientation of the surrounding cells. It was
found that, in terms of cell orientation, morphology, and orientation of cell division, there is not a
sharp change between resting and intermediate zone, supporting the existence of an intermediate
zone between them. Cells surrounding Frizzled-7-infected patches were more randomized in
orientation than wild type cells, suggesting a role for non-autonomous Frizzled signaling in the
polarization of cells in the intermediate zone. Future research in growth plate development should
take the intermediate zone into account, along with the canonical four zones. The signaling that
controls polarity in this zone is an area of potential future research.


                                           Preeya Mody

                                        Faculty: Phuong Nguyen

              Move over Hollywood - Culture, Perception, and Marriage through
                               the Bollywood Camera Lens

In foreign lands, South Asians attempt to maintain ties with their homeland through several
mediums including religious practices, ethnic foods and dress, and linguistic fluency. But nothing
brings India closer to the non-resident Indian (NRI) than Bollywood. During three hours of drama,
comedy, romance, music, and dance, the diasporic Indian engages with their roots, feeling a sense of
belonging and understanding. With over 15 million in the diaspora, NRIs show their love and
support for Bollywood through their wallets, accounting for 65% of Bollywood‟s earnings. The
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 38

purpose of my study is two-part: first, to investigate the gender implications and perceptions within
the films and second, to examine the cultural significance through Bollywood‟s influence on
marriage in Indian American lives. I situate my analysis in the context of gender and love within
Asian America, including literature that highlights the common conception of Asian American
romance as an oxymoron since Asians are the largest ethnic group to outmarry. Informed by field
research and literature on the South Asian disapora, I found that Bollywood is approved by the
immigrant generation as a bastion of Indian culture, thereby making it an important medium for
Indian Americans to connect with Indian culture, tradition, and values. Bollywood stars are hailed as
cultural icons because they portray and adhere to traditional gender roles. Therefore, their
demeanors, styles, and physical appearances are often subject to emulation. Finally, while Indian
Americans do not find romantic inspiration from Bollywood films in terms of dating, the films do
solidify their attraction to South Asian partners and are a major influence in wedding ceremonies.


                                          Anna Sara Morrow

                                       Faculty: Renee Engeln-Maddox

      The Dressing Room as a Key Environment for Negative Body Talk among Peers:
                              A Qualitative Investigation

Body dissatisfaction in women has long been implicated in eating disordered behavior. Although
body dissatisfaction is often treated as a trait-level variable, research has indicated that body
dissatisfaction significantly fluctuates across different situations. Women‟s body dissatisfaction may
also be affected by the presence of peers. Research on expressing body dissatisfaction in groups of
peers suggests that a woman may engage in negative body talk to fit into a social group or to gain
validation from peers about her body. Such talk is associated with increased body dissatisfaction. In
this study, ninety-two female undergraduates wrote a script for a hypothetical conversation with a
friend that would take place while they were trying on swimsuits in the context of a dressing room.
These scripts were examined for negative body talk. Two research assistants coded the scripts for
the presence or absence of each of these four themes: direct expressions of body dissatisfaction (e.g.,
I hate my stomach); plans for re-shaping the body (e.g., I really should work out more), upward
social comparisons (e.g., You are so much skinnier than me), and empathetic but often self-
degrading responses to the friend‟s body dissatisfaction (e.g., I‟m the one who‟s fat). All kappas
exceeded .79. In this scenario, all participants (94% of whom were not overweight) engaged in at
least two of the categories of negative body talk, with 82% engaging in all four. These data support
claims regarding the widespread nature of body dissatisfaction among women, termed normative
discontent by Rodin et al. (1984).

                                                                     Undergraduate Research Symposium, 39

                                          Alexander Naka

                                         Faculty: David McLean

    Motor Neuron Recruitment in Larval Zebrafish Before and After Acute Spinalization

Rhythmic locomotion in vertebrates is coordinated by networks of spinal interneurons called central
pattern generators. Because they can function independently of supraspinal input, these networks are
often studied in “spinal” preparations, where the spinal cord is surgically isolated from the brain and
brainstem. Such activity can occasionally be observed spontaneously, but typically requires a
continuous input, such as persistent electrical stimulation or the application of an excitatory drug
bath, in order to maintain an ongoing rhythmic output. It is unclear whether these networks, when
under constant stimulation, are functionally faithful to their role in an awake, behaving animal. I
have developed a novel preparation which uses brief electrical stimulation to elicit sustained,
autonomous locomotion in the acute spinal larval zebrafish. Using high speed cinematography, I
have quantified the kinematics of swimming elicited in this preparation, and confirmed that it
resembles spinal swimming elicited by bath application of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. This spinal
locomotion also resembles the slowest speeds of swimming in intact larvae, which are normally seen
during spontaneous movements or in response to changes in ambient light. Thus, it appears that the
same circuits used during slow swimming may be what are activated during spinal locomotion. To
further test this, I have imaged populations of motoneurons labeled via backfilling calcium indicator
dyes. Since zebrafish achieve faster movements by the incorporation of additional motoneurons into
the active pool, it is possible to infer the intended speed of movement by examining the set of
recruited motoneurons at a given time. Prior to spinalization, I measured recruitment in an intact
larva in response to mild light stimuli or intense, escape-provoking electrical stimulation. I then used
this as a baseline against which to compare recruitment within the same population following
spinalization. I determined that a subset of motoneurons is recruited from within the population of
light responding cells during fictive swimming in the spinal larva.


                                            Brandon Ng

                                           Faculty: Joan Chiao

The Effects of Cultural Priming on Emotional Memory Biases and Interpersonal Relations

Recent findings in cultural neuroscience suggest that cultural values (more specifically, levels of
individualism and collectivism) can moderate the relationship between vulnerability to anxiety and
depression and the development of these memory biases. 65 students at Northwestern University
were first primed with either individualistic or collectivistic cultural values using a prime, and were
then asked to view a series of positive, negative, and neutral photos from the International Affective
Picture System. Participants were then asked to complete the “Reading the Mind” task, in which
they were asked to look at pairs of eyes from 72 faces (36 Asian and 36 Caucasian faces) that
expressed some form of emotion, and were asked to choose the correct emotion from 4 answer
choices given. Afterwards, participants were given a surprise memory recognition task in which they
had to identify the original 45 photos from a combined set of 90 IAPS photos (the 45 originals with
45 foils, matched with each of the originals). Participants were then asked to complete a series of
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surveys, namely the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck‟s Depression Inventory
(BDI). It was hypothesized that people primed with collectivistic cultural values would remember
more of the negative IAPS pictures (and respond more quickly in terms of reaction time), be better
at choosing the correct emotions for the pairs of eyes they saw, and show ingroup bias for eyes that
were members of their ingroup.


                                          Katie Northcott

                                         Faculty: Hilarie Lieb

        Female Entrepreneurship in Dakar, Senegal: Factors, Pathways and Obstacles

Over a two-month period in the summer of 2010, I conducted a research project in Dakar, Senegal,
looking at formal sector female entrepreneurs. My goal in this research project was to meet and
interview female and male entrepreneurs in Dakar, as well as gather demographic statistical
information about these entrepreneurs. I hoped to find certain characteristics that helped women
become entrepreneurs, and determine whether these qualities differ from men‟s. I also wanted to get
a sense of the social and political atmosphere surrounding the entrepreneurial experiences of these
women. How do women in developing countries succeed in starting their own businesses, and what
obstacles do they still encounter? I feel that while my sample size was small, only thirteen women
and two men, I got an introductory taste of how female entrepreneurs in Dakar succeed and
negotiate setbacks, as well as an interesting presentation of where women work and how they
finance themselves.


                                          Nina Nosavan

                                        Faculty: Thomas Meade

 The Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel MRI Contrast Agent for Tumor Targeting

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-invasive technique that generates detailed three-
dimensional images of soft tissue, is a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer and other diseases. A
significant portion of MR images are enhanced with contrast media. Contrast agents are small
molecules which alter water proton relaxation times of tissue, improving the visibility of internal
structures on the MR scan. Most agents are simple chelates of gadolinium. If designed to target
cancer cells in vivo, they could greatly improve MRI sensitivity and increase the likelihood of early
detection. To target contrast agent to the tumor site, we proposed the use of an established tumor
targeting protocol originally developed for radioimmunodetection and therapy. The targeting system
utilizes sequential injections to obtain signal amplification with every step and exploits the
enormously strong bond between avidin and biotin to ensure accumulation of the agent at the
tumor. The modular design of my contrast agent links multiple gadolinium moieties to a biotin
molecule via a flexible carbon linker. I have successfully synthesized two versions of the agent with
differing linker lengths. The agents were HPLC purified and characterized by MALDI mass
spectroscopy. The relaxivities of the agents were determined using a 60 MHz relaxometer and ICP-
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MS. We expect to see an increase in relaxivity upon binding to avidin due to an increase in rotational
correlation time, or tumbling motion of the chelate. The next steps of the project will be to
determine the binding constants of the agents to avidin and investigate the relaxivities of the bound


                                          Alleliah Nuguid

                                         Faculty: Averill Curdy

                                          Divorce Poems

My senior honors thesis is a sequence of poems called “Divorce Poems.” It is a meditation on
solitude within the framework of divorce, and each poem is from the perspective of either the
former husband or the former wife. These characters must, in solitude, endure the loss of not only
their shared home, but their shared homeland, as they are both immigrants from the Philippines
living in the United States. The former husband expresses himself with the ghazal, a poetic form
composed of couplets ending in the same refrain. Just as the ghazal returns to its refrain at the end
of each couplet, the former husband confronts his newfound solitude again and again. Meanwhile,
the former wife finds expression through the ekphrastic poem, which reflects upon a work of art. In
order to contend with her conflicted feelings, she muses on paintings by artists from Hokusai to Van
Gogh to Pollock. The poems in “Divorce Poems” are unsent letters to the other, written for the
emotional rejuvenation of the self. In this sequence of poems, two perspectives are combined to
complete a portrait of separation, the irreconcilable halves working together to form a whole.


                                           Justin O'Hare

                                          Faculty: Ken Paller

                         Enhancing Memory for Musical Performance
                        by Re-playing Learned Sequences during Sleep

A steadily increasing body of evidence supports a role for sleep in memory reactivation and
consolidation. Memory traces are thought to be spontaneously reactivated during sleep, enhancing
storage and improving subsequent memory performance. This natural process can apparently be
triggered by auditory or olfactory stimuli during sleep, if those stimuli had previously been linked
with learning. We now report that memories for a 12-item sequence, played using four fingers on
four keys in time with moving visual cues (as in the video game "Guitar Hero"), can be improved by
presenting the corresponding tone sequences during sleep. Sixteen right-handed participants learned
two sequences composed of either four high tones or four low tones with their left hand. Training
involved 40 repetitions of each sequence in interleaved blocks. Performance was tested before and
after a 90-minute afternoon nap. Responses were scored as correct only if made with the correct key
within ~200 ms of the correct time. Performance on the learned sequences was superior to that on
novel sequences introduced in the blocks directly before and after the nap. Crucially, one musical
sequence was softly played 20 times over a 4-minute interval during slow-wave sleep without the
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participants‟ knowledge. After the nap, but not before, performance was significantly better on the
cued sequence than on the non-cued sequence. Moreover, this relative improvement correlated
significantly with the number of slow-wave sleep spindles at right frontal scalp regions (contralateral
to the hand used in performance), but not with stage-2 spindles. These auditory cues appear
capable of reactivating memories for the visual sequence that must be anticipated during
performance, the motor sequence that must be executed, and/or sensorimotor integration of visual,
auditory or motor sequence representations. These findings warrant further development of sleep
reactivation methods that may produce benefits for other skills involving sequential motor memories
such as athletic performance or more complex musical performance.


