Visitation NM

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					         Visits:
Planned, Purposeful and
       Progressive
      Rose Wentz
   rosewentz@comcast.net
       206 323-4394
Definition of Visits
 All types of visits (birth parents, siblings,
  extended families, even pets)
 All types of contact (face to face, phone,
  letters) and all levels of supervision
     Unsupervised
     Observed/Monitored
     Supervised
     Therapeutic
Federal Laws
   Adoption and Safe Families Act
     Visitsare an indicator that the ASFA reviews
      have shown to improve the outcomes for
      children
        Permanency
        Safety

        Well-Being

   Visits has been legally defined to be
    required to meet Reasonable/Active
    Efforts through appellate court decisions
The primary purpose of Visits are?

A.   To assess a parent’s ability to safely
     parent their child;
B.   To meet the child’s developmental needs;
C.   To be an incentive to encourage the
     parent to attend treatment;
D.   To determine the final permanency plan.
Goal of Visits
 The visit allows the child to be safe and
  that it is held in the most natural and
  home-like location possible.
 Children and parents may feel discomfort
  before, during or after a visit. A child should not
  be traumatized by visits.
 In some cases “visits” that do
 not require face to face contact
 may be necessary to ensure
 the child’s safety.
Children are more resilient
when they have multiple
healthy connections.
Resiliency is the key to
surviving trauma.
Research
   Visits are associated with shorter placements
    and higher rates of reunification
   Worker contact with parents increases their
    participation in visits
   Worker encouragement of parent and non-office
    locations increase parental attendance
   Child’s reactions are the NORM
   Regularly scheduled visits increase parental
    attendance
Research
 Visits cause parents, caregivers and
  workers to face their issues and thereby
  adults often have reactions to visits
 Be sure adult reactions/conflicts do not
  interfere with visits
 It is rare that having NO contact with a
  parent is in the best interest of a child
 Children will have contact with parents
  even after adoption or years of separation
Best Practice Standards
   Written – case records and court orders
   Include all parties in the planning
   Make the visit as normal as possible
   Consistency in location, time, place, people involved
   Within 48 hours of initial placement
   Phone call shortly after initial removal
   Homelike location
   At least weekly
   At least one hour in length
   Overnight visits before returning a child home
   Sibling visits must occur regularly if not living together
   Caseworker observers at least one visit each month
Four Steps to Developing a
Planned, Purposeful and Progressive
Visitation Plan
1.       Child Development and Parenting Skills
2.       Type of Abuse or Abuse
     •     Level of Supervision
3.       Time in Care (Concurrent Planning)
     1. Initial Placement
     2. Reasonable Efforts
     3. Final Permanency Decision
     4. Post Permanency
4.       Other Factors
           Child Development
                Step One
• The FIRST and PRIMARY purpose is to meet the
  child’s needs.
• Children have many different types of
  developmental needs: educational, emotional,
  medical, moral, social and cultural.
• If meeting the needs of the adults is in conflict
  always use the child’s need to determine your plan.
• Over 50% of children in foster care have
  developmental delays.
• The goal is to help a child move towards the next
  developmental milestones.
• All children are initially traumatized by the
  separation from his/her parent. Visits should help a
  child handle the trauma and catch up on delays.
Frequency, Activities, Locations,
     and Items for a visit
                                      From the
• How frequently should a child of child’s
  this age visit with his/her parent?
                                      perspective
• List the activities that can occur
  that will enhance parent/child
  attachment
• List the locations that the visits
  can occur. What location would
  be best?
• List activities that can occur when
  face to face visits are not possible
• List things the child may want to
  bring or have at a visit
  (transitional object)
       Child Development - Infancy
Trust vs. Mistrust Stage

