The World of Psychology Seventh Edition Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 Watch It! Meet Bob Wiley Match Making David, 21yrs, Mechanic, Dana, 23yrs, Advertising Gourmet Food Executive, Movies Chris, 29yrs, Dog Groomer, Anita, 35yrs, Lawyer, Roller Gardening Coasters Sandy, 54yrs, Flight Karen, 18yrs, Sales Clerk, Attendant, Hang Gliding Art Museums Jamie, 20yrs, Secretary, Pat, 56yrs, Pediatrician, Football Opera Tony, 37yrs, College Rahul, 22yrs, Store Professor, Comic Books Manager, Scuba Diving Psychologist Scientist Definition Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Goals of Psychology Describe Explain Predict Influence behavior and mental processes. Goals: Description and Explanation Description: Usually the first step in understanding behaviors and mental processes. What behaviors or mental processes are present and stand out as a point of interest? Description tells what occurred. Explanation: Requires an understanding of the conditions under which a given behavior or mental process occurs. The end result is the ability to state the causes of behaviors or mental processes. This goal is not reached without much testing, retesting, and confirmation (or ruling out other explanations). Answers the question, “Why did ____________ happen?” Goals: Prediction and Influence Prediction This happens with the conditions of a behavior or event can be stated by a researched before they happen. In other words, the likely hood of something taking place. Influence: Influence is reached with researchers know how to apply a principle or change a condition. This can prevent unwanted results or bring desired outcomes. The Scientific Method Researchers figuring out what they want to know. Formal definition: the orderly systematic procedures that researches follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate a problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings The Scientific Method The Steps Step One: Observe and Theorize. Researcher observes something and develops a hunch about what might have led to it. Step Two: Formulate a Hypothesis Hypothesis: a prediction that can be tested empirically (with data). Step Three: Design a Study Testing the hypothesis Using the same procedures to evaluate subject Testing the procedures The Steps Step Four: Collect Data Keep track of all information that is relevant to the hypothesis. Time, Results, Information about the Participants (etc.) Step Five: Apply Results to Hypothesis Use data to support hypothesis. The researcher must repeat the study to see if the findings are the same and not a one-time deal. This is called replication. This process will strengthen or weaken hypothesis. Two Types of Research that Helps Psychologists Basic Research Purpose is to find new knowledge and to explore and to advance general understanding. Illustration: Memory…wanting to define and know more about it, “what is it?” Applied Research Research that is conducted for the specific purpose of solving problems and improving the quality of life. Illustration: Memory…wanting to know how to improve memory skills, “how would I improve my memory?” BREAK Return to Room at _____pm Stan Lee Superhumans http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees- superhumans/videos/playlists/full- episodes#stan-lees-superhumans-human- speed-bump Small Groups Divide into groups and use the scientific method to explore these cases. Group 1: Human Speed Bump Group 2: Human Jukebox Group 3: Ultimate Climber Group 4: Man Who Feels No Pain Human Speed Bump. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:49, August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees- superhumans/episodes/episode guide. Full Name: Tom Owen Hometown: Birmingham, USA In 2009 in Milan, nine trucks weighing a total of 30,000 pounds ran over American bodybuilder Tom Owen in quick succession, a fitting feat for the man known as the "Human Speed Bump." Now 63 years old, Tom has dedicated his life to bodybuilding and power lifting, but it's the unique strength of his stomach and abdominal muscles that may earn him superhuman status. Tom can apparently withstand the crushing force of heavyweight trucks driving over his stomach. However, this is not without serious risk: In the past, Tom has had his leg and ribs broken, punctured his lungs and was almost crushed to death when a truck remained on his stomach too long. Daniel witnesses this amazing spectacle of strength firsthand. The Human Jukebox. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:51, August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-superhumans/bios/meet-the- superhumans. Full Name: Derek Paravicini Hometown: London, England Derek Paravicini is a blind, autistic, 30-year-old British man with an incredible superhuman gift. He can remember and accurately replay any song he ever hears. When he was a child, Derek became fascinated by sounds and began playing every sound he heard as a musical note. Unable to read Braille, Derek started to learn music by treating it like a vocabulary. Derek is known as a savant, one of just a few known cases in the world. This means that his brain seems unable to process simple tasks but excels in one specific area. Daniel investigates Derek’s musical genius and the amazing power of the human brain. Ultimate Climber. