The Hopi Presented by Arzhanova Olga 2nd year The Hopi are a group of indigenous Native American people who primarily live on the 12,635 km² Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. The Hopi Reservation is entirely surrounded by the much larger Navajo Reservation. Who are these strange “Hopi”? The name 'Hopi' is a shortened form of what these Native American people call themselves, Hopituh Shi-nu-mu, "The Peaceful People" or "Peaceful Little Ones". The Hopi Dictionary gives the primary meaning of the word "Hopi" as: "behaving one, one who is mannered, civilized, peaceable, polite, who adheres to the Hopi way." Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture's religion, spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, which involves a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, and to live in accordance with the instructions of Maasaw, the Creator or Caretaker of Earth. Hopi man Hopi woman Traditionally, Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife's clan. These clan organizations extend across all villages. walpi pueblo 1918 Mishongnovi pueblo 1900 Oraibi There are seven principal Hopi towns, known as pueblos, today. These pueblos are situated on three impressively sized mesas which are criss-crossed by streams which flow only during the brief rains. The most important of the pueblos is the west-most one called Oraibi. This pueblo as constructed approximately A.D. 1150 and is among the oldest continuously occupied towns in the United States. (The Acoma pueblo may be as old.) There were, of course, Hopi in the area long before A.D. 1150, but their pueblos survive only as ruins. When a child is born they get a special blanket and a perfect ear of corn. On the 20th day they take the child to the mesa cliff and hold it facing the rising sun. When the sun hits the baby is given a name. They live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high. The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. They used the kivas for 100 years. The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew. They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was the most common. They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit. The Hopi were huntered. The mountains and canyons to the west and north provided a variety of game animals, including antelope, deer, and elk. Wedding Hopi bride ground corn for three days at her future husband’s house to show she had wife skills. The groom and his male relatives wove her wedding clothes. After they were finished, the bride to be would walk home in one wedding outfit, and carried the other in a container. Women were also buried in their wedding outfit so when they entered the spirit world they would be dressed appropriately. The Hopi man would wear several bead necklaces on his wedding day. Pottery and Textiles Hopi pottery is among the finest ever produced in the southwest, and uses distinctive designs. 1910 The Traditions The Snake Antelope ceremony of the Hopi is a very complex ceremony that incorporates both the ritual of the sacred marriage of the Goddess and the God and the symbolic rising of the kundalini. Kundalini is a concentrated form of prana or life force, lying dormant in chakras in the body. It is conceptualized as a coiled up serpent. In the Great Goddess Mysteries the Sacred Marriage of the Goddess and God occurs on Beltane, May first. It is the Sacred Marriage of the Goddess and God which brings fertility to the land. The Snake – Antelope Ceremony of the Hopi is held every other year, alternating with the Flute Ceremony. The ceremonies are held in the lunar month of Big Feast Moon in August. The purpose of the Snake – Antelope Ceremony is to bring the rain needed for the final maturity of the Hopi corn crop and to ensure a good harvest. The sacred marriage between the goddess and the god only lasts one day while the complete Snake-Antelope ceremony lasts 16 days. The beginning date is determined by the suns position as it rises over the Munyaoui Cliffs. Hopi Kachina Dolls These uniquely Hopi artworks are called "dolls," but that is a bit of a misnomer. Kachinas (or katsinas) are actually stylized religious icons, meticulously carved from cottonwood root and painted to represent figures from Hopi mythology. For generations, these figures have been used to teach children about their religion; no Hopi child has ever teethed on a katsina or taken one to bed, and given their price, I doubt any non-Hopi child has either. The Hairdress Ear candels A Brief history of Hopi Ear Candles This is an ancient and natural therapy handed down by many civilisations. It is believed that the Ancient Greeks used ear candles, initially probably for cleansing, purifying and healing on a spiritual, but much later on a purely physical basis. However, the practice reached the modern world via the native American Hopi Indians of North Arizona. Ear candles were used traditionally by Shaman healers. Ancient wall paintings show their importance in initiation rituals and healing ceremonies of the tribe. The candles are still made today on the basis of the old traditional formula originating from the Hopi Indians. Religion Hopi religion is complicated, having a rich mythology and many rituals. They are polytheists, having many supernatural beings. The head of each clan was a priest who had a number of initiated helpers. These priests brought the rains, ensured a good harvest, and healed the sick. Like many religions with a priest class, the only way to communicate with the supernatural beings was through the priests. Power was given to the clan, and not to the individual. But to ensure that the clan retained its power, the individual priests had to follow rituals without error, and had to lead an honorable life kept free of violations of taboos. The Hopi ceremonial year is based on planting, and notes the time for the sowing of seeds, growth, and harvest. History Early European contact, 1540-1680 The first recorded European contact with the Hopi was by the Spanish in 1540. Spanish General Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had come to North America to explore the land. The Spanish wrote that the first Hopi village they visited was Awatovi. In 1582-1583 the Hopis were visited by Antonio de Espejo’s expedition. He noted that there were five Hopi villages and around 12,000 Hopi people. In 1629, the 30 Friars arrived with Antonio de Espejo in Hopi country, the Franciscan Period started. The Franciscans had missionaries assigned and built a church at Awatovi. The Hopi Indians originally were against conversion. After an incident where Father Porras purportedly restored the sight of a blind youth, by placing a cross over his eyes, the Hopi at Awatovi believed in Christianity. The first conflict The priests were not very successful in converting the natives, and persecuted the Hopi for keeping their religion. The Spaniards took advantage of Hopi labor and the products they produced. The harsh treatment by the Spanish caused the Hopis to become less tolerant of them.The only significant conversions were at the pueblo of Awatovi. Eventually the Rio Grande Pueblo Indians suggested a revolt in the year 1680, and Hopi supported them.