PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE AND
PHYSICAL CHANGES AND HEALTH
Children grow about 2 to 3 inches per year.
Head and waist circumference change
Bones continue to ossify or change from cartilage to
Prefrontal cortex shows the most development in
the brain during this age.
Gross motor skills improve as large muscle
groups become stronger. Fine motor skills
increase with greater usage.
Exercise is increasingly important to ward off
such diseases as obesity.
Most common form of death in this age group is
PIAGET’S 3RD STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT:
Begins at about 7 goes to about 11 or 12.
Noted by increased ability to use symbols, more
logical thinking, but restricted by inability to
Seriation involves ordering stimuli along a
quantitative dimension such as length.
Transivity is the ability to logically combine
relations to understand certain conclusions.
The phase ends when the ability to reverse steps
to undo things develops along with seriation and
Short-term memory does not seem to develop
much past 7-years-old.
Long-term memory which is relatively
permanent type memory that holds huge
amounts of information for an infinite amount of
time gets much better.
Knowledge seems to have a part in this increased
long-term memory capacity
KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE
Knowledge is information learned.
Experts have acquired extensive knowledge
about a particular content area.
Children at these ages become experts in a variety of
different types of things. This oftentimes has to do
with individual interests.
The gaining of expert-status helps children
remember and learn more about those things they
are expert in.
Novices have not acquired extensive knowledge
about a particular content area.
These children will have a more difficult time
remembering things in those content areas.
All children are experts in one area and novices
INTERNAL MEMORY UPGRADE
Encourage children to engage in mental imagery.
Pictures are easier to remember than other forms of
information. Also helps to encourage creativity.
Motivate children to remember material by
understanding it rather than memorizing it.
Rote memory is remembering information by repetition.
After so long you remember it but cannot give what it
Repeat with variation on the instructional
information and link early and often.
Change the way the information if presented and find a
way to associate it with something previously learned.
Embed memory-relevant language when instructing
Use mnemonic devices. HOMES for example.
GIST THOUGHT SO
Fuzzy trace theory
This states that children remember better with a
fuzzy or not fully remember idea. They get the gist of
it, which may bring about the information sought
Critical thinking is reflectively and productively
thinking by evaluating the evidence.
We also learn better when asked to make good critical
thoughts on concepts.
Creative thinking is the ability to think of novel and
unusual ways to come up with unique solutions to
Divergent thought: many answers to the same questions.
More creative in nature
Convergent thought: one answer determined from many
solutions. More analytical in nature.
Brainstorming: An activity that will increase creative
thinking where every possible answer is given out.
Scientific thinking is testing ideas by a scientific
method, whether formalized or not.
Cognition about cognition
Knowing about knowing
Thinking about thinking
Understanding how you think.
Understanding how you remember things and learn.
PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS AND ABILITY TO LEARN
FROM AND ADAPT TO THE EXPERIENCES OF EVERYDAY
Binet and the early days Modern day IQ
Binet made the first IQ Weschler developed
test for the French test that measure IQ
by assessing verbal IQ
MA (mental age): age at
which children scored on and spatial IQ
test Triarchic theory of
CA (chronological age): intelligence
actual age of the child Analytical, creative,
IQ was a person’s MA practical
divided by her CA No test for this type of
multiplied by 100 intelligence
Gardner Modern IQ
Verbal Dead average on a
Mathematical modern IQ test is 100
Spatial 80 to 70 is borderline
110 to 120 above
120 and above
No test for this. 70 and below average
EXTREMES OF IQ
Mental retardation Gifted
Must have low IQ Having above-average
usually less than 70 intelligence
and low adaptive
scores Superior talent for
Organic MR is caused
by genetic disorder or
is characterized by no
organic damage but IQ
between 50 and 70
Asians test the highest. Native and African
Americans test the lowest.
New Englanders test the highest. Southerners the
Tests designed to take out cultural biases.
May only measure spatial ability
Not much difference in the results.
Dyslexia: impairment Attention-deficit
in ability to read and hyperactivity disorder
Hearing issue? Inattentive type: cannot
pay attention to things.
Dysgraphia: Formally known as ADD
impairment in writing Hyperactive type: cannot
impairment in math inattentive and
computation hyperactive symptoms
Developmental Impulsive type: Does
arithmetic disorder impulsive thing
EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS
Juvenile Bipolar disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Childhood anxiety disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Autism spectrum disorder
Sever disorder characterized by problems in social
interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and
Ranges from autistic disorder to Asperger syndrome
Severe form of ASD onset in the first three years of life
includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities
in communication, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped
patterns of behavior.
Mild ASD in which the child has relatively good verbal
skills, milder nonverbal language issues, restricted range of
interest and relationships.
Metalinguistic awareness is the knowledge about
language such as knowing a preposition.
Reading begins at the early parts of this time
Whole-language approach parallel’s children’s
natural language learning. Should be whole and
Phonics approach is the idea that reading should
teach basic rules for translating written symbols into
Learning a second language is easier at this time
than any other.
Evidence shows that bilingual children may have an
advantage with out fields of educational study.