The World of Psychology Seventh Edition Samuel Wood Ellen

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The World of Psychology Seventh Edition Samuel Wood Ellen Powered By Docstoc
					The World of Psychology
                   Seventh Edition
                 Samuel E. Wood,
                Ellen Green Wood,
                      Denise Boyd




   Introduction to Psychology
                    Chapter 1
Watch It!
   Meet Bob Wiley
Match Making
   David, 21yrs, Mechanic,         Dana, 23yrs, Advertising
    Gourmet Food                     Executive, Movies
   Chris, 29yrs, Dog Groomer,      Anita, 35yrs, Lawyer, Roller
    Gardening                        Coasters
   Sandy, 54yrs, Flight            Karen, 18yrs, Sales Clerk,
    Attendant, Hang Gliding          Art Museums
   Jamie, 20yrs, Secretary,        Pat, 56yrs, Pediatrician,
    Football                         Opera
   Tony, 37yrs, College            Rahul, 22yrs, Store
    Professor, Comic Books           Manager, Scuba Diving
Psychologist
Scientist
Definition
   Psychology- the scientific study of behavior
    and mental processes
Goals of Psychology

     Describe
     Explain
     Predict
     Influence behavior and mental processes.
Goals: Description and
Explanation
     Description: Usually the first step in understanding
      behaviors and mental processes.
         What behaviors or mental processes are present and stand
          out as a point of interest?
         Description tells what occurred.
     Explanation:
         Requires an understanding of the conditions under which a
          given behavior or mental process occurs.
         The end result is the ability to state the causes of behaviors
          or mental processes.
         This goal is not reached without much testing, retesting, and
          confirmation (or ruling out other explanations).
         Answers the question, “Why did ____________ happen?”
Goals: Prediction and
Influence
         Prediction
          This happens with the conditions of a behavior or event
           can be stated by a researched before they happen. In
           other words, the likely hood of something taking place.
         Influence:
          Influence is reached with researchers know how to apply a
           principle or change a condition.
          This can prevent unwanted results or bring desired
           outcomes.
The Scientific Method

    Researchers figuring out what they want to know.

   Formal definition: the orderly systematic procedures
    that researches follow as they identify a research
    problem, design a study to investigate a problem,
    collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and
    communicate their findings
The Scientific Method
The Steps
         Step One: Observe and Theorize.
          Researcher observes something and develops a hunch
           about what might have led to it.
         Step Two: Formulate a Hypothesis
          Hypothesis: a prediction that can be tested empirically
           (with data).
         Step Three: Design a Study
          Testing the hypothesis
          Using the same procedures to evaluate subject
          Testing the procedures
The Steps
     Step Four: Collect Data
         Keep track of all information that is relevant to the
          hypothesis.
         Time, Results, Information about the Participants (etc.)
     Step Five: Apply Results to Hypothesis
         Use data to support hypothesis.
         The researcher must repeat the study to see if the findings
          are the same and not a one-time deal.
         This is called replication.
         This process will strengthen or weaken hypothesis.
Two Types of Research that
Helps Psychologists
         Basic Research
          Purpose is to find new knowledge and to explore and to
           advance general understanding.
          Illustration: Memory…wanting to define and know more
           about it, “what is it?”


         Applied Research
          Research that is conducted for the specific purpose of
           solving problems and improving the quality of life.
          Illustration: Memory…wanting to know how to improve
           memory skills, “how would I improve my memory?”
              BREAK
Return to Room at _____pm
Stan Lee Superhumans
   http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-
    superhumans/videos/playlists/full-
    episodes#stan-lees-superhumans-human-
    speed-bump
Small Groups
   Divide into groups and use the scientific
    method to explore these cases.
   Group 1: Human Speed Bump
   Group 2: Human Jukebox
   Group 3: Ultimate Climber
   Group 4: Man Who Feels No Pain
Human Speed Bump. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved
8:49, August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-

superhumans/episodes/episode guide.