                                          Joellen Ornstein

                                         Faculty: Monica Prasad

  Worker Alienation and Job Satisfaction in Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and
                           Traditional Organic Farm Settings

The alternative agriculture movement in the United States has been growing extensively in the past
two decades. The majority of the focus of this movement is on the health and ecological benefits of
local and organic food; little research has focused on the satisfaction of workers in this movement.
Yet worker satisfaction in this context is an important issue because part of the alternative
agriculture movement ideology focuses on the need for satisfied workers, and also because worker
satisfaction literature needs to be modified to include workers in non-industrial contexts. Drawing
on the literature in sociology on worker satisfaction that stresses intrinsic satisfaction with the work
itself, belief in the significance of work, and the presence of positive coworker relationships, I
conducted an ethnographic study of two farms, a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm
and a non-CSA organic farm, to investigate the extent and sources of worker satisfaction. I
hypothesized that workers on the CSA farms would be more closely aligned with the alternative
agriculture movement and have closer consumer connections, which would lead them to believe in
the significance of their work. I therefore expected that they would be more satisfied than workers
on a traditional organic farm that sell to farmers‟ markets, where I expected workers would be less
aligned with the movement and have less consumer connections, leading them to be less satisfied
with their work. However, I found the exact opposite--the workers on the non-CSA farm were more
satisfied. I show how poor structural and social management of the CSA undermined the workers‟
satisfaction because workers had fewer benefits, were uncommitted to the alternative agriculture
movement, and were denied a consumer connection. This study thus contributes to the literature on
work satisfaction the observation that although experiencing intrinsic satisfaction with the work
itself, believing in the significance of one‟s work, and having positive coworker relationships are
important, ultimately these characteristics can only be fulfilled if appropriate management is present.
In order for the alternative agriculture movement to successfully meet all of its ideological goals,
new efforts need to be put into place to ensure that the workers of the movement are satisfied.
Additionally, worker satisfaction literature needs to be modified to emphasize the role of effective
management in creating a satisfactory work experience.

                                                                     Undergraduate Research Symposium, 43

                                         Elizabeth Osisek

                                        Faculty: Brian Bouldrey

           Updating a Classic: A Modern Adaptation of Aristophanes' Acharnians

My goal in undertaking this project was to make Aristophanes‟ Acharnians, an Ancient Greek
comedy, accessible to modern American readers. In this play the protagonist, Dikaiopolis, makes a
private peace with Sparta during the Peloponnesian War. Throughout the play, we see how different
people have been affected by the war as Dikaiopolis conducts free trade in his private market. First,
a Megarian who has been forced into poverty by an Athenian blockade trades his daughters for
products which he himself used to export. Later, a servant enters on a young bride‟s behalf, begging
Dikaiopolis to share his peace so that the bride‟s husband will not have to fight in the war.
Throughout the play, Dikaiopolis also competes with a general, Lamachus, over who has the better
life: Dikaiopolis flaunts the luxuries he gains with his peace, while Lamachus boasts about the
honors he will win in battle. The play ends when the two return to their homes: Dikaiopolis drunk
and happy, and Lamachus wounded and bleeding. In my adaptation I changed the setting of the
Peloponnesian War to an escalated college football rivalry, turning Athens into the State University
of Pennsylvania and Sparta into Iowa University. This fantastical setting allowed me to bring
Aristophanes‟ comedic style to modern audiences while maintaining the austerity with which he
treats the consequences of the Peloponnesian War.


                                          Matthew Pacult

                                 Faculty: Sheila Donohue and John Keene

                                Recipes for Success in Ocean City

So many factors influence young love. Whether these factors are parentally, personally, or randomly
imposed, it makes no difference. They lurk like a hooded figure under the flickering arc lamp of
some parking lot corner. Specifically, the parking lot of a mediocre Italian restaurant. More
specifically, the hooded figure waits in a 1955 Ford Fairlane listening to continental European jazz,
waiting, just waiting to end the date. That is the premise to the story “Saul Granada,” from the
novella “Recipes for Success in Ocean City.” Denis Johnson, George Saunders, and Flannery
O‟Connor influence it. The story attempts to answer the question, “What is true love?”


                                          Christina Panton

                                        Faculty: Richard Zinbarg

             Improving Therapy Outcomes by Enhancing Learning during Sleep

Researchers have been searching for ways to enhance the effectiveness of exposure therapy. As
cognitive behavior therapy, including exposure-based techniques, is rooted in learning, it seems likely
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that research and theorizing about learning and memory can provide clues regarding ways to
enhance exposure therapy. Indeed, one possible, novel means of enhancement has been suggested
by a recent study demonstrating that the memory consolidation that occurs during sleep can be
enhanced by presenting sounds associated with newly learned material (Rudoy et al, 2009). These
results have been translated to an exposure therapy paradigm seeking to enhance consolidation of
therapeutic learning. The current study explored whether presenting sounds associated with
therapeutic information during sleep leads to greater symptom reduction than exposure alone.
Participants were selected for high blood-injection-injury fear scores as measured by the Mutilation
Questionnaire (total score 17). They began with a Behavioral Approach Task (BAT) comprised of
12 pictures related to blood-injection-fears ordered hierarchically from least to most fear-inducing.
The time spent viewing each picture was also collected via reaction times. After each picture,
participants rated their anxiety and physical sensations on a 0-10 scale. After the BAT, participants
completed 30-40 minutes of exposure for blood-injection-injury fears (i.e. brief films of blood and
surgery, holding a bag of blood, handling needles, etc.). The last five to ten minutes of the exposure
session entailed a reflection period. During that period, participants were guided to reflect on the
positive lessons gleaned from the exposure session while listening to a unique piece of music. The
participants were randomized into two groups: an auditory enhancement condition and a control
group. The control group received exposure alone. Participants in the auditory enhancement
condition also listened to the music presented during the reflection period nightly while sleeping for
one week. Participants returned after one week to complete the same BAT. Preliminary data analyses
from the first 18 participants were conducted. The difference scores for ratings of anxiety and
physical sensations during the Behavioral Approach Task were in the direction of superiority for the
sleep rehearsal condition though the group differences were not statistically significant. In addition,
participants in the sleep rehearsal condition increased their looking time at the BAT pictures more
than the control group and this difference approached significance, F(1,16)=4.245, p=.056. Another
45 participants will be run and the data will be reanalyzed. These preliminary findings suggest that
perhaps one can augment exposure therapy via cued sleep rehearsal of therapeutic learning by
presenting associated sounds during sleep.


                                              Jay Patel

                                          Faculty: Puneet Opal

  Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A Novel Therapy for Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1

Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of many neurodegenerative diseases linked by a
common mechanism of glutamine-repeat induced pathology. In SCA1, a poly-glutamine repeat
expansion in the protein ataxin-1 leads to progressive cerebellar and brainstem degeneration. Recent
findings suggest that expanded ataxin-1 causes neurodegneration by altering transcription. In an
attempt to identify specific transcriptional changes, our lab has discovered mutant ataxin-1 directly
represses the expression of the angiogenic/trophic factor Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
(VEGF). We have also shown that replenishing VEGF in the SCA1 knock-in mouse model by
mating with a VEGF overexpressing mouse line mitigates the SCA1 phenotype and improves
cerebellar pathology brought on by lower levels of expressed VEGF. Particularly, the cerebellar
blood vessel density is improved, indicating an interaction between the degenerating neurons and
vascular system. In order to translate these findings to the bed-side, we set-up a mouse clinical trial
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to replenish VEGF using intracerebroventriclar delivery of recombinant protein. Our initial findings
suggest that replenishing VEGF via a pump appears to have beneficial effects on the SCA1
phenotype. We are now performing additional experiments to further determine the therapeutic
potential of VEGF in this chronic debilitating and eventually fatal disease for which there is no
current treatment.


                                             Caroline Perry

                                Faculty: Richard Kraut and Cristina Traina

                Forgiveness: (Re)building Just Relationships After Wrongdoing

The moral imperative to forgive is at the heart of many influential religious and philosophical
traditions, and given the extent of human fallibility, forgiveness is essential in personal relationships.
However, the call to forgive can lead to the perpetuation of abuse if it is understood to require
patient endurance of injustice. In light of this danger, it is crucial to consider the circumstances
under which forgiveness is ethical. Drawing on the work of several philosophers and theologians
like Immanuel Kant and Margaret Farley, my paper examines the norms and limits of forgiveness in
personal relationships, where forgiveness is defined as the restoration of intimate relationship. I
contend not only that such restoration may not be morally required, but also that certain conditions
must be satisfied before it can be considered permissible. Forgiveness, I argue, is ethical only insofar
as the relationship it aims to restore is ethical. An ethical relationship is characterized by two norms:
mutuality and moral equality. These values are necessary so as to satisfy the requirement of respect
for persons in intimate relationships. Furthermore, close examination of these norms reveals that a
failure to hold offenders accountable for serious wrongdoing, forgiving them unconditionally,
constitutes a failure of respect toward both victims and offenders. Both parties must work together,
each taking certain steps, in order to establish a relationship of mutuality and moral equality after
wrongdoing. These conditions must be fulfilled if forgiveness is to be a just, life-affirming process
rather than a destructive one that perpetuates abuse.


                                           Emmaline Pohnl

                                           Faculty: Edd Taylor

                            Leadership in Community Gardens:
         Cultivating Organizational Security and an Engaged, Educated Community

Urban community gardens beautify neglected city spaces, provide fresh produce, and foster a sense
of community. Yet the foundation and success of gardens can be impeded by many obstacles. My
research explores these challenges and how they are addressed by garden leadership through the
analysis of interviews conducted in four community gardens in Chicago. Key obstacles discussed by
garden leaders and members include unstable land tenure, difficulties in acquiring federal charitable
status, interpersonal conflict, and barriers to gardener involvement. To manage these challenges,
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leaders rely upon their social and human capital. Additionally, leaders' personalities and unique
visions of 'community' profoundly shape the trajectory of their gardens. These characteristics impact
a leader's ability to cultivate public or private partnerships resulting in organizational security. They
also influence a leader's implementation of programming, communication methods, and decision-
making strategies that encourage members to actively participate in the garden community. As a
result of these qualities, leaders are able to acquire some measure of organizational security and
promote an engaged, educated community within their garden, thus supporting its sustainability. By
examining this topic, I am contributing to a new body of research on urban agriculture in North
American cities. My analysis also serves as a valuable resource for urban community garden by
providing leaders with solutions they can adopt and by presenting evidence for increased
governmental support.


                                            Jordan Puckett

                                        Faculty: Laura Schellhardt

                                       Remember the Present

What would you sacrifice for the chance at immortality? Break a family heirloom? Give up ever
seeing your daughter again? Become a jellyfish? Through philosophical reasoning and a dip into the
world of science fiction, Evelyn Michaels, a mother and teacher, may have found that living forever
is not as impossible as she had supposed. No, stopping time and saving her life from a genetic
degenerative disease may be as simple as taking a hammer to all of her most prized possessions,
both literally and figuratively. Because the cost for this seeming impossibility may be destroying the
family that she has spent a lifetime to create. Evelyn has to choose between accomplishing what no
one in the world ever has before or spend the last year of life with her husband and daughter. With
every step she takes towards eternity she must confront the ghosts of her pasts and the
consequences of her present actions. Through the story of one woman and her family, this play
examines questions that are central to the human experience. What does it mean to die? And when
you do, what is the legacy that you want to leave behind?


                                         Patricia Radkowski

                                        Faculty: Nicholas Pedriana

                      Liberty, Equality, and Brotherhood… and Secularism?
                          The Codification of Cultural Values in France

On April 11th, 2011, France began the enforcement of the 2010 ban on the concealment of the face
in public, but it made headlines that day for a different reason: two women were briefly detained
during a protest of the ban in front of the Notre Dame Cathedral. Events like this one demonstrate
the difficulty heterogeneous countries face today in integrating many peoples. This most recent
legislation indirectly constraining Muslims in France brings to mind the 2003-2004 law that banned
religious symbols in public schools. How do French lawmakers understand these bans? How were
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arguments for the bans phrased? What does this phrasing tell us about the French codification of
cultural values? This study analyzes the Stasi Commission Report of December 11th, 2003 for the
2003-2004 ban of religious symbols in public schools and the French National Assembly debate of
July 6th, 2010 for the 2010-2011 ban of the concealment of the face in public. French politicians
conceptualized these bans as upholding French cultural values, namely the concepts of French
secularism, Republican values, “living together,” and rights.


