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1 The Evolution of Plug-in Electric Vehicle-Grid Interactions David P. Tuttle and Ross Baldick The University of Texas at Austin Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 11/26/2010 Abstract -- Over the past decade key technologies have supply base, all the essential technologies are presently progressed so that mass-market viable PEVs (Plug-In Electric available to facilitate mass-market viable PEVs. Vehicles) are now set to reach the U.S. market by 2010-2011. The several types of PEVs can be categorized as follows: PEV-grid interactions comprise a mix of industries that have - BEVs (Battery Electric Vehicles): a vehicle with a large not interacted closely in the past. A number of these onboard battery that is charged via a power cord to the grid. commercial participants have utilized the same basic business model for nearly a century. The various participants include This battery then provides the energy for the electric traction vehicle manufacturers, utilities, and supplier firms who have motor to propel the vehicle. radically different business models, regulatory and legal - eREVs (Extended Range Electric Vehicle): are BEV-derived environments, geographical scope, and technical capabilities. vehicles with the addition of an on-board gas engine- This paper will provide a survey of PEV technology trends, oil generator which provides electrical energy to the motor once price impacts, consumer behavior and preferences, policy the initial battery charge is exhausted. This configuration options, grid capabilities, standards, and business models. solves the classic “range anxiety” problem of a BEV by From an analysis of these factors this paper synthesizes and providing an overall range equivalent to a traditional gas or provides a likely scenario for PEV-Grid interaction over the diesel vehicle. Once its initial charge from the grid is next decade. depleted or if the vehicle is never plugged into the grid, the eREV should appear operationally similar to a conventional Keywords – Plug-in electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicle, extended range electric vehicles, PEV, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). BEV, PHEV, eREV, vehicle to grid. - PHEVs (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles): are Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) derived vehicles with larger batteries I. INTRODUCTION and a charging cord to the grid added, which typically operate in a “blended” mode using both the gas engine and electric F or a century the promise of the electric automobile has been just that, a promise. Electric vehicles had initial success in the early 1900’s and were developed and advocated motor together to radically reduce gas consumption. PHEVs also solve the traditional BEV range anxiety problem and should operate similarly to a traditional HEV if never plugged by some of the best minds of the era, such as Thomas Edison. into the grid. However, once the internal combustion engine (ICE) There are meaningful differences in the underlying eREV powertrain had progressed in range and convenience and an and PHEV powertrain technologies. However, where useful increasing number of gas stations were built, electric this paper will combine these two types of PEVs into a powertrains were relegated to a small market niche of generic range-extended PHEV category to differentiate them vehicular applications. Sales of mainstream electric vehicles from non-range extended BEVs. were inconsequential by the 1920’s. As technology While selling in low volumes due to its price, Tesla’s progressed over the 20th century, updated electric prototypes $109,000 Roadster performance BEV demonstrated the recent were constructed but never achieved mass-market viability. promise of the critical technologies. The Roadster raised The computer industry drove the development of awareness regarding the technology readiness. This semiconductors, microprocessors, and related design tools, awareness, in turn, reportedly helped to stimulate investment processes, and fabrication and software which eventually by established global vehicle manufacturers, which eventually enabled critical PEV semiconductors, power electronics, and led to committed efforts to produce mass-market viable controls. Later, the consumer electronics industry drove the vehicles such as the Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus, volumes and costs of Lithium batteries, which now have and other vehicles under development. Once the first few key sufficient energy density for automotive applications. While global vehicle manufacturers announced plans for PEVs, not yet at scale and mature volumes for a global automotive other manufacturers apparently started to invest as a competitive response. This work was supported by Power Systems Engineering Fueling infrastructure has traditionally been a critical Research Center (PSerc) under the project T-40 titled “Investigating impediment to the adoption of any alternative fuel based of PHEV large scale penetration scenarios and aggregation options”, and in part by the University of Texas at Austin. vehicle. For PEVs, home charging is a convenient and D. Tuttle and R. Baldick are with the Department of Electrical reasonably priced alternative to publicly accessible charging and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 infrastructure or even traditional gas stations. Driver University Station C0803, Austin, TX 78712 (emails: residences are expected to be the dominant PEV charging email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org) location for all types of PEVs (BEVs, eREVs, PHEVs). Some vehicle manufacturers are expecting that range-extended PEVs will enjoy much greater adoption rates than BEVs 2 given the combination of eREV/PHEV range extension with the simplicity of infrastructure provided by home charging, particularly AC Level-1 (120 Volt) charging. II. PLUG-IN VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES On the other hand, battery electric vehicles have a much simpler all electric powertrain and the potential for lower A. First Generation production costs (as battery prices decline further) and lower maintenance costs but have a greater need for public charging The first-generation PEVs will establish “green” infrastructure than range-extended PEVs given they have no technology