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Physical and cognitive development in middle and late childhood

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Physical and cognitive development in middle and late childhood Powered By Docstoc
					PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE AND
LATE CHILDHOOD
Chapter 9
PHYSICAL CHANGES AND HEALTH
   Children grow about 2 to 3 inches per year.
     Head and waist circumference change
     Bones continue to ossify or change from cartilage to
      bone.
 Prefrontal cortex shows the most development in
  the brain during this age.
 Gross motor skills improve as large muscle
  groups become stronger. Fine motor skills
  increase with greater usage.
 Exercise is increasingly important to ward off
  such diseases as obesity.
 Most common form of death in this age group is
  injury.
PIAGET’S 3RD STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT:
CONCRETE OPERATIONS
 Begins at about 7 goes to about 11 or 12.
 Noted by increased ability to use symbols, more
  logical thinking, but restricted by inability to
  think hypothetically
 Seriation involves ordering stimuli along a
  quantitative dimension such as length.
 Transivity is the ability to logically combine
  relations to understand certain conclusions.
 The phase ends when the ability to reverse steps
  to undo things develops along with seriation and
  transivity.
INFORMATION PROCESSING
 Short-term memory does not seem to develop
  much past 7-years-old.
 Long-term memory which is relatively
  permanent type memory that holds huge
  amounts of information for an infinite amount of
  time gets much better.
 Knowledge seems to have a part in this increased
  long-term memory capacity
KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE
 Knowledge is information learned.
 Experts have acquired extensive knowledge
  about a particular content area.
     Children at these ages become experts in a variety of
      different types of things. This oftentimes has to do
      with individual interests.
     The gaining of expert-status helps children
      remember and learn more about those things they
      are expert in.
   Novices have not acquired extensive knowledge
    about a particular content area.
       These children will have a more difficult time
        remembering things in those content areas.
   All children are experts in one area and novices
    in others.
INTERNAL MEMORY UPGRADE
   Encourage children to engage in mental imagery.
       Pictures are easier to remember than other forms of
        information. Also helps to encourage creativity.
   Motivate children to remember material by
    understanding it rather than memorizing it.
       Rote memory is remembering information by repetition.
        After so long you remember it but cannot give what it
        means.
   Repeat with variation on the instructional
    information and link early and often.
       Change the way the information if presented and find a
        way to associate it with something previously learned.
   Embed memory-relevant language when instructing
    children.
       Use mnemonic devices. HOMES for example.
GIST THOUGHT SO
   Fuzzy trace theory
       This states that children remember better with a
        fuzzy or not fully remember idea. They get the gist of
        it, which may bring about the information sought
        after.
THOUGHT
   Critical thinking is reflectively and productively
    thinking by evaluating the evidence.
       We also learn better when asked to make good critical
        thoughts on concepts.
   Creative thinking is the ability to think of novel and
    unusual ways to come up with unique solutions to
    problems.
     Divergent thought: many answers to the same questions.
      More creative in nature
     Convergent thought: one answer determined from many
      solutions. More analytical in nature.
     Brainstorming: An activity that will increase creative
      thinking where every possible answer is given out.
   Scientific thinking is testing ideas by a scientific
    method, whether formalized or not.
TOM SEXTON
   Metacognition
       Cognition about cognition
       Knowing about knowing
       Thinking about thinking
       Understanding how you think.
       Metamemory
           Understanding how you remember things and learn.
INTELLIGENCE:
PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS AND ABILITY TO LEARN
FROM AND ADAPT TO THE EXPERIENCES OF EVERYDAY
LIFE

Binet and the early days       Modern day IQ

   Binet made the first IQ     Weschler developed
    test for the French          test that measure IQ
    government
                                 by assessing verbal IQ
   MA (mental age): age at
    which children scored on     and spatial IQ
    test                        Triarchic theory of
   CA (chronological age):      intelligence
    actual age of the child         Analytical, creative,
   IQ was a person’s MA             practical
    divided by her CA               No test for this type of
    multiplied by 100                intelligence
MORE INTELLIGENCE
Gardner                     Modern IQ

   Verbal                   Dead average on a
   Mathematical              modern IQ test is 100
   Spatial                  80 to 70 is borderline
   Bodily-kinesthetic
                             110 to 120 above
   Musical
                              average
   Interpersonal
                             120 and above
   Intrapersonal
                              extreme above
   Naturalistic
                              average
   Existential
       No test for this.    70 and below average
EXTREMES OF IQ
Low                            High

   Mental retardation            Gifted
     Must have low IQ              Having above-average
      usually less than 70           intelligence
      and low adaptive
      scores                        Superior talent for

     Organic MR is caused
                                     something.
      by genetic disorder or
      brain damage
     Cultural-familial MR
      is characterized by no
      organic damage but IQ
      between 50 and 70
IQ BIAS
   Cultural differences
     Asians test the highest. Native and African
      Americans test the lowest.
     New Englanders test the highest. Southerners the
      lowest.
   Cultural-fair testing
       Tests designed to take out cultural biases.
           May only measure spatial ability
             Not much difference in the results.
LEARNING DISABILITIES
Academic-specific             Non-academic-specific

   Dyslexia: impairment         Attention-deficit
    in ability to read and        hyperactivity disorder
    spell.                        (ADHD)
       Hearing issue?               Inattentive type: cannot
                                      pay attention to things.
 Dysgraphia:                            Formally known as ADD
  impairment in writing            Hyperactive type: cannot
 Dyscalculia:
                                    sit still
                                   Combined: both
  impairment in math                inattentive and
  computation                       hyperactive symptoms
       Developmental              Impulsive type: Does
        arithmetic disorder         impulsive thing
EMOTIONAL      AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS

 Juvenile Bipolar disorder
 Conduct Disorder

 Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

 Childhood depression

 Childhood anxiety disorder

 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
SPECTRUM DISORDERS
   Autism spectrum disorder
       Sever disorder characterized by problems in social
        interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and
        repetitive behaviors
           Ranges from autistic disorder to Asperger syndrome
       Autistic disorder
           Severe form of ASD onset in the first three years of life
            includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities
            in communication, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped
            patterns of behavior.
       Asperger syndrome
           Mild ASD in which the child has relatively good verbal
            skills, milder nonverbal language issues, restricted range of
            interest and relationships.
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
 Metalinguistic awareness is the knowledge about
  language such as knowing a preposition.
 Reading begins at the early parts of this time
     Whole-language approach parallel’s children’s
      natural language learning. Should be whole and
      meaningful.
     Phonics approach is the idea that reading should
      teach basic rules for translating written symbols into
      sound.
   Bilingualism
       Learning a second language is easier at this time
        than any other.
       Evidence shows that bilingual children may have an
        advantage with out fields of educational study.

				
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