                                          Anne Reihman

                                         Faculty: Kelly Baron

      The Impact of Exercise on Sleep in Adult Runners Training for a Half-Marathon

Exercise shows potential as a nonpharmacologic treatment for sleep complaints. With 75% of
middle-age and older adults reporting some type of sleep complaint, the use of exercise as an
intervention for sleep improvement requires further investigation. The primary aim of this study was
to determine the effect of a half-marathon training program on the sleep quality of middle-aged
adults with varying levels of running experience. Forty-nine adults (M = 33.9 ± 9.7 years, 78%
female) participating in a 12-13 week half-marathon training program took part in the study.
Participants completed questionnaires regarding sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
[PSQI]), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]), and mental health (Patient Health
Questionnaire [PHQ-9], Short Form 36 [SF-36]) at baseline and during the final week of the training
program. No significant change in subjective sleep quality was observed post-intervention (p = 1.00).
When participants were divided into either poor or good sleeper groups based on baseline global
PSQI score, a significant change in sleep quality was observed between groups post-intervention (p
= .032), with poor sleepers showing the greatest improvement. Regression analysis indicated sleep
improvement in the poor sleeper group was at least partially mediated by an improvement in
depression score (p = .026). For all participants, improvements in mental health (SF-36) were seen
post-intervention, with significant improvements seen in emotional role functioning (p = .039) and
social functioning (p = .025) and a trend for improvement in emotional well-being (p = .094).
Overall, results of this study add to a growing body of evidence that a structured exercise program
can improve sleep quality in middle-aged adults.


                                          Ellen Reynolds

                                         Faculty: David Uttal

 The Effect of Maps on How Children Understand and Communicate Spatial Information

This study investigated how children conceptualize spatial environments and the strategies they use
to communicate spatial information. We hypothesized that seeing a map would allow children to
communicate more spatial relations, and would improve their scores on a spatial inference test.
Participants were six-, eight-, and ten-year-olds volunteered by their parents. Half of the children
were shown a map of a playhouse with six rooms in a 3x2 grid. Each room had a different stuffed
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animal in it, and the map showed a picture of each animal. The other participants only saw pictures
of the animals, presented in a random order. After seeing either the map or the pictures, the children
walked through the real playhouse until they could memorize the order of the animals. They then
described the playhouse to their parent. Next, they returned to the playhouse and were asked to
make inferences about where each animal was in relation to the others. The results show that eight-
and ten-year-olds performed significantly better on the inference task than the six-year-olds.
However, among six-year-olds, seeing the map was especially helpful, and those who saw it scored
significantly higher than those who did not. Across all ages, children who saw the map
communicated more information about the playhouse and used more gesture and spatial language
than those who did not see the map. Viewing a map may help children better understand and think
about spatial environments, and may also help them to better communicate what they know to


                                           Kristina Rodriguez

                                           Faculty: Darren Gergle

                        CMC Cues and Audience Behavior in Social Media

In the past, text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been described as lacking the
richness and complexity of other forms of communication, such as spoken language. However,
contemporary frameworks acknowledge that while CMC may not transmit the same cues as spoken
language, the cues that are transmitted carry significance. These cues are numerous and varied and
include chronemics, as well as typographical cues such as punctuation marks, emoticons, and
alternative usage of characters. This study examines the use of over 20 such cues in the context of
Facebook postings from major companies on their corporate Facebook pages. Facebook posts from
20 top global brands were analyzed in terms of CMC cues, links, and post "likes" and comments.
The goal of this study was to determine whether specific CMC cues are associated with changes in
the number of comments and "likes." Findings indicate that certain cues are associated with
increased or decreased responses from Facebook users. The theoretical and practical implications
are discussed.


                                Anthony Rosado and Tommy Wells

                                       Faculty: Lynne Knobloch-Fedders

  Mixed-Message Communication, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Distress in Couples

Mixed-message communication (simultaneously communicating opposing messages) is linked with
relationship dysfunction and psychopathology. For example, mixed-message communication is more
frequent among couples with depression than those without. Because anxiety impacts relationship
quality and interpersonal processes, investigating communication processes, including mixed-
message communication, among couples with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is important. This
study compares the frequency of mixed-message communication in distressed couples with and
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without GAD. Mixed messages were measured using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior
observational coding system, which is built around three interpersonal dimensions: affiliation,
interdependence, and behavioral focus. We hypothesize couples with GAD will use more mixed
messages than couples without GAD. Couples (N=52) were recruited for a larger study of anxiety
and couples. Participants were evaluated for GAD using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-
IV (SCID; First el at., 1997). All couples were classified as distressed on the Dyadic Adjustment
Scale (DAS; Spanier, 1976); n=18 couples contained one partner who met diagnostic criteria for
GAD, while n=34 distressed couples without GAD formed the comparison group. Couples were
videotaped in a five-minute discussion (vacation planning). Interpersonal behavior was coded using
the two-word SASB cluster model (Benjamin, 2000). Mixed-message communication was defined
using SASB as behavior communicating opposite messages (e.g., warmth + hostility).
Distressed/GAD couples used more mixed-message affiliation than did distressed/non-GAD
couples (p=.040). Knowledge regarding communication processes may be used to improve
treatments for GAD.


                                             Kathryn Rulon

                                       Faculty: Renee Engeln-Maddox

          A Novel Measure of Fat Talk and Its Association with Body Dissatisfaction

"Fat talk" is a term first used by Nichter and Vukovick (1994) to refer to the phenomenon in which
girls and women speak negatively about the size/shape of their bodies. Fat talk has been associated
with increased negative affect, decreased intrinsic motivation, and decreased cognitive functioning.
The purpose of this study was to use a novel vignette-based task to assess the frequency and
consistency of fat talk among college women and to determine whether scores on this assessment
could predict body dissatisfaction or eating disordered behavior. Participants were given six
vignettes and were asked to write a conversation that might happen between themselves and a friend
in each scenario. Responses to each vignette were coded for presence or absence of fat talk. Total
fat talk scores were created by summing the number of vignettes in which fat talk occurred (0-no fat
talk in any vignette to 6-fat talk in every vignette). Ninety percent of participants fat talked in at least
one vignette (M=2.32 vignettes; SD=1.29). Total fat talk scores were correlated with body
dissatisfaction, r(87)=.24, p=.02, but not with eating disordered behavior, r(87)=.17, p=.17. In other
words, fat talk appears to be linked more closely with problematic attitudes toward the body than
with disordered behaviors. These results provide evidence for the link between fat talk and body
dissatisfaction and support the validity of vignette measures as a means of assessing both the
content and frequency of fat talk.

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                                           David Schieber

                                           Faculty: Gary Fine

   Keep Evanston “Evanston”: How Morality, Economics, and Race Affect Prohibitionist
                            Policies in a Local Community

In 1853, Northwestern University added an amendment to its charter prohibiting the sale of alcohol
within 4 miles of the center of campus. This amendment began almost 120 years of prohibition in
Evanston, culminating in prohibition‟s repeal in 1972. In this paper, I review the often-overlooked
history of alcohol in Evanston, applying the theory of moral entrepreneurship and community
identity to explain how Evanston remained dry for such a long time. Social institutions, such as the
Women‟s Christian Temperance Union and religious groups, worked to create a community identity
for Evanston through morality claims. In time, this identity came under attack through threats of
repeal, and the city had to struggle to retain a positive self-image. Ultimately the community used an
image of morality to preserve Evanston as an upper-middle class community, but once morality lost
its ability to shape political action, Evanston shifted to a focus on economic revitalization to
preserve this upper-middle class identity.


                                           Humza Shaikh

                                        Faculty: Rebecca Seligman

                 Children of the Caste: A Street Across but a World Apart
A Study of the Determinants of Different Child Health Outcomes between the Mir Behr and
                         Mir Jat Castes of Rehri Goth, Pakistan

The study takes place in Rehri Goth, a rural village on the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. A village of
50,000 people, Rehri Goth has been severely impacted by rapid industrialization in the area. The
once secluded town is now wedged between the Arabian Sea, a massive Industrial Zone, and Port
Qasim. There are now two castes living in the village. The first, the Mir Behr, are fisherman and the
native inhabitants of the village. Industrialization of the surrounding lands has forced the other
caste, the Mir Jat, to abandon their native pastoralism and resettle in Rehri Goth. The two castes
have shared the village since the 1960s. Despite exposure to identical environmental factors, there
appear to be disparities in the health of the children of the two castes. Though empirical data is
inconclusive, ethnographic data, interviews, and literature review suggest that Behr children
experience better health outcomes than Jat children. I argue that this disparity relates to differences
in the autonomy of women from the two castes. Owing to different cultural beliefs, the Mir Behr
women are afforded greater autonomy than the Mir Jat women. Cultural practices restrict Jat
women‟s household decision-making and access to health clinics. As a result, Jat children have less
access to necessary clinical care, leading to greater instances of morbidity and mortality.

                                                                     Undergraduate Research Symposium, 51

                                               Junzi Shi

                                       Faculty: Christopher Kuzawa

             Tooth Loss and CRP Positively Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk
                                in Adult Filipino Women

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a growing global epidemic. Recent studies have shown that CVD is
negatively associated with oral health, likely reflecting the propensity of oral fauna to cause systemic
inflammation, which in turn thickens the arterial walls. As globalization increases, populations in
some developing countries adopt dietary and activity patterns that increase the risk of CVD while
they retain poor oral hygiene habits, the main factor in high rates of tooth loss. This study's primary
objective was to investigate the association between tooth loss and CVD controlling for relevant
covariates related to lifestyle, and to evaluate the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory
marker shown to link tooth loss with CVD and related diseases. Measures of tooth loss,
anthropometry, disease history, pathogen exposure, income, and urbanicity ranking were evaluated
as predictors of CVD with a series of maximum likelihood logistic regression models in 1,619
women participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey in the Philippines.
Pathways to CVD through oral infection, adiposity, and systemic inflammation were considered.
Extreme tooth loss, defined as greater than 25 teeth missing, was the strongest predictor of elevated
CVD risk [OR= 1.83; p< 0.02]. When CRP was accounted for in this association, it made the
relationship between tooth loss and CVD stronger and more significant [OR= 2.13; p<0.001],
indicating that CRP is not in the pathways between tooth loss and CVD. Waist circumference,
percentage of dietary calories from fat, total kilocalorie intake, and body-mass index were not
significant predictors of CVD, but instead significantly predicted CRP levels, which in turn
significantly predicted CVD. These results indicate that oral hygiene, adiposity and CRP likely lead
to CVD risk through parallel and related pathways.


                                             Anita Shroff

                                       Faculty: Christopher Kuzawa

         Birth Size and Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Predict Blood Pressure
                                     in Filipino Adults

An adverse uterine environment is thought to program blood pressure (BP) later in life, most likely
due to fetal undernutrition. This study draws on a large sample (n=1632) of Filipino young adults
aged 20-22 to examine the relationships between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood
pressure (DBP), birth weight and maternal nutritional status during pregnancy. The data for this
analysis come from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS), a community-
based birth cohort study in Cebu City, Philippines begun in 1983. The baseline maternal survey was
given at 30 ± 4 weeks gestation and the children were surveyed at birth and through childhood into
adulthood. A series of linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between SBP
and DBP to birth outcomes, maternal nutritional status during pregnancy as measured by triceps
skinfold thickness, and maternal dietary intake during pregnancy while controlling for
socioeconomic status, age, height, and BMI of the young adults, and other confounders. Birth
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weight was inversely related to SBP in males, and birth weight and length were inversely related to
DBP in males. Maternal triceps skinfold thickness was inversely related to SBP and DBP in males
and to DBP in females. Components of the mother‟s diet during pregnancy had varying
relationships with the young adult BP of male and female offspring. Maternal nutritional status and
dietary intake during pregnancy have implications for offspring‟s BP regulation later in life.