     Full Name: Tom Owen
      Hometown: Birmingham, USA
     In 2009 in Milan, nine trucks weighing a total of 30,000 pounds
      ran over American bodybuilder Tom Owen in quick succession, a
      fitting feat for the man known as the "Human Speed Bump."
     Now 63 years old, Tom has dedicated his life to bodybuilding and
      power lifting, but it's the unique strength of his stomach and
      abdominal muscles that may earn him superhuman status.
     Tom can apparently withstand the crushing force of heavyweight
      trucks driving over his stomach. However, this is not without
      serious risk: In the past, Tom has had his leg and ribs broken,
      punctured his lungs and was almost crushed to death when a
      truck remained on his stomach too long.
     Daniel witnesses this amazing spectacle of strength firsthand.
The Human Jukebox. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:51, August 28,
2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-superhumans/bios/meet-the-
superhumans.



   Full Name: Derek Paravicini
    Hometown: London, England
   Derek Paravicini is a blind, autistic, 30-year-old British man with
    an incredible superhuman gift. He can remember and accurately
    replay any song he ever hears.
   When he was a child, Derek became fascinated by sounds and
    began playing every sound he heard as a musical note. Unable
    to read Braille, Derek started to learn music by treating it like a
    vocabulary.
   Derek is known as a savant, one of just a few known cases in the
    world. This means that his brain seems unable to process simple
    tasks but excels in one specific area.
   Daniel investigates Derek’s musical genius and the amazing
    power of the human brain.
Ultimate Climber. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:52, August 28, 2010,
from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-superhumans/bios/meet-the-
superhumans.



   Full Name: Jyothi Rai
    Hometown: Chitradurga, India
   Jyothi Rai is known as India's very own Spiderman-scaling walls
    at an unbelievable speed.
   Jyothi has always had a passion for climbing. Growing up, he
    saw troops of monkeys swinging through the forests near his
    home. Taking inspiration from these agile animals, he began
    climbing up scaffolding while working on a building site. It was
    here that he perfected his climbing techniques.
   After discovering that his spider-like climbing abilities drew in
    crowds of onlookers, Jyothi started to push himself further by
    climbing higher and higher structures, always without a net or
    safety rope. Today, he is able to run up a six-story structure in a
    matter of seconds.
The Man Who Feels No Pain. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 9:12,
August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-
superhumans/bios/meet-the-superhumans.



   Full Name: Tim Cridland
    Hometown: New York, USA
   Tim Cridland claims to be able to switch off pain. His seemingly
    superhuman ability to go beyond normal pain thresholds by
    impaling himself with skewers--and causing little or no bleeding--
    is nothing short of extraordinary.
   From an early age, Tim was fascinated by the images he saw of
    Indian fakirs lying on beds of nails and piecing their muscles or
    skin with sharp skewers. Determined to learn their secret, Tim
    studied their ancient techniques and now claims to have
    mastered the power of mind over matter. He claims to not only
    block out the perception of extreme pain, but also to prevent his
    body from bleeding as he impales his arms and throat with
    sharpened bicycle spokes.
   Tim believes there is little can't withstand through meditation.
    Daniel puts him to the test to try and find out whether Tim is truly
    superhuman.
Share Case Studies
Psychology’s Roots
   Wilhelm Wundt
         “The father” of psychology
         Pure sensations are basic elements of consciousness
   Edward Titchener
       Established Psychology lab in U.S. at Cornell
       Consciousness reduced to basic elements
   Structuralism
         First formal school of thought
         Endeavored to analyze basic elements of conscious mental
          experience
         Introspection
Psychology’s Roots
   Functionalism
       An early school of psychology concerned with how humans
        and animals use mental processes to adapt to their
        environment
       Included study of behavior, children, animals, and
        individuals w/ impairments
   William James
       First American psychologist
       Taught mental processes are fluid with continuity not rigid,
        fixed, or structured
   Charles Darwin
       Evolution theory as applied to psychology
Pioneering Women
    Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930)

      Color Vision Theory. Completed requirement for a Ph.D.
      at John Hopkins University in mid 1880’s but had to wait
      over 40 years before receiving her degree in 1926 when
      the university finally agreed to grand women doctoral
      degrees.
Pioneering Women
    Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)

      Completed requirements for doctoral degree at Harvard.
      Recognized by William James as one of his most
      capable students, Harvard refused to grand the degree to
      a woman. Calkins established a psychology laboratory at
      Wellesley College. She became first female president of
      the American Psychological Association in 1905.
Pioneering Women
    Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)

      Received her Ph.D. in psychology from Cornell and later
      taught at Vassar College. She authored many books,
      The Animal Mind (1908), Movement and Mental Imagery
      (1916).
African Americans and Other
Groups
   Francis Cecil Sumner (1895-1954) was a self
    taught scholar. Earned a Ph.D., the first African
    American, from Clark University. Translated many
    resources from German, French, and Spanish. He
    chaired the psychology department at Howard
    University and is known as the “father” of African
    American psychology.