   Do not understand change
   Attachment is critical
   Communication limited
   Interferes with development
   Adults must cope for child
   Separation is immediate and
    permanent
     Child Development - Toddler
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
  Stage
 Regression and Fear
 They control the world
 Forms attachments to others
 Adults must cope for the child
 May see foster care as punishment
 Must be helped to learn new home
 Days = permanency
    Child Development - Preschooler
Identify and Power Stage
   Magical thinking
   Does not understand cause
    and effect
   Forms attachments to adults
    and other children
   Needs help coping
   Self blame – Acting Out Fears
   Weeks = permanency
    Child Development – School Age
Industry versus
  Inferiority Stage
    A concrete world
   Months are permanent
   Self esteem tied to
    family
   Foster child is “different”
   Compare parents
   Friends are important
   Perception may be
    distorted
   Needs to know “rules”
    Child Development - Adolescent
Identify versus Identify
  Diffusion Stage
   Adult understanding
   Decision making
   Adults as role models
   Emotional and body changes
   Moral development
   Future, emancipation
   Ambivalence about family
   Help with conflicts
           Attachment and Bonds
   Secure attachment: an exclusive attachment made between children
    and their contingent, sensitive caregivers, who provide nurture,
    comfort, buffering, shared exploration, and help. Parents represent a
    secure base for exploration.
   Examples of secure attachment from a child’s point of view are:
         • My parents come back. They are reliable.
         • I can depend on my parents and people whom they entrust to educate and
           spend time with me.
         • I want to please my parents most of the time.
         • I am rewarded for being competent, for my curiosity, and for my positive
           states.
         • I can get help with psychologically overwhelming events and feelings.
         • Parents teach me how to cope with problems and to solve them.
         • Intimacy is enjoyable.
   Bonds: Close relationships which tend to be formed with teachers,
    friends, and others who have shared experiences and emotions.

(Gray, 2007)
        Attachment and Bonding
Arousal
Relaxation
                              Child feels
Cycle
                              discomfort




             Child feels                     Child expresses
             comfortable                     discomfort



                           Parent comforts
                           child (need is
                           met)
Ways to Encourage Attachment
   Responding to Arousal/Relaxation Cycle
       Using child’s tantrum to encourage attachment
       Responding to child when he is physically ill
       Helping child express and cope with feelings
       Share child’s excitement about her achievement
   Initiating Positive Interaction
       Making affectionate overtures; hugs, kisses, physical closeness
       Reading and playing games with the child
       Helping child with homework
       Going to fun events together
       Saying, “I love you”
       Teaching the child about extended family and culture
   Claiming Behaviors
       Encouraging the child to call parents “mom” and “dad”
       Hanging pictures of child in the house
       Including child in family rituals
       Buying clothes
       Involving in religious or rite of passage events
       Children’s Reaction to
           Grief and Loss
 Separation  is always traumatic
 Child’s reaction will vary according to her
  current attachments
 Uncertainty hampers a child’s ability to
  cope
 Children who are in trauma stop or regress
  on their developmental tasks
 There are no set patterns of reactions
 Yearning is a dominate characteristic
     Stages of Grief and Loss
 Shock
 Denial
 Anger
 Protest
 Bargaining
 Depression
 Resolution
Elements of a Visitation Plan
Purpose
Frequency
Length
Location
Who attends
Activities
Supervision
Responsibilities
What to have at the visits
                                               Impact of Separation Chart
    Issue                       Implications                              Visit planning strategies


        The child will             The child may talk about what the       Let the parent know that this is normal.
S       compare one parent
        to another.
                                    “other” parent does or does not do.      Let the child talk about without assuming that he prefers
                                                                              one person over the other.
                                                                          
C                                                                         
                                                                              Never talk negatively about the other parent/caregiver.
                                                                              Don’t push a child to provide information about the other
                                                                              parent(s).
H       The child can              Child will call caregivers mom and      Allow the child to determine what names/titles are used;
        develop new                 dad.                                      what to call foster parents, step-parents, other children in
O       attachments and
        turn to adults to
                                    If given permission, the child may
                                    be able to establish relationships    
                                                                              the home, etc.
                                                                              Prepare the parent for this normal reaction and that this