                                           Kendra Sirak

                                       Faculty: Erin Waxenbaum

       An Analysis of Limb Element Asymmetry in an Ancestral Puebloan Population

While a skeletal growth trajectory resulting in perfect bilateral symmetry is ideal, organisms,
including humans, often deviate from this course of development. Previous research has revealed
little evidence for a genetic basis of asymmetry; therefore, external stressors must be considered as
factors that influence the development and maintenance of symmetrical morphological traits. This
study examines the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and directional asymmetry (DA) in an
Ancestral Puebloan population (919-1640 CE) and investigates some of the nutritional, pathological,
and mechanical insults that may influence asymmetry in long bones. Because environmentally
imposed stressors impacting skeletal asymmetry vary with age, the individuals (n=198) in this sample
are divided into five age categories with asymmetry assessed using maximum length measurements
of the humerus, radius, femur, and tibia. Frequency distributions reveal a trend of DA favoring the
right side of both upper limb bones, likely a result of hand preference for mechanical demands;
lower limb bones show weaker trends of DA, resultant from even bilateral distribution of
mechanical forces during bipedal locomotion. DA presents frequently in adolescents and adults;
infants, buffered from mechanical demands as a function of age, exhibit symmetry or FA. Statistical
analysis indicates significant levels of bilateral asymmetry in the humerus (p < 0.01) and tibia (p
<0.05). Consistent with previous findings, asymmetry in the long bones is influenced by
environmental factors that reduce an organism‟s ability to produce symmetric morphological traits.
This study provides evidence that external stressors may have impacted the development of bilateral
asymmetry in this sample.


                                          Jennifer Skene

                                        Faculty: Karen Hansen

Healing for the Seventh Generation: Renewable Energy’s Role in Bringing Balance Back to
                    the White Earth Reservation and to Mother Earth

This thesis expands upon past studies of economic development on American Indian reservations.
While anthropologists have begun to recognize the agency that native people have in shaping their
own economic situation, development is still discussed largely in terms of how the past is reconciled
with the present. Tribal agency is asserted insofar as economic projects are incorporated into
traditional frameworks or with native values in mind. This ethnography approaches economic
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development in terms of a tribe‟s future-oriented worldview in its discussion of the development of
renewable energy projects on the White Earth Reservation. These initiatives are valued primarily for
their capacity to create a better future for coming generations of Anishinaabe, especially their
potential for healing both socio-economic and environmental problems. This orientation towards
future healing brought about by renewable energy is discussed in terms of the Seven Fires Prophecy,
which predicts both the healing of the Anishinaabe people and of Mother Earth. While tradition is
certainly an important part of native life, it is the future and concern for future generations that are
most central to their worldview.


                                           Margaret Sledd

                                        Faculty: Robert Holmgren

    A dsRNA Based Screen Identifies Novel Proteins Involved in Drosophila Hedgehog
                                  Signaling Pathway

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays a critical role in several types of tumors, including
prostate cancer, and further research could potentially lead to new treatment options or even cures.
While many proteins involved in the Hh signaling pathway have been discovered, there are still
many that remain unknown. The purpose of my research is to identify novel pathway members.
Previously, I used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down gene expression in a screen of the
Drosophila melanogaster genome. Flies containing a UAS-RNAi were crossed to flies with a
sensitized fu1 background and the MS1096 driver to target the wing. By observing the patterning of
the adult wing I was able to determine whether loss of a particular gene had a significant effect on
Hh signaling. Our screen covered 11% of the Drosophila genome; out of 1590 genes, we found 29
strong enhancers and 11 suppressors of the fu1 phenotype. So far I have followed up on 14 of these
hits using RNAi in larval wing discs and visualized the location and levels of Hh target proteins with
immunofluorescence. One such hit, a strong enhancer named Megator has been shown to affect the
Hh targets Dpp and Ci. Based on these results and other published evidence Megator may be
regulating the import of the transcription factor Ci into the nucleus. Through this research we are
increasing our knowledge of the Hh signaling pathway and further understanding how certain
cancers originate and can potentially be cured.


                                           Kathryn Smiley

                                        Faculty: Rebecca Seligman

    The “Glocalization” of Medical Choice and Decision Making in San Ignacio, Belize

Residents of San Ignacio, Belize have access to both traditional Mayan medicine and Western
biomedicine. The philosophical clash between these two paradigms has created a unique
environment of medical decision-making. Rapid globalization in the region simultaneously exposed
people to biological understandings of the body and the corruption of a profit-driven medical
system. An increase in biological knowledge of the body discredits some treatments from Mayan
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healers, but the perceived inadequacies and exploitative nature of the biomedical establishment
leaves patients unable to fully trust either paradigm. In the wake of discredited standard practices,
people in San Ignacio use their own knowledge of health, the body, and available treatments to
navigate between paradigms and guide their individual decision-making.


                                            Bryant Smith

                                         Faculty: Melville Ulmer

  Stripe 82 Co-Add Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy Catalog and XMM-Newton
                       Serendipitous Source Catalog Coincidence

Our aim is to search for X-ray emission clusters found by Hao, J. et al. (unpublished) using the
XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog catalog. A detectable X-ray flux is a signature of a mass
concentration and can be compared with the galaxy concentration (ngals) to give us a relationship
between ngals and total mass, as well as insights into cluster formation based on cold dark matter.
Preliminary matching showed a statistically significant over-density of matches within 5 arcseconds.
Our criteria for "good" matches yielded a sample of 20 GMBCG-XMMSSC coincidences.
Interestingly, the matches do not demonstrate an ngals-luminosity relationship as expected.


                                              Julia Smith

                                          Faculty: Josef Barton

 “Against this Systematic Crime”: Contesting Human Rights Discourse during Argentina’s
                               Military Regime, 1976-1983

Beginning in the 1970s, as the stagnant policies of the Cold War opened the path for a new world
order scheme, the concept of human rights became a foundation for global policy discussions.
International non-governmental organizations began to act using the understandings of human
rights formulated by the United Nations and hemispheric organizations like the Organization of
American States to monitor the human rights situation around the globe. In addition, governments
started to incorporate human rights considerations into their diplomacy and use the phrase as a way
to garner support or blunt criticism. While much research has been done on the Argentine human
rights movement that emerged in response to the state terrorism of Argentina‟s 1976-1983 military
regime, there has been little analysis done on the appropriation of the term human rights during this
struggle. This thesis, based on newspaper articles, interviews, and the publications and internal
documents of Argentine human rights organizations, is the first study that compares the Argentine
military‟s rhetoric of human rights to that of Argentine human rights movement. Both sides of this
conflict understood human rights‟ growing importance and pragmatically assured the protection of
these rights in their discourse. Despite the Argentine military‟s well-documented policies, which
violated the most fundamental human rights of its citizens by kidnapping, torturing and even killing
thousands, the military regime claimed human rights vigilance throughout its reign as a way to earn
domestic and international approval. This thesis argues that the military managed to maintain the
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strong tension between its policies and its human rights claim through exploiting the subtle
differences between traditional rights concepts and more contemporary human rights
understandings. The military privileged the state‟s duty to protect its country‟s citizens over the
rights to which minorities can appeal when they are persecuted by oppressive governments. In turn,
Argentine human rights organizations, specifically Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo and the Centro de
Estudios Legales y Sociales, with the help of a growing transnational human rights community, managed
to construct alternative spaces of human rights discourse that drew on more contemporary human
rights understandings. This analysis of the contention over human rights rhetoric by the Argentine
military, on the one hand, and by Argentine human rights organizations, on the other, sheds new
light on the sources from which each side drew its power and adds depth to current histories of
both the Argentine human rights movement, and to the overall history of human rights.


                                           Alexa Socianu

                                     Faculty: Francesca McInerney

       Reconstructing pCO2 Values during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

The current anthropogenically-driven rise in atmospheric CO2 is well-documented, but its effect on
future climate is less well understood. Measurements show that CO2 levels are currently on the rise,
yet the implications of continually adding this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere are a topic of great
debate. It is, however, well understood that as atmospheric concentrations of CO2 rise, there is a
concomitant rise in global surface temperatures. This study seeks to expand our understanding of
the effect of carbon dioxide release on global temperature by studying an analogous period of
warming in the geologic record, the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Approximately
56 million years ago, thousands of Pg of carbon were released into the ocean-atmosphere system
causing this major warming period. By studying this ancient warming event it is possible to observe
ancient paleoenvironmental and paleoecological changes and employ these past effects in making
predictions about potential future climate shifts. It is essential to develop a reliable method for
quantifying paleo-pCO2 levels in order to more accurately assess the extent of anthropogenic effects
on climate. This study seeks to refine current methodologies for calculating paleo-pCO2 levels using
carbonate nodules from the Big Horn Basin, WY in conjunction with refined soil parameter values
and n-alkane isotopic data to calculate the concentration of atmospheric CO2 during the PETM.


                                       Emily Srisarajivakul

                                          Faculty: Jinah Kim

   Hallyu: Korean Popular Culture’s Effects on the Perceptions of Masculinity, Interracial
             Dating, and Intraracial Dating Practices among Asian Americans

Hallyu, or the Korean wave, can be seen as a force of cultural globalization; the emerging popularity
of South Korean dramas to South Korean pop songs (k-pop) in practically every country in the
world certainly can't be ignored. But what does this undeniably South Korean construct mean for
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Asian Americans? This project explores the confirmation of Asian American male masculinity and
the perpetuation of stereotypes of Asian American males as feminine through a survey of university
students concerning their perceptions of popular male k-pop and drama stars. Additionally, this
paper explores whether the images presented by the Hallyu phenomenon are affecting inter- and
intraracial dating among American youth.


                                          Kate Stephensen

                                         Faculty: Timothy Breen

 Jacob Bailey: Religion, Politics and Persecution in Maine before the American Revolution

While at Northwestern University I pursued multiple undergraduate research opportunities in
history. During my sophomore year I earned a Leopold Fellowship which gave me the opportunity
to work with Professor TH Breen. While reading up on the birth of the American independence
movement I became aware of the marginalized colonists who remained loyal to the British Empire,
those stories inspired my senior thesis project. During spring break of my sophomore year I traveled
to the Nova Scotia Public Archives where I worked with the documents of Jacob Bailey, an
Anglican missionary who served in Pownalborough, Maine from 1760 until 1779. Through this
research I realized that histories of the American Revolution overlook the profound impact religion
had on shaping the conflict by emphasizing the public backlash against Parliament‟s taxation of the
colonies as the defining flashpoint between supporters and opponents of Great Britain. Popular
preachers drew large crowds, sermons and other religious works were the most widely circulated
pamphlets, and churches served as community gathering sites. Because of its major role in daily life,
religion became central to delineating political differences. The divide between Congregationalists
and Anglicans set boundaries between the two groups over a decade before the tax protests in
Boston. In 1774 Bailey penned, “Persecution in politics as well as religion is absurd and will certainly
increase the opposition only carried on with unchristian, inhuman and destructive severity.” The
quarrel between the two religious groups in Bailey‟s small frontier community originated in 1759
with the Kennebeck Company Proprietors, the town‟s founders, and entered the local government
through officials appointed by the proprietors. Bailey‟s letter expresses frustration with the
dominance of Congregationalists in Pownalborough‟s government during the years preceding the
colonists‟ declaration of independence from Great Britain. In Pownalborough during the Revolution
religion coincided with political beliefs; most Congregationalists supported the American Revolution
while Anglicans remained loyal to Britain. As a minister in the Church of England Bailey swore an
oath to George II who was the head of the Church. That declaration of faith to England put him at
odds with the independence movement led by the Congregationalist dominated government. The
story of Bailey‟s battle with the Congregationalists demonstrates the broader religious conflict which
helped spark the Revolution and, in Maine, divided patriots from loyalists.