leadership and build brand equity for their gasoline backup for longer distance travel. Actions which manufacturers, help the vehicle OEM (Original Equipment address and eventually leverage the “network effect” of PEV Manufacturer, i.e. vehicle manufacturer) meet more strict public charging stations would be beneficial to support non- Federal government CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel range extended BEVs or PEV owners without a garage and Economy) fleet fuel economy standards, drive further encourage PEV adoption. The classic example of the R&D/manufacturing/supplier base learning, and provide test network effect occurred in telephony where the greater the beds to better understand the durability of batteries and other number of telephones, the higher the value of each telephone key components. Volumes are expected to be modest, but given the user can progressively talk to more people since meaningful. These PEVs will likely sell at low or negative there are more telephones. In a somewhat similar fashion for profit levels depending upon sales volumes, financial public PEV charging stations, the greater the number of accounting for the basic technology R&D amortization, sales charging stations, the greater the adoption of PEVs, which price, and battery warranty costs. The first generation will then increases the profit potential or value for each charging mainly be focused on bringing to market leadership PEVs station, which then encourages an even greater number of while maintaining the extremely high levels of reliability, public charging stations to be installed. The challenge is safety, and convenience that conventional vehicles provide making the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure today. Meeting these expectations could be a challenge given ecosystem economics attractive so that the classic and critical PEV technology is new and unproven in large scale customer “chicken and egg” problem is transformed into a virtuous deployments, which tend to surface problems not easily found cycle of increasing numbers with a positive network effect. despite manufacturers’ rigorous validation tests. On the other hand, urban public charging stations used The global vehicle manufacturers perceive enough safety during the day without intelligent charging communication and durability risks with these first generation vehicles that and control may be problematic by encouraging on-peak they will avoid including two-way powerflow capability for charging. Thus the combination of range-extended PEV the near term. The vast majority of vehicles will likely powertrains and home charging may be beneficial in a include only Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) power flow and the number of ways: a lessened demand on public charging driver will have on-board vehicle programmability to infrastructure, less risk of peak electricity demand manually set the charge window. Modest integrated aggravation, lower overall costs of home charging communication capabilities will be included, which will infrastructure given overnight charging with an AC Level 1 enable diagnostics and status from the vehicle, limited charge (120 Volt) charger may be sufficient for eREVs/PHEVs (but control to set “grid-friendly” charging windows, and control not BEVs), and a smaller battery size required onboard the of passenger cabin pre-heating or pre-cooling. PEV itself. Unlike the inconvenience and costs associated with the two There is motivation to push for an alternative to reduce the incompatible inductive and conductive California Air United States’ dependence on oil (particularly foreign oil): Resources Board Zero Emissions Vehicle (CARB ZEV) era Energy security, environmental concerns such as oil spills or chargers, the vehicle manufactures appear to have agreed CO2 emissions, imported-oil based trade deficit, reduction in upon the “SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice funds flowing to terrorist organizations from petrodollars, and J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler” as reduced geopolitical entanglements. However, the incumbent the standard for upcoming U.S. market vehicles. Supporters advantage of petroleum fueled vehicles is considerable. of this SAE-J1772-2009 standard include GM, Chrysler, The following section on Plug-In vehicle technologies will Ford, Toyota, Honda, Nissan and Tesla . SAE J1772 describe the key attributes which are likely to define the major presently has two basic charging voltages: single phase AC generations of PEVs. Subsequent sections will provide a Level 1 (120 Volt) and AC Level 2 (240 Volt) up to a peak survey of oil price impacts, consumer behavior and power transfer of 19.2kW. This common standard fosters preferences, policy options, grid capabilities, standards, and lower charging infrastructure costs and improved availability business models. From an analysis of these factors this paper and convenience of public and home charging stations. will synthesize a likely (or at least plausible) scenario for The combined electric and gasoline range of PHEV and PEV-Grid interaction over the next decade given technology eREVs will be comparable to conventional automobiles. readiness, incentives or impediments to adoption, and key Given range anxiety, advances in Lithium batteries, and other enabling actions. consumer considerations the mass-market BEVs appear to have 100 mile range targets. As with conventional vehicle mileage estimates, “your actual (electric vehicle) mileage will vary” (typically, but not always in a negative fashion). Real 3 world electric range will likely vary significantly with driving Chevrolet Volt eREV: 16kWh battery , estimated 65% habits, terrain, and weather conditions given heavy electrical SOC window, with a range of conversion efficiency estimates loads such as passenger cabin heating and air conditioning that vary between 2.5 to 5.7 miles/kWh based upon systems. temperature, HVAC load, terrain, and driving techniques. The advertised electric range for PEVs will be based upon a particular objective test cycle, such as the EPA LA4/UDDS Upper bound optimal AER (Note: AER does not include the drive cycle  for conventional vehicles. While these test 300 miles of gasoline extended range): cycles are useful for purchase comparisons, the effective R = 16 · 0.65 · 5.7 = 59.3 miles (4) range a driver will