    Albert Sidney Beckham (1897-1964), African
    American psychologist, conducted early studies on
    intelligence and correlations to success in
    numerous occupational fields.
African Americans and Other
Groups
    Kenneth Clark (1914-2005), African American
     national recognition for writings on the harmful
     effects of racial segregation. His work influenced
     the Supreme Court ruling that declared racial
     segregation in U.S. schools to be unconstitutional.
     Wife, Mamie Phipps Clark also achieved
     recognition with her published works on racial
     identification and self-esteem, now regarded as
     classics in the field.
Native Americans and Other
Groups
    George Sanchez (1906=1972) conducted studies on bias
     in intelligence testing in the 1930’s. He pointed that both
     cultural differences and language differences work against
     Hispanic students when they take IQ tests.
    Native American and Asian American are the fasted
     growing minority groups in the field but their percentage of
     doctorates awarded to individuals doubled from the mid
     1970’s to the mid-1990’s.
    Marigold Linton- research that examines autobiographical
     memory.
    Richard Suinn- research in behavioral psychology. First
     Asian president of the APA (1999).
    Today, more women than men obtain degrees in
     psychology.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology
       Behaviorism
         John B. Watson (1878-1958),
          redefines the study of
          psychology with behaviorism.
          Did not like structuralism or
          functionalism.
         Behaviorism views observable,
          measurable behaviors as the
          appropriate subject matter for
          psychology and emphasizes
          the key role of environment as
          a determinant factor.
         Little Albert
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Behaviorism
   B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) agrees that
    concepts such as mind, consciousness,
    and feelings are neither objective nor
    measurable and, therefore, not
    appropriate subject matter for
    psychology. These concepts are not
    needed in order to explain behavior.
    You can explain behavior by analyzing
    the conditions that are present before a
    behavior occurs and then analyzing the
    consequences that follow the behavior.
   Operant Conditioning (importance of
    reinforcements for shaping behaviors).
    Schools of Thought in
    Psychology: Psychoanalysis
       Psychoanalysis
        Sigmund Freud (1856-1939),
         maintains human mental life is
         like an iceberg. The smallest,
         visible part of the iceberg
         represents the conscious
         mental experience of the
         individual. Underwater, hidden
         from view, floats a vast story
         of unconscious impulses,
         wishes, and desires. Freud
         insisted that individuals do not
         consciously control their
         thoughts, feelings, and
         behaviors; these are
         controlled by unconscious
         forces.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Psychoanalysis
    The unconscious is a store house for material that threatens the
     conscious life of the individual; disturbing sexual and aggressive
     impulses as well as traumatic experiences that have been
     repressed. They all fester in the unconscious.
    Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconscious.
    Over-riding importance on sexual and aggressive impulses
     caused much controversy both inside and outside the field of
     psychology.
    Freud’s famous students: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen
     Horney broke away from Freud to develop their own theories of
     personality. Now called neo-Freudians.
    Freud continues to influence popular culture but his research on
     psychoanalysis has diminished. The psychoanalytic approach is
     influential but has been modified considerable over the past
     several decades by neo-Freudians.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Humanistic
       Humanistic Psychology
        Rejects: Behaviorist view that behavior is determined by
         factors in environment
        Pessimistic view of the psychoanalytic approach, that
         human behavior is determined by unconscious forces.
        Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their
         capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health.
         People are innately good and that they possess free will.
         People are capable of making choices, which can lead to
         personal growth and psychological health.
        Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) : theory of motivation
         called the hierarchy of needs. Need for self-actualization
         (developing one’s fullest potential) to be the highest need
         on the hierarchy.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Humanistic
   Carl Rogers (1902-
    1987), developed
    Person Centered
    Therapy. A therapy
    approach where the
    client/ group directs a
    discussion focused on
    his or her own view of a
    problem rather than on
    the therapist’s analysis.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Cognitive
       Cognitive Psychology
        Humans are not passive recipients who are
         pushed and pulled by environmental forces but
         as active participants who seek out experiences,
         who alter and shape those experiences, and who
         use mental process to transform information in
         the course of the own cognitive development.
        Study of mental processes like memory, problem
         solving, reasoning, decision making, perception,
         language, and other forms of cognitions.
    Schools of Thought in
    Psychology: Gestalt
     Gestalt Psychology
      Appears on the scene in 1912, Germany. Gestalt means
       whole, form or pattern.
      Individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units
       and that the perceived whole is more than the sum of its
       parts. Today’s fundamental concept, the mind interprets
       experiences in predictable ways rather than simply reacts to
       them.
      Max Wertheimer experiment called, Phi Phenomenon. Two
       light bulbs when flashed in a pattern can be viewed as one
       light bulb.
      Illustration: You Tube Video: Phi Phenomenon
      1930’s Nazis come to power in Germany and the Gestalt
       school disbanded, prominent members immigrate to the
       United States.
Illustration
   Read the following:

     The old woman was sweeping the steps.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology
       Information-Processing Theory
        The brain processes information in sequential
         steps, similar to a computer doing serial
         processing. The brain interprets information
         rather than just responding to it.
        Parallel Processing – management of multiple
         bits of information at once.
        Artificial Intelligence- computer programs that
         can process human language in the same way
         as the human brain.
Illustration
   Did the previous phrase contain the word
    broom?
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Evolutionary
       Evolutionary Psychology
        Studies how humans have adapted the behaviors
         required for survival in the face of environmental
         pressures over the long course of evolution.
        Influenced by Charles Darwin’s theory of natural
         selection.
        Darwin asserts individual members of a given species
         who possess characteristics that help them survive are
         the most likely to pass on the genes underlying those
         characteristics to other generations. This would result in
         traits that support individual survival become universal in
         species.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Biological
       Biological Psychology (Physiological)
        School of psychology that looks for links between specific
         behaviors and equally specific biological processes that
         help explain individual differences.
        Universals- traits that exist in every member of a species.
         (Example: Language).
        Study things like structures of the brain, central nervous
         system, functioning neurons, neurotransmitters and
         hormones, heredity.
        Biological Difference + Behavioral Difference= Biological
         Psychology
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Neuroscience
   Neuroscience- combines the work of psychologists,
    biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and
    others in the structure and function of the nervous
    systems.
       Results of Neuroscience: Defects in the nerve cell
        membranes interfere with the cell’s ability to make use of
        brain chemicals that help control body movement.
       Parkinson’s Disease
       Schizophrenia
       Pharmacological Research
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Sociocultural
   Sociocultural Approach
       An approach that emphasizes social and cultural
        influences on human behavior and stresses the
        importance of understanding those influences.
       Asks the question: How does your background and
        cultural experiences affect your behavior and mental
        processing?
Experiment

             What do You
              think of?




  Jocks        Goths       Nerds
Eight Lenses (Gerald Corey, Theories and
Techniques of Counseling, 431-442)


   Internal Family Systems- What part does each person bring to
    the session? What parts are ignored?
   Teleological Lens- final causes, goals, endpoints, purposes.
   Sequences- routines (how does a typical day go?)
   Organizational Lens- organization process that holds everything
    together (rules, rituals, expected roles)
   Developmental Lens- Family Life Cycle (birth-present)
   Multicultural Lens- dominant cultural influences and experiences
    (discrimination and oppression).
   Gender Lens- Roles of Men and Women
   Process Lens- What is happening between the people (two
    people). How and what is happening?
Schools of Thought in
Psychology: Eclectic
       Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism
        A professional’s adoption of certain parts of
         theories and schools of thought.
        Choosing a combination of approaches to
         explain behaviors.
Schools of Thought in
Psychology Overview
Overview
   Behavioral perspective: environmental
   Psychoanalytical perspective: emotions, unconscious
     motivations, early childhood experiences
   Humanistic perspective: subjective experiences, intrinsic
     motivation to achieve self-actualization.
   Cognitive perspective: mental processes
   Evolutionary perspective: inherited traits that enhance
     adaptability.
   Biological perspective: biological structures, processes, heredity.
   Sociocultural perspective: social and cultural variables.
   Eclectic position: choosing a combination of approaches to
     explain behaviors.
Theories
    Theories give us a frame work for study,
     research, and communication. What would the
     world of psychology be like without theories?