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                                        Matthew Stevenson

                                          Faculty: Ross Bogey

                                Learning to Let Go:
       AMES Therapy for Treatment of Stroke-Related Upper Extremity Dysfunction

Stroke is America‟s leading cause of long-term disability, and traditional therapies are generally
ineffective at restoring motor function more than one year after stroke. This study examines the
efficacy of the AMES robotic device in treating chronic stroke patients with severe upper extremity
impairment and limited ability to open the affected hand. The AMES device (AMES = Assisted
Movement with Enhanced Sensation) includes a motorized glove that alternately flexes and extends
the hand. Patients attempt to assist this movement while receiving real-time visual feedback.
(Patients were randomized to receive either torque feedback, based on active force generated by the
fingers, or electromyographic (EMG) feedback, based on electrical activity recorded from the finger
extensor and flexor muscles.) The device simultaneously vibrates the muscle opposing the intended
movement (i.e., the antagonist); this vibration seeks to restore damaged sensorimotor pathways by
exaggerating the sensory feedback associated with joint movement (i.e., lengthening of antagonist
stretch receptors). In an ongoing clinical trial with 22 participants, AMES therapy significantly
improved upper limb function in both the torque and EMG treatment groups. Though neither
form of AMES significantly improved finger extension, the AMES + EMG group showed increased
ability to selectively activate finger extensor muscles, without involuntary antagonist co-contraction.
This latter result suggests improved potential for hand-opening, which might be realized after a
longer course of AMES + EMG treatment. More importantly, the global improvement observed in
both treatment groups suggests that AMES is an effective upper extremity therapy for chronic
stroke patients, a population largely considered untreatable.


                                          Hana Suckstorff

                                         Faculty: Edward Muir

         A History of Love: Neoplatonism and Christianity in Renaissance Florence

Renewed study of early Platonic philosophers elicited both excitement and condemnation from
Italian Renaissance thinkers. While Florentine scholars Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Marsilio
Ficino endeavored to demonstrate the compatibility of Neoplatonism and Catholicism, friar
Girolamo Savonarola alleged that studying such non-Christian authors would corrupt one's Christian
faith. Most research concerning Savonarola treats his denunciations of clerical misconduct and
Florentine politics, yet few Renaissance historians have examined the validity of his criticisms of
Neoplatonism. This project performs that missing investigation in order to better understand the
development of Christianity in a period often viewed as generally secular. The project analyzes two
poems on love by the writer Girolamo Benivieni, a friend of Giovnni Pico and Ficino whose early
"Song of Love" relies heavily on their ideas. His later devotion to Savonarola led him to renounce
the Neoplatonism of his youth and to rewrite the "Song" from a more overtly Catholic perspective.
A close reading of the two poems reveals whether Benivieni rejected or reconciled possibly
problematic elements of Neoplatonism with early modern Catholicism. My analysis shows that,
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while Benivieni's Christian work differs markedly from the early poem in its Trinitarian language and
standard Catholic cosmology, its omission of the Incarnation and Resurrection of Jesus Christ,
grace, and charity indicates possible lingering Neoplatonic influence. While neither poem suggests
any growth of the secularism that many view as characteristic of the Renaissance, the study finds
that Savonarola's criticisms of Neoplatonism may have been partly true.


                                               Kristen Sun

                                            Faculty: Jinah Kim

        What Does It Mean to Forget, Remember, and Recuperate the Korean War:
     Transnationality and Gender in The Host (Bong Joon-ho, 2006), Gran Torino (Clit
               Eastwood, 2008), and Address Unknown (Kim Ki-duk, 2001)

The lack of filmic representations of the Korean War, labeled by scholars as the “Forgotten War,” is
glaring given the popularity of war films in Hollywood, particularly of WWII and the Vietnam War.
Through a study of Korean and American filmic representations, the main questions this project
asks is: why is this war cast as forgotten, and profoundly, rendered unrepresentable? Drawing on an
interdisciplinary body of scholarship, I argue that forgetting is not a passive act; rather it indicates an
act of repression and perhaps, a will not to remember. Remembering and representing war is a
particularly difficult project because war memories and memorials tend to privilege narratives that
valorize the nation and its soldiers; furthermore, remembrances that challenge the idea of the nation
as anything but heroic are relegated to the margins and encouraged to be forgotten or discredited.
Thus, a central concern of this project is, how can we reconstruct and remember the Korean War in
a manner that challenges and allows non-American-exceptionalist and non-patriarchal narratives to
emerge? What do we gain by centering the silenced, in this case the female subject of war?


                                              Priya Suresh

                                            Faculty: Gail Berger

                           Perception of Negotiation Counterparts:
                Professionalism and Expertise in Facebook Photos and Profiles

The current research explored nonstrategic negotiation preparation by examining whether two
independent variables: attire and negotiation expertise, impacted negotiators‟ perceptions of the
other party and their negotiation strategy. Participants viewed the Facebook profile of a negotiation
counterpart in preparation for an upcoming negotiation with that person. In a 2x2 design, each
participant viewed a Facebook profile in which the other party was either: 1) professional attire-
expert, 2) casual attire-expert, 3) professional attire-nonexpert, or 4) casual attire-nonexpert.
Participants then completed a survey about their perceptions of the counterpart and their intended
negotiation strategy. I found significant differences for each of the independent variables in the level
of perceived firmness, aggression, cooperation, competitiveness, and trustworthiness of the other
party, as well as expectation of concessions, likelihood of making the first offer, reservation price
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and counteroffer price. Non-strategic negotiation preparation has been historically underemphasized
by JD and MBA negotiations courses, and the results from this study can aid in curriculum
development and developing best practices for utilizing social media in negotiation contexts.


                                             Alvin Tan

                                        Faculty: Jiaxing Huang

                                  Graphene Oxide Nanocolloids

Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene sheet derivatized with oxygen-containing groups. Colloids of
GO sheets are typically made by exfoliating graphite powders with oxidizing agents. However, this
process results in a wide range of sheet sizes, and the size-controlled synthesis of small GO sheets
has not been extensively studied. In this study, GO nanocolloids - sheets with lateral dimensions
smaller than 100 nm - were synthesized by chemical exfoliation of graphite nanofibers, in which the
graphene planes are coin-stacked along the length of the nanofibers. Since the upper size limit is
predetermined by the diameter of the nanofiber precursor, the size distribution of the GO
nanosheets is much more uniform than that of common GO synthesized from graphite powders.
The size can be further tuned by the oxidation time. Compared to the micrometer-sized, regular GO
sheets, nano GO has very similar spectroscopic characteristics and chemical properties, but very
different solution properties, such as surface activity and colloidal stability. Due to higher charge
density originating from their higher edge-to-area ratios, aqueous GO nanocolloids are significantly
more stable. Dispersions of GO nanocolloids can sustain high-speed centrifugation and remain
stable even after chemical reduction, which would result in aggregates for regular GO. Therefore,
nano GO can act as a better dispersing agent for insoluble materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes) in
water, creating a more stable colloidal dispersion.


                                             Lisa Tang

                                        Faculty: Jiaxing Huang

                       The Role of Graphene Oxide in Cellular Processes

Graphene oxide (GO) is a material possessing many unprecedented structural properties that has
made it the central focus of much research. However, the possibility of using GO as a biological
substrate has been relatively unexplored, despite the impact GO has already made on a variety of
other scientific fields. To determine the biocompatibility of GO, aqueous solutions of varying
concentrations of yeast cells were allowed to react with GO. Prominent yeast growth was observed
as a result of these yeast-GO interactions; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that yeast
cells selectively adhere to the basal plane of GO, making GO an effective scaffold material for the
growth and proliferation of yeast cells on its surface. In addition, the chemical structure of GO is
akin to poly sugar, a major source of ethanol production via yeast fermentation. In this light, the
growth of yeast in the presence of GO may promote the evolution of ethanol as a by-product, a
discovery that could implicate an alternative pathway for the production of bio-fuel. Furthermore
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the interaction of GO with yeast was found to promote the reduction of GO, thus restoring its
graphitic networks. These studies highlight the versatility of GO and open up new avenues of
research. As the processes underlying these discoveries become elucidated GO will play an
increasingly important role in the fields of alternative energy, bio-engineering and materials


                                             Cindy Teng

                                          Faculty: Joan Chiao

          Examining the Relationship between Culture and Perception of Pathogens

People are highly sensitive to bodily cues (i.e. rashes, lesions, discoloration) and often use these
visible symptoms to detect the presence of pathogens. Literature indicates that geographical regions
with higher pathogen prevalence are associated with populations that display higher levels of
collectivism, a cultural attribute. However, underlying mechanisms, such as whether cultural
perceptions of self could be affected by perceived pathogen exposure, have not been studied
extensively. The current study examined cross-cultural patterns of health-related perceptions among
three cohorts (Asians living in Taiwan, Asians living in the U.S., and Caucasians living in the U.S.).
Adoption of collectivistic and germ aversive views were similarly distributed across cultures, with
Asians in Taiwan showing the strongest collectivistic attitudes and germ aversion. A subsequent
study determined if simulated pathogen prevalence elicit cultural perspectives associated with
collectivism. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either health- or pathogen-salient
pictorial and essay primes. Participants then completed surveys measuring perceptions associated
with collectivism. Compared to participants primed with health concepts, participants primed with
pathogen risks more frequently identified themselves with relationship-dependent roles, which is
associated with more collectivistic attitudes. The findings from this research could contribute to our
understanding of behavioral health and cultural development.


                                         Abbey Thompson

                                         Faculty: Jason Brickner

     Testing the Role of a Gene Recruitment Sequence in Controlling Gene Localization

Eukaryotic genomes are spatially organized within the nucleus so that individual chromosomes are
not randomly positioned, but instead adopt preferred conformations. Furthermore, the position of
specific genes can be influenced by their expression. Although the nuclear periphery is traditionally
associated with repression and heterochromatin, several genes are targeted to the periphery upon
induction. This is dependent on interaction with the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and may facilitate
the rapid export of mRNA transcripts from the nucleus. A short cis-acting DNA element discovered
in the promoter of the INO1 gene acts as a DNA zip code that is sufficient to target the gene to the
nuclear periphery. This 8 base pair gene recruitment sequence (GRS I) can be found in the
promoters of many other genes that are upregulated by stress conditions, including the gene TSA2.
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Like INO1, TSA2 is targeted to the nuclear periphery upon activation. This led to the question of
whether the GRS I targets genes to the nuclear periphery in general, or if it sends genes to a subset
of NPCs. By tagging these two genes with a LacO or TetO array and coexpressing LacI-RFP and
TetR-GFP, the location of the genes was visualized by confocal microscopy as a red and green dot,
and the distance between them was measured. INO1 and TSA2 conditionally colocalized upon
activation in a GRS I-dependent manner. This suggests that the GRS I is a specific targeting
sequence that may help coordinate the regulation of genes that are activated under stress conditions.


                                           Liuchuan Tong

                                         Faculty: Regan Thomson

      Progress towards the Total Synthesis of Maoecrystal Z and Macrocalyxoformin E

Historically, many natural products, like Taxol, penicillin, morphine, etc., have proven to show anti-
cancer, anti-bacterial activities and greatly improved the human health condition. Maoecrystal Z, a
natural product recently isolated, showed anti-cancer activity towards several cell lines such as K562
(leukemia), MCF7 (breast), and A2780 (ovarian) cell. Despite the enormous potential use of this
molecule, the limited amount available from the natural source severely restricts further
investigation. At best, 1.1 kg of dried, powdered Isodon eriocalyx leaves yield only 8 mg of Maoecrystal
Z (0.00073% by mass). The inefficiency of natural acquisition demands an innovative synthetic
method to produce this molecule and the designing a scalable synthesis is difficult because of its
strained carbocyclic core and its 7 stereogenic centers. The short term goal of this research is to
develop a concise, efficient total synthesis of maoecrystal Z and the strategy should be applicable to
its structurally related diterpenes such as macrocalyxoformin E. Here, we report a convergent,
enantioselective synthesis route to the common precursor of both maoecrystal Z and
macrocalyxoformin E, employing a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling reaction followed by Nazarov
cyclization as key stereogenic and ring forming steps.