experience will differ and importantly can be expected to increase over time as technology progresses. Lower bound harsh weather AER: Similar to conventional vehicles, potential buyers should be R = 16 · 0.65 · 2.5 = 26 miles (5) aware that “their mileage will vary” with temperature, terrain, and driver temperament. Once PEVs are introduced into the market the true ranges will become apparent under The range estimates for the Volt vary from a range of 25 to varied conditions. The actual performance will then may 59 miles in sample Volt tests and 35 miles in the final test affect market perceptions and further adoption. An results used by the EPA for the window sticker. estimation of the PEV all electric range is described by the relationship: These AER values are on par with both manufacturers’ claimed nominal AER (of 100 for the Nissan Leaf and 40 mi R = C • W •η (1) for the Chevrolet Volt, respectively), the harsh-weather range (of 62 mi and 25 mi, respectively) and the best-case ranges With: (of 138 and 58 mi, respectively) indicated by formally R = all-electric range (AER) released data and informal comments by spokespeople from C = Gross battery capacity (the battery size installed in the GM and Nissan. PEV in kWh) W = State of Charge (SOC) window (i.e., the difference Note that the range of conversion efficiency parameters between the highest SOC and lowest SOC that the assume a 3500 lb to 3700lb vehicle with good aerodynamics vehicle’s control algorithm will allow) and (e.g. less than 0.29 Cd-Drag Coefficient). The Leaf’s η = conversion efficiency parameter (i.e., distance traveled conversion efficiencies are assumed to be slightly higher per unit of energy consumed, in miles per kWh). given its lower weight. Also, a range-extended PHEV in blended mode operation using a combination of the electric motor and gas engine for Each vehicle type or manufacturer will likely have a unique propulsion will have a more complex estimate for electric SOC window given different Lithium battery chemistries, range beyond the scope of this paper. For example, Toyota battery thermal management strategy, control algorithms, has claimed a 13 mile AER for its upcoming 2012 Prius market requirements for all electric range, and cost/durability PHEV but at a maximum speed of 62mph. Speeds over 62 objectives. The results of applying this relationship to the two mph require the gasoline engine to operate. PEVs with the most information available and that are soon to be introduced are as follows: B. Second Generation Nissan Leaf BEV: 24kWh battery , estimated 90% SOC window, with a range of conversion efficiency estimates that Second generation PEVs will be developed with far greater vary between 2.8 to 6 miles/kWh based upon temperature, amounts of field and lab experience enabling improvements HVAC load, terrain, and driving techniques. particularly in cost. Enhancements in battery control and efficiency will improve range or maintain range at decreased Upper bound optimal AER: (Note: All Electric Range is the costs. An example could be the first generation Chevrolet total range of the battery electric vehicle) Volt 16kWh battery reduced to perhaps 10 or 12kWh while R = 24 · 0.90 · 6 = 129.6 miles (2) maintaining a 40 mile All Electric Range (AER). Hence, second generation PEVs are likely to have more attractive Lower bound harsh weather AER: financial payback analyses. As PEV powertrain components R = 24 · 0.90 · 2.8 = 60.5 miles (3) gain scale production economies and become less expensive (or if oil supplies are disrupted or prices increase The range estimates for the Leaf vary from a range of 62 to substantially) relative total cost of ownership improvements 138 miles in sample Nissan tests, approximately 100 miles will drive further waves of adoption. with the EPA LA4 cycle, and 73 miles in the final test results Grid to Vehicle (G2V) SAE J1772 AC Level-1 (120 Volt) used by the EPA for the window sticker. and AC Level-2 (240 Volt) charging capability will remain but likely improved with more substantial communication capability such as power line communications (PLC) between 4 the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and PEV, ZigBeeTM wireless communications between the smartmeter and EVSE/PEV, vehicle integrated wireless capability typically over digital cell phone networks, or 802.11 WiFi TM wireless communications between the PEV and a home area network (HAN). These enhanced communications will enable more sophisticated Grid-PEV interactions and more intelligent charging with CO2/energy-price signaling or perhaps limited regulation-up/regulation-down grid ancillary services, which may generate revenue for the PEV owner. Additional standards efforts (such as SAE International Figure 1: Existing SAE J1772 AC Level-1/AC Level-2 J2847) are underway to enable more sophisticated Coupler also under consideration by SAE International and communications between the PEV, the home area network, IEC as the DC Level-1 Coupler, (Source: Gery Kissel, and the meters/utility. Also, AC Level-2 charging speed may 7/28/2010) be improved further by increasing the current capability to the maximum 80A limit (instead of 240 Volt/30A or 40A) where supported by the premise electrical infrastructure. IEC 62196 supports single phase and a three-phase AC By the second generation timeframe, the advantages of the rapid charge power feed, which is available at some European various PEV architectures will become clear to customers, the premises. The SAE J1772 and IEC committees are jointly technology will have advanced further, and costs/performance pursuing a strategy of driving a single global specification for will likely have been improved. Vehicle manufacturers may the ultra-fast high-capacity “hybrid” connector and interface have enough knowledge about technologies and PEV which is a superset of the round J1772 connector or IEC consumer behaviors and preferences to offer an increased 62196 connector. This hybrid connector has 2 additional DC diversity of vehicle platforms using the same basic electric power pins mounted below its round section, which is used powertrain components or derivatives. For example, given for the backward compatible J1772 or IEC 62196 connector the strong torque capabilities of electric motors, differentiated (Figure 2) performance PEVs will likely be announced that have far It is unclear whether regional requirements