O       meet his/her needs.         with caregivers without feeling
                                    disloyal to own parents.              
                                                                              shows that the child is healthy and normal.
                                                                              Adults should give positive support of each other’s role.
                                    Child may bond with other children       Disagreements should be handled without placing the
L                                   she who are a part of the new
                                    family.                               
                                                                              child in the middle.
                                                                               Keep child in contact with caregivers and others in the
                                                                              home when the child moves to another home.
       Child will have             Anger, sometimes quite intense, is      Allow the child ways to express her emotions in a safe
        intense emotions            expressed as both an honest               manner.
        and may not know            reaction to what is happening to         Let her know it is OK to have these emotions.
        how to handle them.         him/her and as an externalizing          Parent should admit to things he/she did that lead to the
A                                   attempt to cope with his/her pain,
                                    sadness, and helplessness.
                                                                              child having these feelings. Do not be defensive or tell
                                                                              child not to feel that way.

G      The loss of siblings,
        peer group and
                                    Making new friends may be
                                    difficult.
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               When possible allow the child to attend the same school.
                                                                               If not possible, ensure the child can maintain contact with
        friends may be              The child may be embarrassed             friends.
E       almost as traumatic
        as the loss of
                                    and self-conscious about “foster
                                    child” status.
                                                                              Encourage the child to make friends but acknowledge to
                                                                              the child that it is normal to be afraid that this may cause
        parents.                    Children who lose too many               more lose.
                                    relationships may refuse to form          Have the child get involved in activities and hobbies.
                                    new friendships.                          Parents and caregivers work to maintain these
                                   Keep siblings together whenever           connections.
                                    possible.                                 Have the child develop a scrapbook to save pictures,
                                     Developing a Visitation Plan
                        Child Development/   Type of Abuse   Time in Care   Other Factors   Othe
                        Parenting skills


Purpose



Frequency
Length


Location



Activities



Supervision level



Who attends



Responsibilities
What to have at visit


Documentation
                        Child Development/                  TYPE OF   TIME IN CARE   Other Factors
                        Parenting skills
                        INFANTS                             ABUSE

Purpose                 Meet child’s
                        developmental needs
                        and maintain
                        connections
Frequency               2 to 5 per week
                        Long enough for parent to feed,
Length                  change diapers, play – 60
                        minutes minimum
                        Meets child schedule

Location                Home or homelike environment        .
                        Allows for caring of baby
                        Have items that calms baby;
                        blanket, pacifier, toy
                        Community, doctor appts.

Activities              Parent meets child’s needs;
                        crying, eating, sleeping
                        Play on floor or eye level
                        Music, read book, talk to baby
                        Bonding activities

Supervision level       Lack of communication and self
                        protection means that
                        supervision level should be
                        higher than same situation with
                        older children.

Who attends             Birth parents & siblings together
                        or separate,
                        Other key people with emotional
                        attachment

Responsibilities        Bring food, toys, diapers and       .
                        comfort items.
What to have at visit   Have adult who child feels safe
                        with (could be foster parent)
                        help with all transitions.

