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The Israelites

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					The Israelites
                        Overview
   This section discusses the early history of the ancient
    Israelites, including their relationship with God, their
    escape from slavery, and their conflicts with the
    Canaanites over land.
• The Israelites believed in one God who set down moral
  laws for his people. They recorded their history in the
  Bible. Today this section of the Bible is called the Old
  Testament
• The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to return to
  their promised land.
The Early Israelites
• The Israelites built a kingdom in Canaan, along the
  Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia, in 1000 B.C.
• Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan occupy the land that
  was once Canaan.
• Israelites believed in one God.
• The belief in one god is called monotheism.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• The Israelite faith became the religion of
  Judaism.
• Judaism influenced Christianity and Islam and
  helped shape the beliefs of European and
  American societies.
• Israelites spoke Hebrew and wrote their history
  and beliefs in what later became the Hebrew
  Bible.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• The Israelites believed they were descended
  from a man named Abraham.
• The Israelites
  believed God told
  Abraham to settle
  in Canaan, the
  Promised Land of
  the Israelites, and
  worship the one
  true God.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• After 100 years in Canaan, the
  Israelites suffered a long drought.
• To survive, some Israelites went to Egypt.


• The Egyptian pharaoh enslaved the Israelites.

• To prevent the Israelites from rebelling, the pharaoh
  ordered all baby boys to be thrown into the Nile
  River.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• The pharaoh’s daughter found a baby boy in a basket
  on the riverbank.
• She named the baby Moses.
• When Moses grew up, he herded
  sheep in the hills outside Egypt.
• In those hills, he saw a burning
  bush and heard a voice.
• He believed it was God telling him
  to lead the Israelites out of Egypt.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• The Hebrew Bible says that God sent 10 plagues to
  trouble Egypt.
• The last plague killed all the first-born children, except
  for those Israelites who marked their doors with lamb’s
  blood.
                      • The plague convinced the pharaoh
                        to let the Israelites leave Egypt.
                      • After the Israelites left, the
                        pharaoh changed his mind.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• He sent soldiers after the Israelites.
• The Hebrew Bible says that God parted the Red Sea, so
  the Israelites could pass.
• The water flowed back when the soldiers tried to cross
  and they drowned.
The Early Israelites (cont.)
• On the way back to Canaan, Moses went to the top of
   Mount Sinai and received laws from God.
• These laws were known as the Torah, which became
   the first part of the Hebrew Bible.
• The Ten Commandments—what God believes to be
  right and wrong—are an important part of the Torah.
• The Ten Commandments helped form the basic moral
  laws of many nations.
The Ten Commandments
                 After Egypt…
   It took the Israelites 40 years to get back to
    Canaan, Moses had died and his son took his
    place
   The Israelites had to fight many wars to get their
    lands back from the Canaanites
   A group of Canaanites called the Phoenicians
    had an alphabet which the Israelites adopted and
    used to write records
Back to Canaan…Main Ideas
• The Israelites chose a king to unite them against their
  enemies.
• King David built an Israelite empire and made
  Jerusalem his capital city.
• The Israelites were
  conquered and
  forced to leave
  Israel and Judah.

• Eventually, they
  were exiled to
  Babylon.
Exile and Return
• Exile occurs when people are forced to leave their
  homeland.
• During the Israelites’ exile in Babylon, their religion
  became what we call Judaism.

• Jews met each week on the Sabbath, a day of worship
  and rest, in a synagogue, or house of worship.

• After this time, the diaspora of the Jews began. The
  word diaspora means “scattered.”
The Jewish Way of Life
• Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.

• Jewish laws influenced Jews’ education, food, and
  clothes.
• Sons were valuable in Jewish society.
• Sons carried on the family name and became the
  head of the family after the death of their fathers.
• Sons learned how to earn a living and how to worship
  God from their fathers.
    The Jewish Way of Life (cont.)
• They later learned how to read the Torah from religious
  leaders.
• Girls learned how to be good wives, mothers, and
  housekeepers.
• They also learned about Jewish laws and strong
  women of ancient Israel.
• Jewish laws stated that Jews could eat only certain
  animals, such as beef, lamb, and certain scaly fish.
• Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is
  called kosher.
• Jewish laws also applied to clothing.
         The Jews and the Romans
• In 63 B.C., the Romans conquered Judah and
  renamed it Judaea.
• The Dead Sea Scrolls were
  found near the Dead Sea in
  A.D. 1947. They describe
  Judaism during Roman times.

• The Jews hated Roman rule.
• They revolted in A.D.
  66 and drove the
  Romans out of
  Jerusalem.
        The Jews and the Romans
• The Romans regained control four years
  later.
• They killed thousands of Jews and forced many
  others to leave.

                               • The Romans also
                                 destroyed the temple
                                 in Jerusalem.
                                • What remains today
                                  is the Western Wall.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
• The Jews revolted again, but the Romans stopped the
  revolt.
• This time, they forbade Jews to visit Jerusalem and
  gave Judah the name of Palestine, referring to the
  Philistines.
• For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and
  faced persecution.
• In A.D. 1947 Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish
  nation called Israel was created in 1948.
• Palestinians (descendants of Philistines) and modern
  Jewish people still fight over ownership of Israel to this
  day.
                     Israel Today
• In A.D. 1947 Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish
  nation called Israel was created in 1948.

• Palestinians (descendants of Philistines) and modern
  Jewish people still fight over ownership of Israel to this
  day.
Jerusalem:
Disputed. Israel claims Jerusalem
as its capital, but most countries
have embassies in Tel Aviv.

Gaza Strip:
Israeli occupied territory with
limited Palestinian self-
government.

West Bank:
Israeli occupied territory with
areas of limited Palestinian self-
government.

				
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