or preferences more moderate prices (compared with the $109,000 Tesla will eventually preclude a single global standard. Note that Roadster). Performance cars traditionally have a higher sales high-capacity DC charging ports have been previously price and provide larger profit margins for vehicle defined. The Nissan Leaf can include a Japan Automobile manufacturers. These greater margins can more profitably Research Institute/Tokyo Electric Power Company recover the additional costs of the electric powertrain and (JARI/TEPCO) DC charging port. However, this batteries by providing the customer with “guilt-free JARI/TEPCO interface is not accepted as an industry performance”. Increased number of PEV types and standard for the U.S. or Europe at this time and may, or may performance, lower costs, more familiarity with PEVs may not, be adopted by SAE International or IEC committees then increase PEV adoption rates. given its lack of backward compatibility to the J1772 and IEC 62196 connectors. While a single standard is certainly desirable, inter-continent differences may in the end have C. Third Generation inconsequential impacts on PEV adoption and economics. Each continent presents sufficient volumes to enable scale Third generation PEVs may be substantially defined as economies and negligible numbers of PEVs will travel vehicles with an industry standard ultra-fast high-capacity between continents. interface to the vehicle (beyond AC Level 2) deploying an off- vehicle charger or with two-way powerflow capabilities. The next generation higher capacity charging infrastructure architecture is likely to be DC Level 2 charging supporting a maximum powerflow of approximately 100kW. Note that the existing AC Level-1 (120 Volt) and AC Level-2 (240 Volt) standards use an AC power flow between the EVSE and an on-board PEV vehicle charger. While the manufacturers of PEVs destined for the U.S. market have apparently standardized on the SAE J1772 AC Level-1 (120 Volt) and AC Level-2 (240 Volt) interface (Figure 1), for other markets Figure 2: Proposed DC Level-2 Charge Coupler under (such as Europe) the International Electrotechnical consideration by SAE International and IEC (Source: Gery Commission IEC 62196 standard may be adopted as the PEV Kissel, 7/28/2010) charging interface. 5 Over the first decade progressively more sophisticated PEVs may act as a distributed storage node with their large communications, control, and power flow capabilities will be battery storing less-expensive off-peak energy from the grid incorporated as vehicle manufacturers gain field experience or locally generated renewable energy from rooftop solar with batteries, electronics, PEV driving habits, and as clearer panels, providing power for the premise, or releasing excess business models emerge that allow manufacturers to be energy back to the grid during higher priced peak demand. profitably compensated for the costs and risks of more Estimates for the revenue potential for the PEV owner from sophisticated Grid-PEV interactions. ancillary services vary. A large portion of the variation in The first reverse powerflow configuration may be Vehicle estimates appears to be from varied market price assumptions to Load (V2L) . V2L capability will enable the PEV to act for ancillary services in the different regions, and differences as a construction-site generator to an isolated load. An in assumptions on the costs of aggregation and vehicle example of this configuration would be a PEV pickup-truck availability to the aggregators. V2G capability and which would include an on-board charger, converter, and bed aggregators would be required to support ancillary services mounted power outlets. such as regulation up, regulation down, and spinning reserves The PEV could act as a home backup generator in a for the grid independent system operator . The vehicle-to-home (V2H) configuration. Multiple PEVs limitations to using the PEV for advanced V2G will likely be acting in concert with a local aggregator/coordinator could related to the challenge of implementing assured and secure support a larger isolated building/mobile command communications particularly between the aggregator and the center/Military mobile hospital in a Vehicle-to-Premise (V2P) large number of PEVs, the amount of the potential income, configuration. the additional wear on the PEV battery, and the degree of Basic Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G-net-metered or V2G-NM) inconvenience to the driver. interactions could leverage the PEV as a distributed storage The use of PEV range extending engines to generate node to capture locally generated energy from photovoltaic energy (and create compensating revenues for the PEV panels or store low-cost off-peak energy for later release back owner) which is then fed back to the grid to reduce grid peak to the grid at higher peak rates through “net-metering”. Net- demand has questionable likelihood of achieving mass metering capability enables a home’s electric meter to adoption given the complexities of control, unattractive effectively run backward to credit the customer’s account economics and emissions compared to traditional very large when their local generation (such as rooftop solar panels) scale grid generation. produce more energy than their home demands. The excess Another concept is to use coordinated PEVs as a grid energy is fed back into the grid. Unlike residential feeder backup. The need for assured communication and the photovoltaic panels which may provide excess power back to complexity of coordination make the use of PEVs for feeder the grid simply based upon total sunlight available and the backup extremely challenging. Orchestration of this concept local load, the increased communication and control of PEV would require coordinated isolation of the feeder through grid can provide greater coordination and optimization of reverse protection and isolation devices such as relays, breakers, and power flow to the grid. fuses. It would also require real time estimation of cold start Additional configurations of two-way power flow to the load conditions and cold start coordination across multiple grid with both G2V combined with Vehicle-to-Home/Vehicle- vehicles (given it is likely that that multiple coordinated to-Premise/Vehicle-to-Grid capability will likely require an vehicles will be needed to serve an entire feeder) and