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:52, August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees-superhumans/bios/meet-the- superhumans. Full Name: Jyothi Rai Hometown: Chitradurga, India Jyothi Rai is known as India's very own Spiderman-scaling walls at an unbelievable speed. Jyothi has always had a passion for climbing. Growing up, he saw troops of monkeys swinging through the forests near his home. Taking inspiration from these agile animals, he began climbing up scaffolding while working on a building site. It was here that he perfected his climbing techniques. After discovering that his spider-like climbing abilities drew in crowds of onlookers, Jyothi started to push himself further by climbing higher and higher structures, always without a net or safety rope. Today, he is able to run up a six-story structure in a matter of seconds. The Man Who Feels No Pain. (2010). The History Channel website. Retrieved 9:12, August 28, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/stan-lees- superhumans/bios/meet-the-superhumans. Full Name: Tim Cridland Hometown: New York, USA Tim Cridland claims to be able to switch off pain. His seemingly superhuman ability to go beyond normal pain thresholds by impaling himself with skewers--and causing little or no bleeding-- is nothing short of extraordinary. From an early age, Tim was fascinated by the images he saw of Indian fakirs lying on beds of nails and piecing their muscles or skin with sharp skewers. Determined to learn their secret, Tim studied their ancient techniques and now claims to have mastered the power of mind over matter. He claims to not only block out the perception of extreme pain, but also to prevent his body from bleeding as he impales his arms and throat with sharpened bicycle spokes. Tim believes there is little can't withstand through meditation. Daniel puts him to the test to try and find out whether Tim is truly superhuman. Share Case Studies Psychology’s Roots Wilhelm Wundt “The father” of psychology Pure sensations are basic elements of consciousness Edward Titchener Established Psychology lab in U.S. at Cornell Consciousness reduced to basic elements Structuralism First formal school of thought Endeavored to analyze basic elements of conscious mental experience Introspection Psychology’s Roots Functionalism An early school of psychology concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environment Included study of behavior, children, animals, and individuals w/ impairments William James First American psychologist Taught mental processes are fluid with continuity not rigid, fixed, or structured Charles Darwin Evolution theory as applied to psychology Pioneering Women Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) Color Vision Theory. Completed requirement for a Ph.D. at John Hopkins University in mid 1880’s but had to wait over 40 years before receiving her degree in 1926 when the university finally agreed to grand women doctoral degrees. Pioneering Women Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) Completed requirements for doctoral degree at Harvard. Recognized by William James as one of his most capable students, Harvard refused to grand the degree to a woman. Calkins established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley College. She became first female president of the American Psychological Association in 1905. Pioneering Women Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) Received her Ph.D. in psychology from Cornell and later taught at Vassar College. She authored many books, The Animal Mind (1908), Movement and Mental Imagery (1916). African Americans and Other Groups Francis Cecil Sumner (1895-1954) was a self taught scholar. Earned a Ph.D., the first African American, from Clark University. Translated many resources from German, French, and Spanish. He chaired the psychology department at Howard University and is known as the “father” of African American psychology. Albert Sidney Beckham (1897-1964), African American psychologist, conducted early studies on intelligence and correlations to success in numerous occupational fields. African Americans and Other Groups Kenneth Clark (1914-2005), African American national recognition for writings on the harmful effects of racial segregation. His work influenced the Supreme Court ruling that declared racial segregation in U.S. schools to be unconstitutional. Wife, Mamie Phipps Clark also achieved recognition with her published works on racial identification and self-esteem, now regarded as classics in the field. Native Americans and Other Groups George Sanchez (1906=1972) conducted studies on bias in intelligence testing in the 1930’s. He pointed that both cultural differences and language differences work against Hispanic students when they take IQ tests. Native American and Asian American are the fasted growing minority groups in the field but their percentage of doctorates awarded to individuals doubled from the mid 1970’s to the mid-1990’s. Marigold Linton- research that examines autobiographical memory. Richard Suinn- research in behavioral psychology. First Asian president of the APA (1999). Today, more women than men obtain degrees in psychology. Schools of Thought in Psychology Behaviorism John B. Watson (1878-1958), redefines the study of psychology with behaviorism. Did not like structuralism or functionalism. Behaviorism views observable, measurable behaviors as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant factor. Little Albert Schools of Thought in Psychology: Behaviorism B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) agrees that concepts such as mind, consciousness, and feelings are neither objective nor measurable and, therefore, not appropriate subject matter for psychology. These concepts are not needed in order to explain behavior. You can explain behavior by analyzing the conditions that are present before a behavior occurs and then analyzing the consequences that follow the behavior. Operant Conditioning (importance of reinforcements for shaping behaviors). Schools of Thought in Psychology: Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), maintains human mental life is like an iceberg. The smallest, visible part of the iceberg represents the conscious mental experience of the individual. Underwater, hidden from view, floats a vast story of unconscious impulses, wishes, and desires. Freud insisted that individuals do not consciously control their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; these are controlled by unconscious forces. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Psychoanalysis The unconscious is a store house for material that threatens the conscious life of the individual; disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses as well as traumatic experiences that have been repressed. They all fester in the unconscious. Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconscious. Over-riding importance on sexual and aggressive impulses caused much controversy both inside and outside the field of psychology. Freud’s famous students: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney broke away from Freud to develop their own theories of personality. Now called neo-Freudians. Freud continues to influence popular culture but his research on psychoanalysis has diminished. The psychoanalytic approach is influential but has been modified considerable over the past several decades by neo-Freudians. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Humanistic Humanistic Psychology Rejects: Behaviorist view that behavior is determined by factors in environment Pessimistic view of the psychoanalytic approach, that human behavior is determined by unconscious forces. Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health. People are innately good and that they possess free will. People are capable of making choices, which can lead to personal growth and psychological health. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) : theory of motivation called the hierarchy of needs. Need for self-actualization (developing one’s fullest potential) to be the highest need on the hierarchy. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Humanistic Carl Rogers (1902- 1987), developed Person Centered Therapy. A therapy approach where the client/ group directs a discussion focused on his or her own view of a problem rather than on the therapist’s analysis. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Cognitive Cognitive Psychology Humans are not passive recipients who are pushed and pulled by environmental forces but as active participants who seek out experiences, who alter and shape those experiences, and who use mental process to transform information in the course of the own cognitive development. Study of mental processes like memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, language, and other forms of cognitions. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Gestalt Gestalt Psychology Appears on the scene in 1912, Germany. Gestalt means whole, form or pattern. Individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than the sum of its parts. Today’s fundamental concept, the mind interprets experiences in predictable ways rather than simply reacts to them. Max Wertheimer experiment called, Phi Phenomenon. Two light bulbs when flashed in a pattern can be viewed as one light bulb. Illustration: You Tube Video: Phi Phenomenon 1930’s Nazis come to power in Germany and the Gestalt school disbanded, prominent members immigrate to the United States. Illustration Read the following: The old woman was sweeping the steps. Schools of Thought in Psychology Information-Processing Theory The brain processes information in sequential steps, similar to a computer doing serial processing. The brain interprets information rather than just responding to it. Parallel Processing – management of multiple bits of information at once. Artificial Intelligence- computer programs that can process human language in the same way as the human brain. Illustration Did the previous phrase contain the word broom? Schools of Thought in Psychology: Evolutionary Evolutionary Psychology Studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution. Influenced by Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Darwin asserts individual members of a given species who possess characteristics that help them survive are the most likely to pass on the genes underlying those characteristics to other generations. This would result in traits that support individual survival become universal in species. Schools of Thought in Psychology: Biological Biological Psychology (Physiological) School of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that help explain individual differences. Universals- traits that exist in every member of a species. (Example: Language). Study things like structures of the brain, central nervous system, functioning neurons, neurotransmitters and hormones, heredity. Biological Difference + Behavioral Difference= Biological Psychology Schools of Thought in Psychology: Neuroscience Neuroscience- combines the work of psychologists, biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and others in the structure and function of the nervous systems. Results of Neuroscience: Defects in the nerve cell membranes interfere with the cell’s ability to make use of brain chemicals that help control body movement. Parkinson’s