    Heuristic value- the ability to stimulate debate
     among professionals and promote research to
     answer questions.
Theories
        Evaluating Research
         Critical Thinking- process to evaluate claims,
          propositions, and conclusions and to determine if it
          all makes sense. Is the result supported by the
          evidence? Where are the weaknesses? Where are
          the strengths?
Critical Thinking
    Independent Thinking- not accepting what we
     read or hear automatically
    Suspension of Judgment- gathering relevant
     information on all sides before taking a side.
    Willingness to modify or abandon prior
     judgments- evaluating new evidence, even if it
     contradicts preexisting beliefs.
    Ability to recognize pseudoscience (the distortion
     or exaggeration of theories and research). Think:
     Tall Tale.
Research Methods
        Research methods that yield descriptions of
         behavior
        Naturalistic observation: a descriptive research
         method in which researchers observe and record
         behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to
         influence or control it.
        Observer bias- researcher’s expectations about a
         situation cause them to see what they expect to see
         or to make incorrect inferences about what they
         observe.
          Foster Care Behavior Example: Case Study. What makes a
           child act the way they do?
Research Methods
    Laboratory Observation: behavior is studied in lab
     setting where more variables can be controlled.
    Case Study: a single or group of people who are
     studied in depth over a period of time.
    Survey Research: when researchers use interviews
     and/or questionnaires to gather information about the
     attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a
     group.
Selecting a Research Sample
        How to select a research sample?
         Population: entire group of interest
         Sample: part of a population
         Representative sample: mirrors the population of
          interest. It includes important subgroups in the same
          proportions as they are found in the population.
         Biased sample: a subgroup that does not adequately
          reflect the larger population.
         Random sample: sub groups taken from all members
          of a population of interest. Members are selected in
          such a way that every member of the larger
          population has an equal chance of being included.
Survey Research
        Advantages and disadvantages of survey
         research:
         Costly and Time consuming
         False information- from faulty memories or desire to
          please the interviewer
         Social desirability response- deliberates misleading
          the interviewer to look good.
Class Example
   Mode (numerical value appearing most
    frequently)
   Mean (arithmetic average) (x)
   Median (50th percentile)
   X = Scores
   ∑ = Sum
   N = number of individuals
Variance (S2)
   Statistic that shows how widely the spread of
    scattered the test scores are from the mean.

   Subtract the mean from each score, square
    the difference,

   S2 = ∑(x- x )2
             N
Standard Deviation
   Numerical value that describes the spread of
    the scores away from the mean. SD is the
    square root of the variance.
Class Example
  Cooking Ability
Scores (scale 1-20) (15 participants)

20   17    13    11   10
18   16    12    10   9
18   13    11    10   7
Steps
   Step 1: Find Mean
       Add all the scores and divide by total of
        participants.
       Total of Scores= 195
       195/ 15 = 13
       Mean ( ) = 13
Steps
   Step 2: subtract each score from mean
   Step 3: square each score
   Step 4: add all scores together for one sum
   Step 5: divide by number of scores
   Step 6: find square root of total
       Standard Deviation = 1.55
Correlation Method
        Correlation Method
            Relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors.
            Correlation coefficient- numerical value that indicates the strength and
             direction of the relationship between two variables.
            Correlation Coefficient Ranges:
               +1.00 (perfect positive correlation)
                   Positive correlation means the value of one variable is associated with
                    an increase in the value of the other variable.
                   Bowling Salary with High Score
               0.00 (no relationship)
               -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation)
                   Negative correlation means the value of one variable is associated
                    with a decrease in value of the other variable.
                   Golfing Salary with Low Score.
                 The closer a correlation is to +1.00 or -1.00 the stronger
                  the relationship.
Pearson Product Moment
Correlation Formula

R=
      N(∑XY)- (∑X) (∑Y)