off-vehicle EVSE /power outlet/transfer switch designed to estimation of the load on the feeder and generation capability meet the required premise building electricity codes (such as of the combined set of vehicles. Algorithms to address issues “islanding” when the grid power is off) and perhaps an from different feeder configurations (single-phase or multiple industry standard high-capacity interface if large amounts of phase feeders, for example) would also need to be created. energy flow are required. Coordination of frequency, voltage, and reactive power To recover their incremental R&D, manufacturing, and support across multiple vehicles would be required. Graceful warranty costs the vehicle manufacturers will likely charge an coordination of shutdown of PEV generation and resumption additional premium for a two-way powerflow capable of grid supplied power would also be required. interface and an off-board charger/power outlet/transfer switch box. III. OIL PRICES D. Fourth Generation The influence of oil prices on PEV adoption rates would at first appear straightforward. The higher the retail price of With assured two-way communication and control, gas and diesel fuel, the more compelling the economics of additional software, and grid aggregators fourth generation alternatives such as PEVs. However, some studies have PEVs may be enabled to generate revenue for the owner concluded that the long term effect of U.S. retail fuel prices through the use of their onboard battery and gasoline on vehicle purchasing decisions is modest and slow  generator. when fuel prices are typically a minor portion of a family PEVs of the future can be used as a source for grid budget. Consumer behavior that affects demand is shaped by ancillary services or peak power sales back to the grid . the availability of gasoline, the rate of change of price, and 6 then the absolute price . While the future rate of price IV. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND PREFERENCES change and absolute price are difficult to predict, the low relative retail price of U.S. gasoline mutes reactions to price. Market adoption dynamics can usefully be described in five Also, the incumbent advantage that the hydrocarbon re- stages which characterize the buyers: innovators, early fueling infrastructure has from a network effect is adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards . considerable. The value proposition and perceived risks of PEVs will likely Credible sources have for years debated global producer change over time. The compelling value proposition to capacity to continuously increase supply (“Peak Oil”). Over innovators and early adopters is being the first to purchase many decades, the global oil industry has continuously PEVs given their perceived environmental benefits, image, improved exploration, production (E&P), and recovery and exclusivity despite higher total cost of ownership (TCO) methods, which has extended the supply of available oil at than conventional vehicles. Innovators and early adopters reasonable prices. Cambridge Energy Research Associates are willing to pay a price premium for a more (CERA) estimates that the world has consumed environmentally sensitive or alternative fuel vehicle despite approximately 1 trillion barrels of oil cumulatively and that potentially very long payback periods determined by a pure approximately 2 trillion more barrels will likely be available TCO financial analysis. The next wave of early majority for future use but at higher prices. As conventional sources of purchasers will enjoy nearly the same perceived benefits at a oil diminish, higher prices will drive new sources (e.g. cost progressively nearing traditional vehicles as successive Canadian Tar Sands or biofuels) maintaining supplies while generations of PEVs ramp up volumes and costs are reduced. simultaneously driving efficiency improvements that typically Late majority purchasers will view PEVs as a means of decrease or moderate the growth of aggregate demand over providing more economical or sustainable transportation. It time. is unlikely that PEV adoption will be so great over the next Nevertheless, the world’s conventional oil supplies are decade that laggards (the last group) will purchase them. exhaustible and will eventually diminish at some time in the There are numerous risks perceived by customers: future. It is simply a matter of when and at what price points technology related, supplier related, and range/use related new multi-year cycles of exploration and production risks. The technology risks clearly are from the batteries, innovation, efficiency/conservation enhancements, and control and power electronics, and software. Given there is alternatives are launched and then come online with some little field experience with PEVs, it is reasonable to expect number of years delay. One of the few projections with some number of teething problems. However, vehicle certainty is the likely volatility of prices over the long term. manufacturers’ steady focus on quality, apparent success with For a U.S. focused analysis, given political realities it is fair HEV durability, and the ability to easily upgrade the software to assume that neither a meaningful gas price floor nor sets expectations that the problems will be minor or quickly significant carbon or road tax will be implemented in the near addressable. Vehicle manufacturers with global resources, future that would substantially raise retail fuel prices and large strong dealer networks that assure service or parts hence purposely encourage alternatives. Absent availability over the long term, and credibility to back their internalization of carbon and energy security costs, U.S. gas warranties given the long life and costs of vehicles will tend prices are inexpensive to the extent that any alternatives will to substantially reduce perceived purchase risk to potential likely be more expensive either in initial purchase price or PEV buyers. overall total cost of ownership in the short term for early It is important to note that usage and range risk are generation PEVs. PEV adoption rates will likely be more clearly different for the various types of PEVs. For example, driven by the success of compelling vehicle designs and BEVs will likely have a higher perceived usage risk to image, improved costs over time, and other differentiating customers given