Documentation           Normal documentation
                        Do not allow parents to talk to
                        supervisor of visit during the
                        visit – focus on the baby
Progressive Visitation
   Visits usually start as supervised visits with many restrictions on
    location, activities, etc.
   When the parent and child are successfully interacting during
    visits, the plan should allow for ONE element to be changed at a
    time. Example: Lengthen the visit or change the location of the
    visit. Do not change both at the same time.
   The goal is to slowly increase the parent’s responsibility and
    move towards unsupervised visits in the parent’s home while
    safely testing the parent’s ability.
   One change allows for accurate assessment of success or
    failure. The goal is to always have a safe and successful visit
    for the child.
   When there is a failure or repeated problems go back to the last
    success visit plan and determine what will make the visit more
    successful. Try to only change one element at a time even when
    there has been a problem.
Reward and Punishment
 Visits are NEVER to be used as a reward or punishment
  for the parent or the child.
    Research shows that doing this does not lead to parents
     attending treatment.
    Children will get the message that relationships are based on
     having good behaviors and thereby are conditional.
 This includes things like:
    If you are clean and sober (pass UA) then you get to have a visit.
    If you follow the rules of the house you get to have a visit.
    When you complete your treatment you will get to have more
     visits.
    If you make your husband move out of the house then you can
     have unsupervised visits.
 Visitation plans are based on behaviors AT the visit!
Roles and Responsibilities

BIRTH PARENT                  Back of
SOCIAL WORKER - person        Visitation
                               Plan Matrix
 responsible to develop plan
CAREGIVER OF CHILD
                               TIMES
CHILD/YOUTH
SUPERVISOR OF VISIT           Before
TRANSPORTER                   During
                               After
CherRita
Listen to her experience as it relates to her
 having visits and contact with her family.
What could have been done to make her
 experience better and to maintain her
 connections with her birth family?
    Types of Abuse – Step Two
                                                 Pages 18


   The second purpose of visits is to provide the
    parents with an opportunity to learn new
    parenting skills or demonstrate safe parenting
    skills. – REASONABLE/ACTIVE EFFORTS
    Legal requirements
   Skills can be taught during visits or be learned
    from service providers, family or community.
   Visits are one of the few ways of assessing the
    parent’s FUTURE protective capacities.
   The case plan must state the minimum
    sufficient level of care.
Levels of Supervision – all cases
    A continuum to ensure safety while allowing the
       most normal family interactions possible.

    FACTORS IN MAKING THE DECISION
      Age of child (ability of the child to self protect)
      Type of abuse that the child experienced
      Parent’s history of family violence
      Potential for abduction of the child
      Emotional reactions of the child
      Where the visit will occur
      Who will be at the visit
      Progress parent is making to improve parenting skills
      Parental issues such as addiction and mental illness

    Have agreed upon community Definitions for the levels of
       supervision.
Therapeutic Visits

 Professional conducts visit to address
    clinical needs
     Sex abuse and extreme forms of
       other abuse
     Parent who is rejecting the child
     Child who has extreme fear of
       parent
     Teaching medical or therapeutic
       care of child
Supervised Visits
Trained person is within sight and
  sound of child

If the parent is:
 Abusive during visits
 Inappropriate behaviors by parent
 Parent who has not started treatment
When child is:
 Afraid of parent
    Observed Visits
An objective party is involved or
  location provides protection
   Parent is in treatment but has
     not completed his/her
     program
   Child expressing discomfort
     about being left alone
   Parent had consistently meet
     standards during supervised
     visits
Unsupervised Visits
 No or limited controls needed
     Parent has consistently meet
       standards during observed visits
     Parent has made progress in
       treatment program and/or has a
       safety plan
     Child has a safety plan
     Unplanned drop-ins might occur
Purpose      Child Development/              Type of Abuse                           Time in Care                    Other Factors                    Other Factors
             Parenting skills                NEGLECT                                REASONABLE                     FAMILY CULTURE                   DRUG ADDICTION
             INFANTS                                                                  EFFORTS
                                                                                  1 TO 12 MONTHS*
Frequency    Meet child’s                    Assess, observe and                Teach parenting skills           Maintain and                      Protect child from
Length       developmental needs             teach safe parenting               and observe improved             strengthen child’s                inappropriate or
             and maintain                    skills                             parenting                        connection with                   unsafe parenting
             connections                                                                                         culture, tradition and
                                                                                                                 religion
Location     2 to 5 per week                 Long enough to practice            At least once a week             If child does not have contact    As soon as possible – do n
             Long enough for parent to       parenting skills, usually this     At least one hour                with cultural community           wait until parent is in
             feed, change diapers, play –    will take more than 1 hour         Increasing in length and         through parent visits or          treatment to begin visits.
             60 minutes minimum              Increase time with increased       frequency as family gets         caregiver this type of “visit”    At time of day parent is lea
             Meets child schedule            skills of parents                  closer to reunification          should be added to case plan      likely to be intoxicated.