                                          Michael Tremmel

                                         Faculty: Vicky Kalogera

                 The Evolution of X-ray Binaries on Cosmological Timescales

The observation of X-ray sources has been revolutionized by spaced-based observatories such as
Chandra and XMM-Newton, which have already provided vast amounts of valuable data on galaxies
in the X-ray bands. Observations done in the X-ray as well as other spectra have provided a large
amount of information regarding the global properties of distant galaxies and their effect on the
overall population of X-ray binaries (XRBs). However, little theoretical work has been done to
examine individual populations of XRBs. X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) derived from
observations of normal galaxies of redshift up to z ~ 1.4 have been shown to exhibit a clear
evolution with redshift. X- ray binaries are thought to play a major role in the integrated X-ray
luminosity of these normal galaxies, so these data present an opportunity to constrain theoretical
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models of XRB formation and evolution. Using the results from the Millennium Cosmological
Simulation in tandem with our own XRB population synthesis code, StarTrack, we simulate the
population of XRBs in the universe from the time of the creation of the first stars and galaxies to
present day (z = 0). The result is a complete catalog of the integrated XRB luminosities of these
simulated galaxies at 60 different redshifts. We present theoretical galaxy XLFs created from these
simulations and compare them with those derived from observations with the goal of constraining
important aspects of XRB formation and evolution over timescales that are unprecedented up to
this point.


                                           Sravya Tumuluru

                                          Faculty: Karl Rosengren

                                       Grasping Errors in Infants

Grasping errors occur when an infant attempts to manually investigate objects depicted in
photographs. These errors have been attributed to a lack of understanding of photographs‟
symbolism and to inhibitory control issues, where a young child is unable to inhibit an action
activated by the photograph. This experiment was designed to investigate whether young infants
attempt to grasp at objects depicted in pictures. We presented 42 infants (23 males; 19 females)
between the ages of 7-12.5 months with four types of stimuli in block-randomized order. Each
block contained a colorful, flat wooden object (2 mm thick), an 8” x 10” color photograph of one of
the objects, the wooden object glued to an 8” x 10” laminated construction paper, and an 8” x 10”
color photograph of a texture. Our primary goal was to examine whether infants‟ interactions with
graspable objects were similar to their interactions with photographs of the objects. A repeated
measures ANOVA was performed to examine whether the manual behaviors varied as a function of
item type and sex. Significant differences were found for item type, and the interaction between item
type and behavior. Across age, children performed the most actions for the glued object than for the
photograph and texture. The number of behaviors directed towards the real object was not
significantly different from those directed towards the photograph or texture. These results suggest
that infants differentiate real objects from pictured objects, but that they do not appear to
completely understand the nature of pictures as evidenced by their repeated attempts to pick up
photographed objects.


                                            Kristen M. Unti

                                           Faculty: Ann Harris

              The Effects of Promoter Architecture on CFTR Gene Transcription

Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane
conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The disease, which is the result of a defective chloride ion
channel, primarily affects the lung tissue and digestive system. Transcriptional regulation of a gene
is largely controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA. The binding of these factors can be
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affected by mutations as well as by the location of surrounding nucleosomes. Previous work in the
lab identified nucleosome free regions (NFRs) in the CFTR promoter, and aimed to find important
transcription factors binding to these DNA sequences that affected gene expression. This research
focused on assessing two of these NFR sequences, which were conserved across species, to see how
mutations within them affected CFTR expression. The mutated sequences were inserted into a
luciferase reporter vector containing the 2kb promoter region upstream of the CFTR translational
start site. The effects of the mutations were assessed through transient reporter (luciferase) assays
carried out in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-. Furthermore, eight point
mutations in the promoter, which correspond to patient mutations, were recreated synthetically and
assessed using the same methods. These data enabled a comparison to be made to evaluate the
relative effects of the NFR mutations. While several of the point mutations significantly decreased
CFTR expression, mutations in one NFR region had an even greater negative effect on gene
expression, supporting the critical role that nucleosome free regions of DNA may play in the
binding of transcription factors.


                                           Kirk Vaclavik

                                          Faculty: Angela Ray

                      Rhetoric of Latino Immigration in Photojournalism,
                       As Seen in The Dallas Morning News, 2006-2010

I researched how images are used to promote identities and communicate particular qualities of their
subjects. Image selection takes place on an intentional level within several fields, especially
photojournalism and marketing, which includes branding, advertising, and logo creation. Specifically,
I researched the visual rhetoric of photojournalism concerning issues of Latino immigration by
analyzing microfilm of The Dallas Morning News in the time period of 2006-2010. I analyzed how
photographs are used as a means to create a virtual experience for an audience or alter an audience‟s
perception of an occurrence. Focusing on the youth of the immigration movement emphasized two
main characteristics of the movement. First, including photographs of children highlighted the
reality that potential reform would have a tremendous impact on millions of families in America.
Second, including photographs of teenage students highlighted the rebellious and energetic spirit
that fought against that which teens saw as impending oppression. Most of my presentation focuses
on the significance of the first conclusion.


                                         Joseph Walkowicz

                                      Faculty: Francesca McInerney

         A New Ordovician Eurypterid from the Martinsburg Formation in Virginia

Eurypterids first appear in the early Late Ordovician. The best-known Ordovician eurypterid is the
large (at least 50 cm long) and spectacular Megalograptus from the Cincinnatian of Ohio. Megalograptus
possesses a number of unusual and apparently derived features, including a tripartite telson and
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frontal appendages bearing long spines. Shuler (1915) described fragments assignable to Megalograptus
from the Bays Formation of Walker Mountain, Virginia. I describe new material of Megalograptus
from the Upper Ordovician Martinsburg Formation at Fagg, Virginia. The eurypterids are in fine-
grained clastics with common bivalves, interpreted as representing shallow shelf conditions.
Although fragmentary, the material is diagnostic of Megalograptus. Identifiable fragments include the
telson, cercal blade, postabdominal segments, coxa, and the distal portion of a swimming leg. There
are also isolated scraps of integument with characteristic ornamentation, possibly representing
portions of a tergite. Based on the size differences and distinct geographic and stratigraphic
origination of the material, I hypothesize that the material represents a new species of eurypterid.
Uncovering the Ordovician record of eurypterids is still ongoing; the occurrence of Megalograptus in
typical marine faunas in both Ohio and Virginia suggest that eurypterids may have been more
widespread in that period than previously recognized.


                                            Caroline Walls

                                  Faculty: Seth Magle and Carson Murray

                 Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Hibernating Species:
                       Policy Implications for the National Park Service

The primary goal of this research is to contribute to current efforts by the National Park Service
(NPS) to prepare for the effects of climate change on the wildlife and ecosystems that the agency is
charged with preserving. One particular challenge for the NPS is determining the impacts that
climate change will have on hibernating species, which may be particularly vulnerable given the
significant role that winter plays in their annual lifecycle. The focus of this research is the Olympic
marmot, a hibernating rodent endemic to the mountains of Olympic National Park in Washington
State. The precise research question is: What determines when marmots wake up from hibernation?
The data used in this study were collected over the period from 2003 to 2010, and include 140
individual records of the spring emergence dates of Olympic marmots from over-winter burrows. In
order to determine the factors that may influence the date of emergence, the following independent
variables were tested: the composition of individuals hibernating in each burrow; the elevation,
slope, aspect, and solar insolation at each burrow; the springtime temperature, as measured annually
on April 20th; and the springtime snow density, as measured annually on April 15th. The results of
the analysis indicated that two of these independent variables are significantly correlated with the
date of emergence: the presence of males and the elevation at the location of the burrow. The
presence of a male within a burrow is correlated with an emergence date 7 to 8 days earlier, while
every 100 meter gain in elevation is correlated with an emergence date 6 to 8 days later. The earlier
emergence dates associated with the presence of males is likely due to the need for males to emerge
earlier to initiate spermatogenesis. However the findings associated with elevation are more difficult
to interpret. It is likely not the actual elevation change that influences the date of emergence, but
rather the variations in temperature and / or snowpack associated with changes in elevation. The
scope of the study was limited to regional measures of temperature and snowpack, rather than local
measures at each burrow site. Further research is likely needed to determine the level of influence
that temperature and snowpack have on emergence timing. However the significance of elevation
still offers an important insight into the hibernation patterns of marmots that will be useful in aiding
park managers as they prepare for climate change. Managers will be able to better understand the
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implications of changes in plant composition with regards to elevation and any changes in the range
of marmot burrow sites.


                                          Claire Waluch

                                      Faculty: Benjamin Gorvine

 CollegeACB.com: The Effect of Anonymity on Person Perception among Undergraduates

Social psychologists have long examined the nuances of person perception, the process by which we
form coherent, complete impressions of others (typically referred to as “targets”) based on limited
information. My research examined person perception in a novel setting: posts on CollegeACB.com.
CollegeACB and other anonymous gossip sites like it are pervasive on college campuses across
America. Under a cloak of anonymity, posters gather into a “cybermob” to collectively slander a
targeted peer on an electronic bathroom wall. These vicious attacks have arguably caused major
emotional damage to thousands of undergraduate students. However, researchers have yet to study
these sites in an experimental setting: just how much do targets need to worry about these salacious
posts‟ effects on the opinions of their peers, professors, and even potential employers? Using 250
students from Introductory Psychology and 190 paid participants, I conducted a six-condition
experiment to examine the effects of CollegeACB on person perception. After viewing either
CollegeACB threads about Sarah (a fictitious undergraduate) or similar information from a non-
ACB source, participants filled out a questionnaire to evaluate Sarah‟s personality along the Big Fix
Index. Participants also assessed Sarah‟s behaviors, including her studying, drinking and dating
habits. My results suggest that CollegeACB does indeed impact person perception. However, what is
more interesting is that this impact varies greatly depending on the gender of the participant and
whether or not he or she is Greek-affiliated. Furthermore, my study contributes an application of
established social psychological concepts to the growing number of little-studied anonymous gossip


                                            Lisa Wang

                                       Faculty: Richard Zinbarg

                        Is Reassurance Seeking Specific to Depression?

The current study examined the psychometrics of a measure of Anxious Reassurance Seeking. Joiner
and colleagues (1995) define Excessive Reassurance Seeking as a relatively stable tendency to
frequently elicit reassurance about one‟s worth from close others despite previously receiving this
reassurance. They further hypothesized that Excessive Reassurance Seeking is specific to depression.
In contrast, Anxious Reassurance Seeking may be defined as a tendency to ask for reassurance based
on apprehension about the future, worries, and decision-making. Although long discussed as a
clinical phenomenon related to anxiety disorders, no one has systematically defined or measured it.
In this study we developed and examined the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of
Anxious Reassurance Seeking. One hundred and seven participants completed an anonymous online
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survey comprised of 12 self-report measures. The validity, reliability, and factor structure were
examined. It was found to be highly reliable and contained two factors: Facet 1(engaging in
reassurance seeking behavior) and Facet 2 (close-other annoyance with the reassurance seeking
behavior). Both facets were highly correlated with worry. We also investigated whether Excessive
Reassurance Seeking is specific to depressive symptoms or if previously neglected variables, like
worry or Intolerance of Uncertainty, are better predictors. When worry was added to the model,
depressive symptoms no longer significantly correlated with Excessive Reassurance Seeking. Then
when Intolerance of Uncertainty was examined, it significantly correlated with Excessive
Reassurance Seeking and depressive symptoms were no longer significantly associated. Taken
together, these results suggest that reassurance seeking is not specific to depression as previously
believed. Reassurance seeking extends beyond seeking confirmation of worth and approval to
seeking assurance about worries. Moreover, even the association between depressed mood and
reassurance seeking about one‟s worth and approval appear to be largely shared with worry and
Intolerance of Uncertainty.


                                          Rachel Waxman

                                         Faculty: Sarah Maza

       England a la Mode: The Critique of Anglomania in Eighteenth-Century France

It is commonly known among historians that during the eighteenth century, a number of French
thinkers turned their attention and praises to France's rival across the channel. As a consequence of
this interest, English fashion became all the rage for many city-dwellers as they sought to imitate
men and women from London. However, this Anglomania also invited a flood of bitter criticism,
and few scholars have considered the deeper meaning behind these critiques. This thesis seeks to
contextualize the criticisms of Anglomania within broader developments occurring in France in the
second half of the eighteenth century. Anglomania, I argue, was not an independent force with a
linear progression, but became absorbed into the contexts of the Seven Years' War, the
Enlightenment, and the social instability and luxury debate that preceded the Revolution. Through
primary source material including dictionnaire entries, letters, memoirs and plays, my thesis shows
how many eighteenth-century French people projected their fears and uncertainties about current
society onto the Anglomanes--the group of men and women who copied and admired the English.