Disease Schizophrenia Pharmacological Research Schools of Thought in Psychology: Sociocultural Sociocultural Approach An approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on human behavior and stresses the importance of understanding those influences. Asks the question: How does your background and cultural experiences affect your behavior and mental processing? Experiment What do You think of? Jocks Goths Nerds Eight Lenses (Gerald Corey, Theories and Techniques of Counseling, 431-442) Internal Family Systems- What part does each person bring to the session? What parts are ignored? Teleological Lens- final causes, goals, endpoints, purposes. Sequences- routines (how does a typical day go?) Organizational Lens- organization process that holds everything together (rules, rituals, expected roles) Developmental Lens- Family Life Cycle (birth-present) Multicultural Lens- dominant cultural influences and experiences (discrimination and oppression). Gender Lens- Roles of Men and Women Process Lens- What is happening between the people (two people). How and what is happening? Schools of Thought in Psychology: Eclectic Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism A professional’s adoption of certain parts of theories and schools of thought. Choosing a combination of approaches to explain behaviors. Schools of Thought in Psychology Overview Overview Behavioral perspective: environmental Psychoanalytical perspective: emotions, unconscious motivations, early childhood experiences Humanistic perspective: subjective experiences, intrinsic motivation to achieve self-actualization. Cognitive perspective: mental processes Evolutionary perspective: inherited traits that enhance adaptability. Biological perspective: biological structures, processes, heredity. Sociocultural perspective: social and cultural variables. Eclectic position: choosing a combination of approaches to explain behaviors. Theories Theories give us a frame work for study, research, and communication. What would the world of psychology be like without theories? Heuristic value- the ability to stimulate debate among professionals and promote research to answer questions. Theories Evaluating Research Critical Thinking- process to evaluate claims, propositions, and conclusions and to determine if it all makes sense. Is the result supported by the evidence? Where are the weaknesses? Where are the strengths? Critical Thinking Independent Thinking- not accepting what we read or hear automatically Suspension of Judgment- gathering relevant information on all sides before taking a side. Willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments- evaluating new evidence, even if it contradicts preexisting beliefs. Ability to recognize pseudoscience (the distortion or exaggeration of theories and research). Think: Tall Tale. Research Methods Research methods that yield descriptions of behavior Naturalistic observation: a descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it. Observer bias- researcher’s expectations about a situation cause them to see what they expect to see or to make incorrect inferences about what they observe. Foster Care Behavior Example: Case Study. What makes a child act the way they do? Research Methods Laboratory Observation: behavior is studied in lab setting where more variables can be controlled. Case Study: a single or group of people who are studied in depth over a period of time. Survey Research: when researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group. Selecting a Research Sample How to select a research sample? Population: entire group of interest Sample: part of a population Representative sample: mirrors the population of interest. It includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in the population. Biased sample: a subgroup that does not adequately reflect the larger population. Random sample: sub groups taken from all members of a population of interest. Members are selected in such a way that every member of the larger population has an equal chance of being included. Survey Research Advantages and disadvantages of survey research: Costly and Time consuming False information- from faulty memories or desire to please the interviewer Social desirability response- deliberates misleading the interviewer to look good. Class Example Mode (numerical value appearing most frequently) Mean (arithmetic average) (x) Median (50th percentile) X = Scores ∑ = Sum N = number of individuals Variance (S2) Statistic that shows how widely the spread of scattered the test scores are from the mean. Subtract the mean from each score, square the difference, S2 = ∑(x- x )2 N Standard Deviation Numerical value that describes the spread of the scores away from the mean. SD is the square root of the variance. Class Example Cooking Ability Scores (scale 1-20) (15 participants) 20 17 13 11 10 18 16 12 10 9 18 13 11 10 7 Steps Step 1: Find Mean Add all the scores and divide by total of participants. Total of Scores= 195 195/ 15 = 13 Mean ( ) = 13 Steps Step 2: subtract each score from mean Step 3: square each score Step 4: add all scores together for one sum Step 5: divide by number of scores Step 6: find square root of total Standard Deviation = 1.55 Correlation Method Correlation Method Relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors. Correlation coefficient- numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. Correlation Coefficient Ranges: +1.00 (perfect positive correlation) Positive correlation means the value of one variable is associated with an increase in the value of the other variable. Bowling Salary with High Score 0.00 (no relationship) -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation) Negative correlation means the value of one variable is associated with a decrease in value of the other variable. Golfing Salary with Low Score. The closer a correlation is to +1.00 or -1.00 the stronger the relationship. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Formula R= N(∑XY)- (∑X) (∑Y) [N(∑X2)- (∑X)2] [N (∑Y2)- (∑Y)2] The Experimental Method Researching by experiments to identify cause-effect relationships. Casual Hypothesis: a prediction about a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables. Variable: any condition or factor that can be manipulated or changed, controlled, or measured. Independent Variables: Factor that is deliberately manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition. Dependent Variables: Factor that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulations of the independent variables. The Experimental Method Bias in Experimental Research Confounding variables: factors other than independent variables that are not equivalent across groups and could cause differences among the groups with respect to the dependent variable. Selection Bias: The assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment. Random Assignment: Process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups. The Experimental Method Placebo Effect: The participant’s response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself. Placebo: a inert or harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect. Experimenter Bias: When a researcher’s preconceived notions or expectations in some way influence participants’ behavior and/or the researcher’s interpretation of experimental results. Double-Blind Technique: A procedure in which neither the participants nor the experimenter knows who is in the experimental nor control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias. Participants in Research Bias Race, gender, over-generalizing, ageism (loss, deterioration, decline, dependency). Participant’s Rights Legality- All research must fit into applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Institutional Approval- Researchers have to get approval from all institutions involved in a study. Informed Consent- Participants must be informed of the purpose of the study and its potential for harm. Researchers may deviate from this standard of informed consent only when they have a justifiable reason for doing so. Committees make the final decision. Participants in Research Deception- deception of participants is ethical when necessary. However, the code of ethics cautions researchers against using deception if another means can be found to test the study’s hypothesis. Debriefing- disclosure of placebo deception as soon as the study is complete Clients, patients, students, and subordinates- when participants are under authority, researchers must take steps to ensure that participation a study, and the information obtained during participation, will not damage the participants in any way. Participants in Research Payment for participation- participants can be paid, but the code of ethics requires that they be fully informed about what is expected in return for payment. Researchers are to refrain from offering excessive payments that may bias the study’s participants in some way. Publication- psychological researchers must report their findings in an appropriate forum, such as a scientific journal, and they must make their data available to others who want to verify their findings. Even when a study produces no findings, its results must still be reported, in such cases, the appropriate forum is the institution that sponsored the research, the organization in which the research was conducted, or the agency or foundation that funded. Results must also be made available to participants. Animal Rights Animal Rights Legality- All research must fit into applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Supervision by experienced personnel- use of animals must be supervised by people who are trained in their care. Teaching must take place to all subordinates how to properly care for the animal. Minimizations of discomfort – researchers are ethically bound to minimize any discomfort to research animals. Termination of lives must be done in a humane manner. Psychologists at Work Specialties in Psychology Clinical Psychologists- specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders, some do research in these areas. School Psychologists- clinical psychologists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of learning and behavioral problems that interfere with learning. Forensic Psychologists- training in clinical psychology to issues involving psychology and law Counseling Psychologists- help people who have adjustment problems generally less severe than those handled by clinical psychologists Psychologists at Work Physiological Psychologists- (also called biological psychologists or neuropsychologists) study the relationship between physiological processes and behavior Experimental Psychologists- conducts experiments in most areas of psychology Developmental Psychologists- how people grow, develop, and change through life span Educational Psychologists- teaching and learning Social Psychologists- feels, thinks, and behaves in social setting Industrial/ Organizational Psychologists- people and work places. Illustration Consider this Photo… You are in Palestine What is happening here? Now, you are in the Omaha, Nebraska… What is happening here?