their more limited range and greater characteristics than purely a financial advantage. Hence, dependency on public charging infrastructure while possibly U.S. retail fuel prices will likely have minimal impact on having a lower perceived technology reliability risk due to adoption rates alternatives over the next decade unless some their relatively simple all-electric powertrain. “tail” event occurs such as a large supply disruption or A method of reducing the perceived risks of purchasing a substantial decline in the value of the dollar that causes a long PEV is to design the product to be more compatible with term oil price increase that would clearly boost adoption rates. existing paradigm/models/behaviors and also by dividing the While PEVs are likely to be introduced first in the U.S. steps of adoption into smaller increments. The first step market, it is conceivable that these vehicles may enjoy faster could be eREVs/PHEVs which can effectively operate as a adoption rates in regions such as Europe and Japan that hybrid after depleting their grid charge (or if they are never maintain meaningfully higher fuel prices through specific charged by the grid) and have no range anxiety. Over time, fuel tax policies meant to encourage efficiency and alternative as drivers realize that the majority of their actual commuting fuel vehicles. needs are met by a 40 mile range, public charging infrastructure becomes sufficiently convenient, or as drivers also retain ownership of a conventional vehicle they may then become comfortable with 100 mile range BEVs. 7 V. POLICY - Actions which accelerate common standards for ultra-fast high-capacity charging There are a wide variety of local, state, and federal entities - Policy that support roaming charging at attractive prices and actions that can encourage PEV adoption. These actions at a wide variety of convenient locations. can generally be categorized as being grid or grid-vehicle - Actions that encourage smart home technology related, or being related to the vehicle itself. deployment, particularly ones synergistic with PEVs. The objectives of these actions would ideally be: - Policy that enables income producing PEV related - Reduce the perceived and real risks and costs with services in the future such as grid ancillary services. purchasing a PEV - Actions which enable the future collection of road taxes - Increase the dissemination of accurate performance data to (similar to gasoline taxes) or the allocation of carbon ensure PEVs meet purchasers expectations, credits - Decrease the costs, complexity, or inconvenience of buying and using a PEV and create a compelling Utilities appear to be very excited about the potential large advantage for PEVs over traditional vehicles. scale of additional controllable load (and revenue) created by - Enable and encourage intelligent charging which avoids PEVs. Existing grid load is traditionally characterized as aggravating critical-peak demand and encourages price inelastic  and expecting reliable, relatively charging with low CO2 sourced electricity inexpensive energy at any time in any desired amount. The - Ensuring electricity continues to maintain an attractive ability for a customer to use whatever amount of energy cost advantage as an alternative transportation fuel whenever desired has been part of the fundamental value - Encourage investments in charging and communication proposition of grid energy long embedded in consumers’ infrastructure essential to enable advanced PEV-Grid minds. Many ideas have surfaced from grid participants interactions. related to new ways to leverage and control PEVs. Some of - Encourage investments and market mechanisms which these ideas may face consumer resistance given they may increase the synergistic interactions possible between attempt to counter to long lived and deeply-embedded PEVs and the grid that further enable the increased use of consumer behaviors and expectations that change the zero emissions generation by fostering strong coincidence fundamental value of electricity to customers. of PEV charging with renewable generation. Vehicle related actions could include: There are numerous methods for legislative and regulatory - Actions that reduce the real or perceived durability risk bodies to encourage PEV adoption, encourage key technology to PEV purchasers or resale values (e.g. Federal mandate development, improve pricing and emissions signaling for a 10 year/100,000 mile battery warranty with clear mechanisms and communications investments, stimulate performance criteria) complimentary investments in renewable generation, - Providing realistic PEV electric range information under transmission, and distribution, better utilize grid assets, and varied conditions to potential PEV purchasers (similar to accelerate the economic development of smartgrid technology mandated EPA fuel efficiency estimates on the window which can foster strong coincidence of PEV charging with stickers of conventional vehicles). renewable generation. - The rapid promotion of industry common standards for PEV battery tests and performance to encourage Grid or Grid-Vehicle related actions could include: competition and price reductions. - Freedom to create vehicle-specific tariff structures with - Promotion of methods to provide a common interface to attractive and flexible TOU off-peak, seasonal, or real foster second-use of PEV batteries to increase the time pricing programs. residual value of batteries no longer suitable for vehicular - Actions that enable real time broadcast of price, CO2, or use. By increasing the residual value of these original renewable generation capacity information to vehicles batteries, the overall battery costs are lowered. through such mediums as local FM radio RDS (Radio - Education programs for the public to advocate and Data System) sub-bands or HD/Digital radio stations to explain the different types of PEVs to facilitate more enable on-board PEV computers to optimize their informed consumer choice, increased purchase charging behaviors. satisfaction, and hence increased adoption. - Actions which reduce the costs and inconvenience of - Increased CAFE credits for vehicle manufactures to installation of residential, workplace, and public encourage a greater diversity of PEV models and lower charging stations through common national codes. prices to increase adoption. - Actions that make