      [N(∑X2)- (∑X)2] [N (∑Y2)- (∑Y)2]
The Experimental Method
         Researching by experiments to identify cause-effect
          relationships.
         Casual Hypothesis: a prediction about a cause-effect
          relationship between two or more variables.
         Variable: any condition or factor that can be
          manipulated or changed, controlled, or measured.
          Independent Variables: Factor that is deliberately
           manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any
           change in another behavior or condition.
          Dependent Variables: Factor that is measured at the end
           of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the
           manipulations of the independent variables.
The Experimental Method
         Bias in Experimental Research
          Confounding variables: factors other than independent
           variables that are not equivalent across groups and could
           cause differences among the groups with respect to the
           dependent variable.
          Selection Bias: The assignment of participants to
           experimental or control groups in such a way that
           systematic differences among the groups are present at
           the beginning of the experiment.
          Random Assignment: Process of selecting participants for
           experimental and control groups by using a chance
           procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal
           probability of being assigned to any of the groups.
The Experimental Method
      Placebo Effect: The participant’s response to a treatment is
       due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather
       than to the treatment itself.
      Placebo: a inert or harmless substance given to the control
       group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect.
      Experimenter Bias: When a researcher’s preconceived
       notions or expectations in some way influence participants’
       behavior and/or the researcher’s interpretation of
       experimental results.
      Double-Blind Technique: A procedure in which neither the
       participants nor the experimenter knows who is in the
       experimental nor control groups until after the data have
       been gathered; a control for experimenter bias.
Participants in Research
      Bias
        Race, gender, over-generalizing, ageism (loss,
         deterioration, decline, dependency).
      Participant’s Rights
        Legality- All research must fit into applicable federal,
         state, and local laws and regulations.
        Institutional Approval- Researchers have to get approval
         from all institutions involved in a study.
        Informed Consent- Participants must be informed of the
         purpose of the study and its potential for harm.
         Researchers may deviate from this standard of informed
         consent only when they have a justifiable reason for doing
         so. Committees make the final decision.
Participants in Research
     Deception- deception of participants is ethical when
      necessary. However, the code of ethics cautions
      researchers against using deception if another means
      can be found to test the study’s hypothesis.
     Debriefing- disclosure of placebo deception as soon
      as the study is complete
     Clients, patients, students, and subordinates- when
      participants are under authority, researchers must
      take steps to ensure that participation a study, and the
      information obtained during participation, will not
      damage the participants in any way.
Participants in Research
    Payment for participation- participants can be paid, but the
     code of ethics requires that they be fully informed about what
     is expected in return for payment. Researchers are to refrain
     from offering excessive payments that may bias the study’s
     participants in some way.
    Publication- psychological researchers must report their
     findings in an appropriate forum, such as a scientific journal,
     and they must make their data available to others who want
     to verify their findings. Even when a study produces no
     findings, its results must still be reported, in such cases, the
     appropriate forum is the institution that sponsored the
     research, the organization in which the research was
     conducted, or the agency or foundation that funded. Results
     must also be made available to participants.
Animal Rights
        Animal Rights
         Legality- All research must fit into applicable federal,
          state, and local laws and regulations.
         Supervision by experienced personnel- use of
          animals must be supervised by people who are
          trained in their care. Teaching must take place to all
          subordinates how to properly care for the animal.
         Minimizations of discomfort – researchers are
          ethically bound to minimize any discomfort to
          research animals. Termination of lives must be done
          in a humane manner.
Psychologists at Work
        Specialties in Psychology
         Clinical Psychologists- specialize in the diagnosis
          and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders,
          some do research in these areas.
         School Psychologists- clinical psychologists who
          specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of learning
          and behavioral problems that interfere with learning.
         Forensic Psychologists- training in clinical
          psychology to issues involving psychology and law
         Counseling Psychologists- help people who have
          adjustment problems generally less severe than
          those handled by clinical psychologists
Psychologists at Work
     Physiological Psychologists- (also called biological
      psychologists or neuropsychologists) study the relationship
      between physiological processes and behavior
     Experimental Psychologists- conducts experiments in most
      areas of psychology
     Developmental Psychologists- how people grow, develop,
      and change through life span
     Educational Psychologists- teaching and learning
     Social Psychologists- feels, thinks, and behaves in social
      setting
     Industrial/ Organizational Psychologists- people and work
      places.
Illustration
   Consider this
    Photo…
   You are in Palestine
     What is
      happening here?

   Now, you are in the
    Omaha, Nebraska…
     What is
      happening here?

				
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