                                         Brad Weinberger

                                         Faculty: Jack Tumblin

              Lowering the Access Barriers to Advanced Rendering Technologies

Over the past two decades, great strides have been made in the field of computational image
synthesis. However, as each iteration of the technology builds upon its predecessor, the complexity
of the software created to take advantage of these advances has become increasingly more and more
difficult to navigate. As a consequence, access to many of these advances has been restricted by the
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large time commitment it takes to become proficient in the use of the software. In this study, an
effort was made to examine whether or not this trend could be reversed. Using the widely
understood graphics framework OpenGL as a model, a ray tracer was implemented which borrowed
heavily from its syntax, but expanded greatly upon its features. It was demonstrated that with simple
syntactic additions, features normally impossible or difficult to implement in a rasterizaton based
renderer (such as reflection, refraction, and constructive solid geometry) can be mapped in a much
simpler, easier to understand method than current graphics frameworks permit.


                                             Colleen Werle

                                         Faculty: Thomas Simpson

                      The Italian Puppet Theatre Tradition in Modern Italy

Since the 16th century, puppetry is known to have played a significant role in Italian culture through
three classical techniques: i burattini, le marionette, and i pupi. Each technique developed as a regional
tradition with specific characters, stories, performance techniques and characteristics, and the
puppeteers would pass the art form down in their families as an occupation for generations. But
after the social, political, and technological changes of the 20th Century, the classical Italian
puppeteers are now few and far between and struggle to both preserve and develop their art and
career in a puppet culture that is increasingly internationalized, genre-blending, and financially
insecure. Drawing upon interviews I conducted with puppeteers and specialists, observations of
puppetry performances and festivals, and written materials I collected while in Italy under an
Undergraduate Research Grant, this study seeks to capture the modern definition of “traditional
Italian puppet theatre” as described by the puppeteers themselves. At this crucial point in the Italian
puppet theatre‟s development, a divide can be see between the paths of the more aristocratic
marionette and the popular burattini and i pupi. While classical marionette shows continue and function
dually as living history exhibit and performance, i burattini and i pupi, however, are more torn
between tradition and experimentation. Due to familial and regional pride and economic hardships,
these puppeteers are trying desperately to claim and preserve a tradition that they cannot define, and
for which a current definition does not exist.


                                             Abbie Wesley

                                           Faculty: Paul Reber

   Cognitive Depletion Has a Negative Impact on the Rate of Implicit Perceptual-Motor
                                  Sequence Learning

Ego-depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when
depleted, produce deficits in self-regulation or cognitive control. Depletion effects on implicit
learning, which is not thought to require cognitive control, have not previously been reported.
However, if depletion reflects transiently lower levels of dopamine, ego-depletion might be
associated with slower learning for tasks dependent on dopamine-gated plasticity in cortico-striatal
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circuits. The relationship between ego-depletion and implicit learning was examined by comparing
participants‟ levels of cognitive depletion with sequence learning performance. Participants first
completed the Stroop Task to assess depletion, measured as the reaction time difference between
control and incongruent trials. Participants then performed the Serial Interception Sequence
Learning (SISL) task. The SISL task is a perceptual motor sequence learning task whereby circular
cues scroll across a computer screen toward targets, and participants attempt to press the correct key
when a cue fits within the target zone. Participants received 2880 trials of training on a covertly
embedded 12-item second-order conditional sequence, followed by tests of both implicit and explicit
sequence knowledge. Implicit sequence knowledge was assessed as the percent correct difference
between performance on the trained sequence and novel sequences. A negative correlation was
found between the interference effect and the amount of implicit learning exhibited, with a slightly
stronger relationship observed for participants who did not demonstrate explicit knowledge of the
sequence. These results show that ego depletion may lead to slower implicit learning, implying this
process is not as automatic as previously hypothesized.


                                         Allyson Westling

                                          Faculty: Frank Tu

                           Maternal Health and Nutrition in Ho, Ghana

Good nutrition is vital to a healthy pregnancy. In the city of Ho, Ghana, and its surrounding
communities, this is a public health area that been relatively underdeveloped in research. The Health
Outreach and Peer Education (H.O.P.E.) Center community health clinic outside Ho has a
Childhood Nutrition Program that teaches local mothers how to farm and prepare healthy meals for
their children. The purpose of this research study was to better understand the nutritional
knowledge, practices, and beliefs of pregnant women in the area. This information can be used to
see what aspects of the H.O.P.E. Center‟s current childhood outreach program can be tailored to
meet the specific needs of pregnant women. An individual, 40-item interview was conducted among
30 pregnant women, approximately half of whom had been patients at the H.O.P.E. Center and half
of whom had neither been to the Center nor participated in the childhood nutrition program. The
study found that women typically had access to a wide variety of foods. However, they often ate
smaller amounts of their typical meal or avoided certain items because of their pregnancy. Most of
the women could identify what foods were healthy for pregnancy and what they should be eating,
but many did not know what constituted an unhealthy food and what they should be avoiding. All
subjects indicated that they would be willing to participate in a program designed to teach them
healthy nutritional practices during pregnancy. They specified a willingness to take this information
and improve their diets accordingly. These results demonstrate that the H.O.P.E. Center‟s current
nutrition program has the potential to be modified to specifically meet the needs of pregnant
women in the catchment areas. Such an outreach initiative can equip pregnant women with the
knowledge that they need to make healthy nutritional decisions for themselves and for their unborn
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                                            Kolby White

                                          Faculty: Karl Scheidt

                     Metal–Free Carbon–Carbon Bond Forming Reactions

New strategies for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds continues to be a goal in chemical
synthesis. In many instances standard substitution reactions are limited due to undesired side
recations. Secondary alcohols are highly prevalent in organic chemistry. The traditional convergent
carbon-carbon bond-forming approach for these compounds relies on Grignard/Barbier additions
to aldehydes. A conceptually distinct Umpolung, or reversed polarity, strategy for these compounds
has been developed. This protocol is performed under room temperature conditions and can be
applied to a variety of substrates.


                                      Travis White-Schwoch

                                        Faculty: Richard Zinbarg

      Saying What We Don't Mean: Spoken Self-Statements Affect Emotional Behavior

Was the Little Engine That Could onto something? Did his “I think I can, I think I can,” mantra
help him over the hill? This study investigated the relationship between spoken language and
emotion. Subjects, who varied in a trait blood-injection-injury (BII) fear, were randomly assigned to
one of two conditions, the “I can,” condition and the “I can‟t,” condition. A list of forty self-
statements was generated, each of which came in “I can,” and “I can‟t,” forms. For example, one
statement set reads: “I can look at bloody scenes in horror films,” and “I can‟t look at bloody scenes
in horror films.” Subjects spoke the statements from their respective condition out loud, and then
performed a behavioral approach task, wherein they viewed thirty pictures (twelve of which were
associated with the BII fear). During the behavioral approach task, subjects‟ looking time and facial
expressions were recorded; subjects also provided subjective ratings of affect. A hierarchical linear
regression showed that in the “I can‟t,” condition there was a significant negative correlation
between BII fear and looking time, but in the “I can,” condition there was no significant correlation
These results suggest that spoken language affects emotional behavior, and may have higher-order
implications for emotion processing. The implications of these results for a spreading activation
model of affective-behavioral feedback are also discussed.

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                                         Margaret Whitesides

                                Faculty: Huey Copeland and Krista Thompson

      Glenn Ligon’s Neon Works: Race, Visibility and the Visual Construction of Race

Glenn Ligon‟s art centers on the focal point of race and quotation. Known for his text-based
paintings, which quote authors such as Zora Neale Hurston, Frantz Fanon, James Baldwin and
Ralph Ellison, Ligon (American, b. 1960) incorporates text into his work that highlights the racial
dichotomy of black and white. His most recent series of neon, dating from 2005 to present, not only
continue in the vein of his other works, spelling out textual citations, but these pieces also show a
shift in the Ligon‟s discussion of race and the aesthetic construction of race. Through three specific
neon works, Warm Broad Glow (2005), Excerpt (2009), and Rückenfigur (2009), Ligon shifts the
discussion of racial visibility from an intellectual, and socially constructed endeavor to an actual
physical act, by pairing provocative text with a physically bounded manifestation of light. All three
of these pieces address the way in which Ligon examines the act of viewing, and the role of
visualization and visuality within the racializing process. In Excerpt, Ligon appropriates text from a
Bruce Nauman neon work, and gives the black text visual agency in a way it was not allowed in the
original piece. In Warm Broad Glow, the text appropriated describes a glow, a very visual metaphor of
light, to describe a physical, racially defined idea. The final piece discussed, Rückenfigur examines the
act of viewing by approaching the neon text from a different, unorthodox space of visuality. My
research and thesis examine how these three neon works showcase the act of viewing, and the
creation of the visible through a lens of racial (de)construction.


                                             Reed Wilson

                                          Faculty: Henry Binford

                         Top-Down vs. Bottom-up Up Ethnicity:
 Internal Ethno-Cultural Dialogues between the Cajun Community and the Council for the
                     Development of French in Louisiana, 1968-2010

Empowered by the Civil Rights, Feminist, and Gay Liberation movements during the 1960s, ethnic
communities across the United States began to (re)define their ethno-cultural identity throughout
the seventies and eighties. While current scholarship focuses largely on Italian-Americans, Irish-
Americans, and African-Americans, there is little mention of how this formative era influenced the
Cajun communities of southwestern Louisiana. This thesis constitutes the first in-depth look at how
the Cajun community took part in this period of intensified ethnic identity formation. More
specifically, it examines how a Louisiana state agency—the Council on the Development of French
in Louisiana (CODOFIL)—influenced this process of Cajun ethnic identity formation. Drawing
mainly from the CODOFIL archives, this thesis connects a microcosmic phenomenon—the
insertion of a state-sponsored entity into the Cajun ethno-cultural landscape—with a macrocosmic
process—the on-going ethnic revival. Ultimately, while other ethnic communities may have been
defined by an internal-external, “us versus them” dichotomy, the Cajun process of ethnic identity
formation was an almost entirely internal, “us versus us,” debate. Because of such factors as their
localized geographical position and stratified internal class structure, the interactions that took place
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in Louisiana during the seventies and eighties were most often one Cajun viewpoint versus another,
rather than Cajuns versus outsiders. It was precisely this kind of intra-ethnic dialogue that directly
shaped the inherent complexity of the Cajun ethno-cultural identity of today.


                                            Emily Wright

                                         Faculty: Timothy Earle

                     Cultivating Community: Urban Gardens in Chicago’s
                                Humboldt Park Neighborhood

Digging in the dirt, nurturing plants, and enjoying fresh air—these are basic experiences that people
share in urban gardens. During these activities, gardeners can interact with each other on a more
fundamental level than they would in their everyday lives when their social positions inform their
relations. Such basic shared experiences are the food that nourishes the social ties and relationships
crucial to building community. The fenced boundary of an urban garden, however, cannot
completely isolate the space from the city landscape. Rather, the context of the surrounding
neighborhood inevitably affects how the gardeners construct and interact within the garden space.
As a result, the construction of physical and symbolic space may hinder the garden‟s capacity to
build community. This study examines five urban gardens in Chicago‟s Humboldt Park
neighborhood as physical and symbolic spaces within the social, economic, and political landscape
of the neighborhood and the city at large. Through interviews and participant-observation, I explore
how Humboldt Park gardeners construct the space of the gardens with the intentions of building the
„community.‟ Their actions, influenced by their place within the social structure of the
neighborhood, construct the gardens in ways that either reinforce or erode preexisting divisions
among neighborhood residents. Humboldt Park, the heart of Chicago‟s Puerto Rican community
and a gentrifying area, provides a highly contested context in which to study the relations between
people of different race, class, and age within the shared space of the urban garden.


                                               Lu Yao

                                         Faculty: Robert Martin

             Can Island Dwarfism Explain the Tiny Brain of the Flores Hominid?