public charging stations profitable - Increased or extended funding for pre-competitive (unlike the CARB ZEV experience) e.g. subsidies while research in automotive batteries either through individual the number of PEVs being publicly charged is low, grants or consortia to advance durability, lower costs, parking space allocations, advantaged permitting for co- increase power/energy density, and increase competition. location with complementary businesses which are outside the traditional gasoline refueling station Policy which affects the vehicle directly, such as specified paradigm. battery warranty lengths are challenging to implement in an 8 optimal fashion. A balance must be achieved. For example, generation PEVs will likely be inconsequential to the grid. mandating a long battery warranty period may reduce Simple driver entry of a cooperative charge window will perceived risk by the consumer which then may increase likely be sufficient to avoid significantly exacerbating peak adoption. However, if the costs of this warranty are too great, loads and will be acceptable to early adopters. As increasing the manufacturer may need to increase the vehicle price to the numbers of PEVs are sold, local grid to vehicle point that this higher price then discourages adoption. communications broadcasting will be useful for emissions and price signaling. Later, two-way communications that transmit the present and desired state-of-charge (SOC), VI. GRID CAPABILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE, AND powerflow, and other parameters will be useful in enabling CONCERNS Demand Side Management (DSM), Opportunistic charging, Load Acting As Resource (LaaR), and various forms of According to a recent study, with only modestly well- ancillary services. behaved charging, the existing U.S. energy grid can support With the diversity of utilities, of utility deployed 84% of the light duty vehicles in U.S . The only real technologies, and of utility technical capabilities it is likely constraint the existing grid has in supporting this massive that PEV-OEM-Utility communication will likely be the first number of PEVs in the U.S. is the avoidance of charging mechanism implemented through vehicle-integrated wireless during the most extreme periods of peak demand on the grid pathways such as GM’s On-Star before PEV-ZigBee/PLC- . An example is late in the afternoon on a very hot Smartmeter-UtilityBackhaul communications pathways are summer day with extreme air-conditioning loads. The broadly implemented . These vehicle manufacturer critical charge avoidance periods will vary by region, controlled or enabled solutions will likely provide a secure weather, and year but likely constitutes less than a few portal for utilities to indirectly connect to a particular vehicle hundred hours of an 8760 hour year for generation, but with unknown incremental costs and communication transmission, and distribution. The key to avoiding these assuredness. Technologically sophisticated PEV periods is the implementation of modest coordination of manufacturers can certainly implement indirect PEV-Grid charging windows, staggered charge starting, and avoiding communications, but the latency, liability, security, critical peak demand aggravation. ownership, and costs may not be acceptable to utilities or To first implement rudimentarily intelligent PEV charging PEV drivers. G2V power flow will likely be controlled by the driver The control strategy for grid independent system operators manually setting the charge window in the PEV’s on-board (ISOs) will have to adapt to mass numbers of controllable computer. “Grid advised”, automated, or real time charge PEVs. ISOs presently centrally control a relatively small window control could be sent from the system operator, numbers of large devices (such as large scale generators). aggregator, or retailer to the PEV by a variety of But with large numbers of relatively small distributed devices, communication pathways discussed in this paper. Vehicle to such as PEVs, the control strategy may be more optimal using Load (V2L) construction site generator configurations are decentralized control through price or emissions signaling “off-grid” hence have no communications or coordination particularly if the vehicle can receive local real time price, requirement with the grid. CO2, and generation information over a variety of methods V2H or V2P where the reverse power flow is only to an such as FM radio RDS sub-bands or HD/Digital radio isolated premise requires only communication between the airwaves. off-vehicle EVSE/outlet/transfer switch device(s) and the Given the thousands of utilities each with the freedom to vehicle(s) and no external communication functions beyond choose their own technologies and multiple technical the premise. V2G-net-metering should also have low solutions possible, it is likely that vehicle manufacturers, external communications demand given its focus is using net- owners, and utilities will all benefit from PEVs providing a metering to lower a cumulative electric energy bill. V2G-net- commonly used configurable communications socket or a metering would be technically enabled but only financially common PEV-EVSE communications interface where the attractive if there were sufficient price differences at various EVSE is then used as a bridge to the required residence times of the day or the premise has, for example, local solar HAN/SmartMeter-AMI interface. With a standardized generation and the added PEV battery wear is assured to be interface, individual communication interface modules can be minimal. installed that support the many potential standards such as Advanced V2G to create income from grid ancillary ZigBeeTM, 802.11 WiFITM, WiMaxTM, cell phone, or PLC services is a sophisticated concept that would require assured which could be selected based on regional needs, terrain, cost, communications and coordination, aggregating entities to or utility preferences. control large numbers of V2G participating PEVs, and Public and workplace charging infrastructure will evolve sufficient economic incentives to provide ancillary services. over time but with the most used charging location likely to The continuous improvements in PEV-Grid remain the residential garage. PEV buyer clustering is likely, communications capabilities are essential to enable advanced which will require distribution