Activities   Home or homelike                Optimal: In parent’s home          Birth family home whenever       In family or relative’s home      Neutral location where dru
             environment                     unless the location is unsafe.     possible or home of relative     In community locations with       would not be available – a
             Allows for caring of baby       Home like environment;             and foster parents               cultural significance             homelike as possible
             Have items that calms baby;     foster or relative home,           Community locations              In language of the family
             blanket, pacifier, toy          home-center                        Agency office least desirable
             Community, doctor appts.

Supervi-     Parent meets child’s needs;     Practice the skills that lead to   Modeling/teaching of             Sharing family history, stories   Bonding and attachment
             crying, eating, sleeping        neglect; feeding, supervision,     parenting skills                 Teaching family traditions;       activities especially for you
sion level   Play on floor or eye level      preparing for school,              Reactions to visits should be    holidays, cooking, games,         children.
             Music, read book, talk to       Learn to understand child’s        decreasing                       hobbies                           Later activities that maybe
             baby                            needs and feelings                                                  Religious events and learning     triggers for parent.
             Bonding activities

Who          Lack of communication and       Depends on level of neglect.       Decreasing level of              Use family and people the         Therapeutic or supervision
             self protection means that      Severe neglect requires high       supervision as parenting         family knows whenever             until treatment counselor
attends      supervision level should be     level of supervision until         skills increase, level may       possible to supervise visits      approves
             higher than same situation      parent demonstrates                vary depending on who            and teach parenting skills,       UA does NOT indicate the
             with older children.            improved skills                    attends                          that person can speak the         level of safety or whether a
                                             Usually monitoring is enough                                        family’s language                 visit should occur

Responsib    Birth parents & siblings        Birth parent(s) or others in       All the people the child would   Parents, siblings, extended       Non-addicted parent can b
             together or separate,           caregiver role, siblings           live with if reunification       family, fictive kin, anyone the   observer of visit if he/she
ilities      Other key people with           Later include entire family        occurs.                          family identifies as important    shows ability to make safe
What to      emotional attachment            doing normal family activities     Sibling even if the child will   in the child’s life               decisions
have at                                                                         not live with him/her,                                             Have a safety plan
                                                                                extended family
visit                                                                           Non-custodial parents

