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The Hopi

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					The Hopi

         Presented by
      Arzhanova Olga
              2nd year
The Hopi are a group of indigenous Native
American people who primarily live on the
12,635 km² Hopi Reservation in northeastern
Arizona.
The Hopi Reservation is entirely surrounded
by the much larger Navajo Reservation.
Who are these strange
      “Hopi”?
        The name 'Hopi' is a shortened form of what these Native
American people call themselves, Hopituh Shi-nu-mu, "The
Peaceful People" or "Peaceful Little Ones". The Hopi Dictionary
gives the primary meaning of the word "Hopi" as: "behaving one,
one who is mannered, civilized, peaceable, polite, who adheres to
the Hopi way."


         Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture's religion,
spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to
strive toward this concept, which involves a state of total
reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these
things, and to live in accordance with the instructions of Maasaw,
the Creator or Caretaker of Earth.
Hopi
man
 Hopi
woman
Traditionally, Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans.
When a man marries, the children from the relationship
are members of his wife's clan. These clan organizations
extend across all villages.




                                               walpi
                                               pueblo
                                               1918
Mishongnovi pueblo 1900
                       Oraibi
There are seven principal Hopi towns, known as pueblos, today.
These pueblos are situated on three impressively sized mesas which
are criss-crossed by streams which flow only during the brief rains.

The most important of the pueblos is the west-most one called
Oraibi. This pueblo as constructed approximately A.D. 1150 and is
among the oldest continuously occupied towns in the United States.
(The Acoma pueblo may be as old.) There were, of course, Hopi in
the area long before A.D. 1150, but their pueblos survive only as
ruins.
When a child is born they get a
special blanket and a perfect ear of
corn.
On the 20th day they take the child
to the mesa cliff and hold it facing
the rising sun. When the sun hits the
baby is given a name.
They live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand
several stories high.
        The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home
that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. They used
the kivas for 100 years.
The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They
raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based
religious ceremonies on the corn they grew.
They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was
the most common. They also grew beans, squash, melons,
pumpkins, and fruit.
The Hopi were
huntered.
The mountains and
canyons to the west and
north provided a variety
of game animals,
including antelope, deer,
and elk.
                      Wedding
Hopi bride ground corn for three days at her future
husband’s house to show she had wife skills. The groom
and his male relatives wove her wedding clothes.

After they were finished, the bride to be would walk home
in one wedding outfit, and carried the other in a container.
Women were also buried in their wedding outfit so when
they entered the spirit world they would be dressed
appropriately.

The Hopi man would wear several bead necklaces on his
wedding day.
          Pottery and Textiles
Hopi pottery is among the finest ever
produced in the southwest, and uses
distinctive designs.
1910
The Traditions
The Snake Antelope ceremony of the Hopi is a very complex ceremony
that incorporates both the ritual of the sacred marriage of the Goddess and
the God and the symbolic rising of the kundalini.
Kundalini is a concentrated form of prana or life force, lying dormant in
chakras in the body. It is conceptualized as a coiled up serpent.
In the Great Goddess Mysteries the Sacred Marriage of the
Goddess and God occurs on Beltane, May first. It is the Sacred
Marriage of the Goddess and God which brings fertility to the
land.

The Snake – Antelope Ceremony of the Hopi is held every other
year, alternating with the Flute Ceremony. The ceremonies are
held in the lunar month of Big Feast Moon in August. The
purpose of the Snake – Antelope Ceremony is to bring the rain
needed for the final maturity of the Hopi corn crop and to ensure
a good harvest.
The sacred marriage between the
goddess and the god only lasts one day
while the complete Snake-Antelope
ceremony lasts 16 days. The beginning
date is determined by the suns position
as it rises over the Munyaoui Cliffs.
          Hopi Kachina Dolls

         These uniquely Hopi artworks are called "dolls," but that
is a bit of a misnomer. Kachinas (or katsinas) are actually stylized
religious icons, meticulously carved from cottonwood root and
painted to represent figures from Hopi mythology.
        For generations, these figures have been used to teach
children about their religion; no Hopi child has ever teethed on a
katsina or taken one to bed, and given their price, I doubt any
non-Hopi child has either.
The Hairdress
Ear candels
A Brief history of Hopi Ear Candles
   This is an ancient and natural therapy handed down by many
   civilisations. It is believed that the Ancient Greeks used ear candles,
   initially probably for cleansing, purifying and healing on a spiritual,
   but much later on a purely physical basis.

   However, the practice reached the modern world via the native
   American Hopi Indians of North Arizona. Ear candles were used
   traditionally by Shaman healers. Ancient wall paintings show their
   importance in initiation rituals and healing ceremonies of the tribe.

   The candles are still made today on the basis of the old traditional
   formula originating from the Hopi Indians.
Religion
        Hopi religion is complicated, having a rich mythology
and many rituals. They are polytheists, having many
supernatural beings. The head of each clan was a priest who
had a number of initiated helpers. These priests brought the
rains, ensured a good harvest, and healed the sick.
       Like many religions with a priest class, the only way
to communicate with the supernatural beings was through
the priests.
       Power was given to the clan, and not to the
individual. But to ensure that the clan retained its power,
the individual priests had to follow rituals without error,
and had to lead an honorable life kept free of violations of
taboos.
       The Hopi ceremonial year is based on planting, and
notes the time for the sowing of seeds, growth, and harvest.
History
      Early European contact,
            1540-1680
The first recorded European contact with the Hopi was by
the Spanish in 1540. Spanish General Francisco Vasquez
de Coronado had come to North America to explore the
land. The Spanish wrote that the first Hopi village they
visited was Awatovi.

In 1582-1583 the Hopis were visited by Antonio de
Espejo’s expedition. He noted that there were five Hopi
villages and around 12,000 Hopi people.
In 1629, the 30 Friars arrived with Antonio de Espejo in Hopi country, the
Franciscan Period started. The Franciscans had missionaries assigned and built a
church at Awatovi. The Hopi Indians originally were against conversion. After
an incident where Father Porras purportedly restored the sight of a blind youth,
by placing a cross over his eyes, the Hopi at Awatovi believed in Christianity.



                            The first conflict
The priests were not very successful in converting the natives, and persecuted
the Hopi for keeping their religion.
The Spaniards took advantage of Hopi labor and the products they produced.
The harsh treatment by the Spanish caused the Hopis to become less tolerant of
them.The only significant conversions were at the pueblo of Awatovi. Eventually
the Rio Grande Pueblo Indians suggested a revolt in the year 1680, and Hopi
supported them.

				
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