The Late Pleistocene LB1 hominin specimen known as Homo floresiensis differs from other
contemporary Homo species in South-East Asia (H. erectus, H. sapiens) in its comparatively short
stature and remarkably small endocranial volume relative to other members of the genus. The
proposed explanation invoked to account for these unique characteristics is the “Island Rule”,
according to which large mammals evolve to become smaller on islands to reduce resource needs.
However, the Island Rule as originally formulated applied only to body size. Since the Flores
hominid was discovered, several scientists have sought examples of brain size reduction amongst
island species and even mainland species, but the assumptions and analyses in their studies are
questionable. To determine whether island dwarfism applies to brain size as well as body size,
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volumetric and linear measurements were collected on museum skulls of pigs (Suidae, n=64), deer
(Cervidae, n=67), and gibbons (Hylobatidae, n= 100), three of the most prevalent mammals endemic
to South-East Asian islands and mainland areas. Scaling analysis of endocranial volume relative to
body size reveals no difference between island-living mammals and mainland relatives. Island
samples of adult deer and gibbons do not display significant dwarfing in relative brain size (p>.05).
Adult pigs display a dwarfing effect in brain size (p<.001), but this is most likely influenced by
extreme sexual dimorphism since the dwarfing effects are no longer significant when the analyses are
separated by sex. Contrary to expectation, island dwarfing was absent even in body size of deer, pigs
and gibbons. Thus, these results suggest that island dwarfism does not apply as a general principle to
all mammals living in similar environments as H. floresiensis. These findings cast doubt on island
dwarfism as an explanation for the tiny brain size of H. floreseiensis, and even its applicability to body
size is in doubt.


                                             Eman Yousif

                                           Faculty: Weiming Yu

                Calcium Dynamics in Neurons Using Two-Photon Fluorescence
                              Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

Calcium is an important signaling molecule involved in many cellular events essential to cell function
and survival. Calcium dysregulation is intimately associated with neuron injury and
neurodegenerative disease. Quantitative assessment of intracellular calcium concentration is critical
for the understanding of calcium signaling processes. To study calcium dynamics in cells using
fluorescence microscopy, it is typically necessary to perform in-situ calibration using traditional
techniques due to the different sensitivity of calcium probes to local environment. The in-situ
calibration procedures can be difficult and sometimes impossible to perform which is a limitation of
traditional calcium imaging methods. We have applied a recently developed FastFLIM technique
combined with a two-photon microscope to quantify calcium that drastically simplified the
procedures of in-situ calibrations. Using this technique, the measurement of Ca2+ is done by
collecting fluorescence decay time information at each pixel with a two-photon fluorescence lifetime
imaging microscope (FLIM). Calcium concentrations in the cell are represented by the Phasor plot, a
histogram containing clustered pixels with unique modulation and phase values plotted in their sine
and cosine components. By analyzing the positions and values of the clustered phasors on the
Phasor plot, we are able to determine intracellular calcium concentrations directly without
performing the traditional in-situ calibration procedures. By using this new approach, we have
performed calcium imaging using cultured hippocampal neurons and spinal cord motor neuron
tissues. The results and advantages of the two-photon FastFLIM approach are further discussed.

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                                         Brandon Zaharoff

                                          Faculty: Robert Coen

                       US-China Trade: A Vector Error Correction Model

This paper uses vector error correction analysis in addition to standard regression analysis to study
the long-run relationship of the US-China trade balance as well as exchange rates, relative prices, and
real gross domestic product of China, the US, and OECDX (OECD excluding the US). The results
indicate that an RMB appreciation would have a significant long-term effect on the real GDPs of the
US, OECDX, and China as well as the US-OECDX real exchange rate and the US-China trade
balance. There is also clear evidence for the J-curve effect and that the Marshall-Lerner condition is
met for the US-China trade relationship. This study also highlights the evolution of Chinese trade
policy over this time period and the implications of an appreciation on firms in both China and the
US. Overall, the study suggests that a RMB appreciation would have a positive effect on the US-
China trade balance and US and OECDX real GDP but a large negative effect on China‟s real GDP.
Still, an appreciation may be beneficial for China insofar as it increases the government‟s ability to
tackle inflation and asset price bubbles. The RMB appreciation would also have the effect of
decreasing the cost of foreign goods and inputs in production to Chinese consumers and producers,
respectively. If this effect was large enough, it would cause the shift to an economy based more
upon domestic demand and less on exports in China. This would make it less vulnerable to
economic shocks in the rest of the world and sustain their growth regardless of the troubles of the
United States.


                                          Matthew Zellner

                                       Faculty: J. Peter Rosenfeld

  The Power of Lies? The Effect of Deception on P300 in the Concealed Information Test

The P300 brainwave response has been used in deception detection for over two decades. P300, a
brainwave response to rare or personally meaningful stimuli, is used with the concealed information
test (CIT), a deception detection paradigm originally developed for use with polygraphs, to identify
concealed information. Although the P300 CIT is not a "lie detector," many of the field applications
of the test involve some level of deception not present in laboratory conditions. As the need to lie
about certain stimuli should increase their significance, it is hypothesized that if subjects are made
aware of their deception, then they should exhibit stronger P300 responses. Previous studies on the
effectiveness of P300 based testing have not thoroughly examined the effect of deception on the
test. In this study, a sample of students connected to an EEG was divided into two groups and
shown a list of cities, one of which was their hometown. They were told to press "yes" to a target
city and "no" to all of the rest. The concealment group was told that by pressing "no" to their
hometown they would be saying they did not recognize it, while it was stressed to the deception
group that they would be lying. Throughout the experiment, feedback was provided that either
indicated that a group was making mistakes or was lying. The results of the study provide further
understanding of the neural basis of deception as well as the ability to simulate real-world deception
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 74


                                       Aleksandr Zhukhovitskiy

                                         Faculty: SonBinh Nguyen

 Synthesis and Characterization of Porous Organic Polymers with Tunable Nucleophilicity
                          and Pore Width for CO2 Sequestration

Porous materials have attracted a lot of attention due to their potential applications in gas
separation, sequestration, heterogeneous catalysis, solar energy harvesting, and sensing. Control of
functionality in materials is critical for all of these applications - in particular, for capture of carbon
dioxide (CO2) accumulating in the atmosphere and affecting climate change. Because CO2 is an
electrophilic molecule, porous materials should have complementary nucleophilic functionalities to
adsorb CO2 strongly and with high selectivity. Additionally, to function as CO2 adsorbents in such
settings as power plants, these materials must be stable to moisture and heat. Lastly, these materials
should be constructed from inexpensive building blocks. Of the various classes of known materials,
porous organic polymers (POPs) are most attractive for CO2 capture applications: the gamut of
organic synthetic transformations allows exquisite, rational control of functionality in POPs; organic
materials are typically hydrothermally stable; and many inexpensive organic starting materials are
available for the construction of POPs. Accordingly, the present study explores the design, synthesis,
and structural characterization of POPs with embedded nucleophilic nitrogen- and phosphorus-
containing functional groups, expected to have a strong affinity for CO2. This study also examines
gas adsorption properties of the new materials as a function of functional group and building block
geometry. Of the new materials that have been synthesized, the one with phosphine oxide
functionalities displays particularly high affinity for CO2 at 273 K relative to N2 at 77 K, and
therefore offers much promise for the CO2 capture applications.
                                                                 Undergraduate Research Symposium, 75

     Guide to Undergraduate Research Programs
                         at Northwestern University
This year the Office of the Provost launched a new, comprehensive undergraduate research web
site, offering everything from information for students new to research, guides to research
opportunities, advice on applying for research funding and more. This summer we are expanding the
site to include a searchable database of undergraduate research opportunities across campus. Below
is a partial listing of current Northwestern programs supporting independent undergraduate research
and creative projects; more are available on the UR@NU web site. Many departments and programs
may also have other opportunities that are not widely advertised. External agencies also fund a
number of programs, such as the National Science Foundation or the Fulbright IIE government
grants. The Office of Fellowships (www.northwestern.edu/fellowships) can help students identify
these external opportunities.

          UR@NU-Undergraduate Research at Northwestern University

                       Office of the Provost Sponsored Programs
                          Undergraduate Research Grants (URG)
                                  Conference Travel Grants
                              Undergraduate Language Grants
                           Circumnavigators Travel-Study Grant
                            Undergraduate Engagement Grants
                        Undergraduate Research Assistant Program

                            Other University-Wide Programs
              Residential College Fellow Research Assistance Program (FARA):
                         Nancy Anderson (n-anderson@northwestern.edu)
          Institute for Policy Research: www.northwestern.edu/ipr/ugradresearch.html
           Center for Global Engagement: www.bcics.northwestern.edu/grants/cge/
                         Office of International Program Development

                         Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences
          WCAS Awards: www.weinberg.northwestern.edu/advising/honors/funding/
   African Studies: www.northwestern.edu/african-studies/undergraduate-studies/awards.html
             Anthropology: www.anthropology.northwestern.edu/about/labs.html
   Astrophysics: ciera.northwestern.edu/Research/undergraduate_research_opportunities.php
Undergraduate Research Symposium, 76

      Guide to Undergraduate Research Programs
                     at Northwestern University, continued
          Biochemistry-Morimoto Laboratory Undergraduate Research Seminars:
        Biological Sciences: www.biosci.northwestern.edu/undergraduate/research.html
              Chemistry: www.clp.northwestern.edu/education/student-programs
              Chicago Field Studies Program: www.wcas.northwestern.edu/cfs/
                History: Leopold Fellows of the Center for Historical Studies:
 Latin American and Caribbean Studies: www.wcas.northwestern.edu/lacs/grants/udggp.html
           Mathematics: www.math.northwestern.edu/undergraduate/summer.html
           Physics and Astronomy: wildcat.phys.northwestern.edu/ugresearch.html
         Political Science: www.polisci.northwestern.edu/undergraduate/ginsberg.html
 Psychology: www.wcas.northwestern.edu/psych/undergraduate_studies/research_opportunities/

                                   School of Communications
                Film & Theatre Projects: Rick Morris (r-morris@northwestern.edu)
                      Undergraduate Research Grants and Fellowships:
                           Jane Rankin (j-rankin@northwestern.edu)

                           School for Education and Social Policy
          Research in SESP: www.sesp.northwestern.edu/ugrad/opportunities/research/

               McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
       McCormickOpportunities: www.mccormick.northwestern.edu/undergraduates/
  Biomedical Engineering: www.bme.northwestern.edu/current/undergraduate/research.html
                          Chemical & Biological Engineering:
                     Electrical Engineering and Computer Science:
                  Materials Research Science and Engineering Center:
  McCormick Office of Corporate Relations, Corporate Partner Undergraduate Research
               Grants: www.industry.northwestern.edu/students/research.php
     Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center: www.nsec.northwestern.edu/REU.htm

                                  Medill School of Journalism
                     Eric Lund Global Reporting and Research Fund:
                                                                 Undergraduate Research Symposium, 77

                       The Afterlife of Research
The most important step in research, and often the most over-looked for undergraduate researchers,
is sharing the research findings. This final step allows for the vital process of peer review and
contributes to the ongoing development of our knowledge about the world. Moreover, research is a
cumulative process that grows from one project to another. Another aspect of the afterlife of your
research is how you transform it into new and related projects. Below are some examples of
programs that have been developed at both Northwestern and nationally to help undergraduate
researchers participate in and learn from the final step in the research process.

                                    Present Your Research

               Northwestern’s Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium:

             Chicago Area Undergraduate Research Symposium: www.caurs.com

 Academic Conferences: consult with your advisor for major conferences in your field and apply
                for funding through the Conference Travel Grant program:

                                    Publish Your Research

         Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal: www.northwestern-urj.org/

                Nanoscape (Journal of Undergraduate Research in Nanoscience):

  Directory of Undergraduate Research Journals (UNC Office for Undergraduate Research):

                                   Transform Your Research

   Apply for National & International Research Grants: www.northwestern.edu/fellowships

  Apply for Graduate School: consult with your advisor for the best programs in your field and
    apply for funding through the Office of Fellowships: www.northwestern.edu/fellowships

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