Document     Bring food, toys, diapers and   Bring items to practice            Social worker should observe     Bring information, pictures,      No drugs or alcohol
             comfort items.                  parenting skills; cooking,         visit at least once every 2      reading materials, and other      Set clear rules and enforce
ation        Have adult who child feels      homework, toys, bathing,           months                           items to teach family culture     them – Relapse plan
    Initial Placement
    First Day to 30 days in care
   Do a visit ASAP no later than 48 hours
   Placement should not feel like a punishment
   Expect reactions
   Confirm that each other is OK
   Bring child’s belongings
   Supervised
   In family home
   Do not forget fathers, siblings, and others child
    have an emotional attachment
    Reasonable Efforts
    2 months to 12 months
   Child placed with Resource Family –
    relationship between families
   Teaching and demonstrating parenting skills –
    based on type of abuse
   Decreasing supervision
   Increasing length and parenting responsibility
   Behavior/reactions should be decreasing
   Change ONE item at a time
   Observation and feedback from Social Worker
    – 2X monthly
Final Permanency Decision
12 to 15 months
   Overnight if reunification
   Limiting if adoption/guardianship
   Connections NEVER stop
   Reactions to permanent plan may occur
   Relationship between families so connections
    can continue
   Prepare child if he must say “Good-bye”
   Maintain connections with siblings, friends,
    school, ethnic group, religion
    Post Permanency
    From PP through Life
   Child want us to help them maintain
    connections
   Children will look for lost family - and often
    move in
   Siblings is most critical group
   Right to know family and history
   Help the adults handle their
    uncomfortableness
   Life books
   Complete information in case record and with
    child’s legal family
Purpose      Child Development/              Type of Abuse                           Time in Care                    Other Factors                    Other Factors
             Parenting skills                NEGLECT                                REASONABLE                     FAMILY CULTURE                   DRUG ADDICTION
             INFANTS                                                                  EFFORTS
                                                                                  1 TO 12 MONTHS*
Frequency    Meet child’s                    Assess, observe and                Teach parenting skills           Maintain and                      Protect child from
Length       developmental needs             teach safe parenting               and observe improved             strengthen child’s                inappropriate or
             and maintain                    skills                             parenting                        connection with                   unsafe parenting
             connections                                                                                         culture, tradition and
                                                                                                                 religion
Location     2 to 5 per week                 Long enough to practice            At least once a week             If child does not have contact    As soon as possible – do n
             Long enough for parent to       parenting skills, usually this     At least one hour                with cultural community           wait until parent is in
             feed, change diapers, play –    will take more than 1 hour         Increasing in length and         through parent visits or          treatment to begin visits.
             60 minutes minimum              Increase time with increased       frequency as family gets         caregiver this type of “visit”    At time of day parent is lea
             Meets child schedule            skills of parents                  closer to reunification          should be added to case plan      likely to be intoxicated.

Activities   Home or homelike                Optimal: In parent’s home          Birth family home whenever       In family or relative’s home      Neutral location where dru
             environment                     unless the location is unsafe.     possible or home of relative     In community locations with       would not be available – a
             Allows for caring of baby       Home like environment;             and foster parents               cultural significance             homelike as possible
             Have items that calms baby;     foster or relative home,           Community locations              In language of the family
             blanket, pacifier, toy          home-center                        Agency office least desirable
             Community, doctor appts.

Supervi-     Parent meets child’s needs;     Practice the skills that lead to   Modeling/teaching of             Sharing family history, stories   Bonding and attachment
             crying, eating, sleeping        neglect; feeding, supervision,     parenting skills                 Teaching family traditions;       activities especially for you
sion level   Play on floor or eye level      preparing for school,              Reactions to visits should be    holidays, cooking, games,         children.
             Music, read book, talk to       Learn to understand child’s        decreasing                       hobbies                           Later activities that maybe
             baby                            needs and feelings                                                  Religious events and learning     triggers for parent.
             Bonding activities

Who          Lack of communication and       Depends on level of neglect.       Decreasing level of              Use family and people the         Therapeutic or supervision
             self protection means that      Severe neglect requires high       supervision as parenting         family knows whenever             until treatment counselor
attends      supervision level should be     level of supervision until         skills increase, level may       possible to supervise visits      approves
             higher than same situation      parent demonstrates                vary depending on who            and teach parenting skills,       UA does NOT indicate the
             with older children.            improved skills                    attends                          that person can speak the         level of safety or whether a
                                             Usually monitoring is enough                                        family’s language                 visit should occur

Responsib    Birth parents & siblings        Birth parent(s) or others in       All the people the child would   Parents, siblings, extended       Non-addicted parent can b
             together or separate,           caregiver role, siblings           live with if reunification       family, fictive kin, anyone the   observer of visit if he/she
ilities      Other key people with           Later include entire family        occurs.                          family identifies as important    shows ability to make safe
What to      emotional attachment            doing normal family activities     Sibling even if the child will   in the child’s life               decisions
have at                                                                         not live with him/her,                                             Have a safety plan
                                                                                extended family
visit                                                                           Non-custodial parents

Document     Bring food, toys, diapers and   Bring items to practice            Social worker should observe     Bring information, pictures,      No drugs or alcohol
             comfort items.                  parenting skills; cooking,         visit at least once every 2      reading materials, and other      Set clear rules and enforce
ation        Have adult who child feels      homework, toys, bathing,           months                           items to teach family culture     them – Relapse plan
Culturally appropriate visits
   All Families have a culture
   Children cannot be raised in a culturally neutral
    manner
   Ask the family about their culture and family values
   There are many different and successful ways to
    raise a child
   What is something that can be done by
    a parent on a visit to teach a child their
    family’s culture?
Domestic Violence
   Children are impacted by domestic violence even if
    they do not suffer direct physical harm
   Children suffer brain trauma by living in a family that
    has domestic violence
   Professionals must be careful not to blame the
    victim parent or punish the parent for not leaving
    his/her battering partner
   Special safety precautions must be implemented in
    these cases
Children of Incarcerated and
Hospitalized Parents
   These children have the need and right to
    visit their parents.
   Visits should not be limited, restricted or non-
    existent just because of the parent’s living
    situation.
   Children need to maintain and/or resolve their
    relationship with this parent, even if the
    parent will be in prison for years or may never
    be able to care for the child.
How To Have A Safe Visit With
Addicted Parents
       Have a visitation plan that specifically addresses
        what is allowed and not allowed.
           List behaviors that are unsafe or not allowed
           State the process of what will occur if parent violates
            visitation rules
           Safety plan - Have a method for the parent to ask for
            help or ask questions that does not embarrass the
            parent in front of their child. This plan would include:
               resources for the addicted parent to call for help at
                any time,
               resources for an older child to call for help if the
                parent is not providing safe care, and
               family and community members who regularly
                check on the well-being of the parent and child.
ADDICTION
   The level of supervision is related to safety and NOT to
    the progress of drug treatment!
   Parents who are sober and/or have completed drug
    treatment but who cannot maintain safe parenting
    during visits should NOT be allowed to have their visits
    progress towards reunification.
   Recovery can occur without formal addiction
    treatment.
   Parents who have not completed treatment but
    consistently maintain sobriety should not be denied a
    chance to reunify.
Mental Illness

      Work with parent and therapist to
       determine how the parent’s illness might
       impact visits:
          Indicators of problems
          Medication – how it may affect parent
          Treatment plan
          Safety plan for parent and child
      Older child should be informed of illness
Special Needs of Child
   Obtain full evaluation of children
   Work with treatment provider to determine the
    child’s developmental age
   Develop a plan to help the caregivers help the child
    achieve developmental milestones
   Have the parent involved in treatment and decisions
   Use the child’s true developmental age when
    developing the visitation plan
Non-Abusive Parent
   What are your fears about this parent?
   List an issue on a post it note.
   Pass the note to the next table.
   What would you do to address those fears?
Special Needs of Parent
   Work with parent and treatment provider to learn about the
    parent’s ability
   Develop a visitation plan that allows the parent to truly be
    involved
   Ensure that services to the parent will enable him to develop new
    skills (parenting classes in correct language)
   Older children should be informed of their parent’s special need
   Help parent develop a support system that will ensure safe
    parenting if the child is returned
Purpose      Child Development/              Type of Abuse                           Time in Care                    Other Factors                    Other Factors
             Parenting skills                NEGLECT                                REASONABLE                     FAMILY CULTURE                   DRUG ADDICTION
             INFANTS                                                                  EFFORTS
                                                                                  1 TO 12 MONTHS*
Frequency    Meet child’s                    Assess, observe and                Teach parenting skills           Maintain and                      Protect child from
Length       developmental needs             teach safe parenting               and observe improved             strengthen child’s                inappropriate or
             and maintain                    skills                             parenting                        connection with                   unsafe parenting
             connections                                                                                         culture, tradition and
                                                                                                                 religion
Location     2 to 5 per week                 Long enough to practice            At least once a week             If child does not have contact    As soon as possible – do n
             Long enough for parent to       parenting skills, usually this     At least one hour                with cultural community           wait until parent is in
             feed, change diapers, play –    will take more than 1 hour         Increasing in length and         through parent visits or          treatment to begin visits.
             60 minutes minimum              Increase time with increased       frequency as family gets         caregiver this type of “visit”    At time of day parent is lea
             Meets child schedule            skills of parents                  closer to reunification          should be added to case plan      likely to be intoxicated.

Activities   Home or homelike                Optimal: In parent’s home          Birth family home whenever       In family or relative’s home      Neutral location where dru
             environment                     unless the location is unsafe.     possible or home of relative     In community locations with       would not be available – a
             Allows for caring of baby       Home like environment;             and foster parents               cultural significance             homelike as possible
             Have items that calms baby;     foster or relative home,           Community locations              In language of the family
             blanket, pacifier, toy          home-center                        Agency office least desirable
             Community, doctor appts.

Supervi-     Parent meets child’s needs;     Practice the skills that lead to   Modeling/teaching of             Sharing family history, stories   Bonding and attachment
             crying, eating, sleeping        neglect; feeding, supervision,     parenting skills                 Teaching family traditions;       activities especially for you
sion level   Play on floor or eye level      preparing for school,              Reactions to visits should be    holidays, cooking, games,         children.
             Music, read book, talk to       Learn to understand child’s        decreasing                       hobbies                           Later activities that maybe
             baby                            needs and feelings                                                  Religious events and learning     triggers for parent.
             Bonding activities

Who          Lack of communication and       Depends on level of neglect.       Decreasing level of              Use family and people the         Therapeutic or supervision
             self protection means that      Severe neglect requires high       supervision as parenting         family knows whenever             until treatment counselor
attends      supervision level should be     level of supervision until         skills increase, level may       possible to supervise visits      approves
             higher than same situation      parent demonstrates                vary depending on who            and teach parenting skills,       UA does NOT indicate the
             with older children.            improved skills                    attends                          that person can speak the         level of safety or whether a
                                             Usually monitoring is enough                                        family’s language                 visit should occur

Responsib    Birth parents & siblings        Birth parent(s) or others in       All the people the child would   Parents, siblings, extended       Non-addicted parent can b
             together or separate,           caregiver role, siblings           live with if reunification       family, fictive kin, anyone the   observer of visit if he/she
ilities      Other key people with           Later include entire family        occurs.                          family identifies as important    shows ability to make safe
What to      emotional attachment            doing normal family activities     Sibling even if the child will   in the child’s life               decisions
have at                                                                         not live with him/her,                                             Have a safety plan
                                                                                extended family
visit                                                                           Non-custodial parents

Document     Bring food, toys, diapers and   Bring items to practice            Social worker should observe     Bring information, pictures,      No drugs or alcohol
             comfort items.                  parenting skills; cooking,         visit at least once every 2      reading materials, and other      Set clear rules and enforce
ation        Have adult who child feels      homework, toys, bathing,           months                           items to teach family culture     them – Relapse plan
           Evidence Based Practices
 1.   Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)
 2.   The Incredible Years
 3.   Triple P-Positive Parenting Program
 4.   Motivational Interviewing (MI)
 5.   Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
      (TF-CBT)




http://www.cachildwelfareclearing   www.childwelfare.gov
house.org/
        Visitation Resources
• Information Gateway –
  www.childwelfare.gov
• National Resource Center for Family
  Centered Practice and Permanency
  Planning – www.nrcfcppp.org
• CA Clearinghouse on Evidence Based
  Practices
 http://www.cachildwelfareclearinghouse.org/
                 Closing
• Thank you for dedication to children and
  families
• Complete your evaluations


Remember to develop
visitation plans based
on what the child
wants and needs.

				
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