analysis and occasional interactions but may also be important for mitigating the upgrades. Commercial fleets with home-base charging will impacts of very large numbers of PEVs charging from the develop as PEV costs improve over time and become grid. The volumes and energy consumption of the first economically attractive. Given longer refueling/recharging 9 times required for PEVs over conventional vehicles, public standards may improve public, commercial, or fleet charging charging infrastructure may be better suited for locations not capabilities with charge times closer to traditional gas traditionally used for conventional vehicle refueling. Instead powered vehicles or to provide increased flexibility of of conventional gas stations where drivers tend to want to charging duration and rate to enable improved coincidence spend the least amount of time possible, the PEV public with renewable generation sources. PEV-Grid charging location paradigm will likely be locations that communications standards are not required for basic G2V drivers desire to spend considerable time such as shopping charging but are necessary to implement advanced PEV-Grid malls, restaurants, movie theatres or where the vehicles are interactions. Advanced PEV-Grid interactions include grid- regularly parked for long periods such as employer, mass- advised charging, opportunistic load deployment, cashless transit, or airport parking lots. As employers provide daytime roaming charging with fair/attractive pricing and charging stations in their parking lots, intelligent charging convenience, capabilities will be needed to avoid aggravating high-peak demand-side management (DSM), load acting as resource charge periods over the course of the year. (LaaR), two-way power flow, and ancillary services. These Shopping center public charging stations with free AC advanced interactions have considerable opportunity to Level-1 (120 Volt) or AC Level-2 (240 Volt) charging may improve costs, lower emissions, and improve convenience for become a tool for retailers to attract PEV drivers to their the driver. stores, shop longer, and purchase more goods. The energy The standards organizations include (but are not limited to): cost is likely minimal for AC Level-1 or AC Level-2 - SAE International (Formerly, Society of Automotive Engineers) charging. By making the charging free, these particular - The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) EVSEs could be lower in cost since they do not require - The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) authentication and secure transaction processing capability. - The National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) - The North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) These EVSEs would likely not be ultra-fast high-capacity for - openHAN (http://osgug.ucaiug.org/default.aspx) a number of years given increased energy costs, unsettled - HomePlug and SmartEnergy profile standards, and increased EVSE costs and safety concerns. (http://www.homeplug.org/home/) Multifamily residences and street based parking present an - ZigbeeTM (http://www.zigbee.org/) infrastructure investment challenge which likely will not be - National Electric Code (NEC) addressed at a large scale until PEVs achieve substantial - Underwriters Labs (UL) market adoption. PEV drivers who live in multifamily - EPA Federal Test Procedures (FTP) to create objective fuel dwellings or park on the street may strongly prefer range- economy/energy efficiency comparisons for city and highway extended PEVs (over BEVs) combined with access to AER, miles/kWh or blended mode gasoline/electric efficiency charging at their workplace or where they shop. If these drivers do not have an opportunity to charge, then the Given the complex mix of participants, backgrounds, business extended-range PEV can still simply and beneficially operate models, regulatory environments, financial incentives and similar to a conventional HEV. objectives it is likely to take considerable time to converge on Some of the greatest challenges to building a public standards that enable the most sophisticated PEV-Grid charging infrastructure will be the initial costs, siting for interactions. convenience, reserving parking spaces, long charge times, and the potential for low or negative returns on investment for owners of public charging stations. For the first decade VIII. BUSINESS MODELS OF CRITICAL PARTICIPANTS AC Level-1 (120 Volt) and AC Level-2 (240 Volt) public TO IDENTIFY INCENTIVES AND MOTIVATIONS charging stations will likely dominate. Later, ultra-fast high- capacity public charging stations may become more pervasive A. Vehicle Manufacturers as large numbers of PEVs are on the road. These ultra-fast high-capacity charging stations will create heavy, sporadic Vehicle manufacturers (commonly called original loads on the distribution network which may have a equipment manufacturers or OEMs) business models are meaningful effect on feeders and may require local storage to simple: profitable sales of vehicles with green/energy condition the distribution feeder to maintain power quality secure/alternative fuel image attributes have proven to be . Most public stations will likely need to include advantageous in building brand image and goodwill but have authentication and secure transaction capabilities for had difficulty in achieving profitability in the U.S. market commerce. given relatively low gas prices. Product safety, liability, warranty cost, customer satisfaction, and recall costs are also critically important to OEMs. Profits can typically be VII. STANDARDS achieved through higher vehicle sales of a popular vehicle that help recover considerable fixed development and tooling The most critical standards development efforts underway costs and lower component costs as volumes increase. The are related to the charging infrastructure, particularly ultra- profit per vehicle tends to also increase with the number of fast high-capacity charging beyond the J1772 AC Level-2 and options installed. Beyond the incremental revenue from a PEV-Grid communications. High-capacity charging “V2L/V2H/V2P option” at the time of vehicle purchase, it is 10 difficult to see how OEMs will be enthusiastic about their clustering concern may be since each utility has its own PEVs participating in advanced two way power flow transformer loading design guidelines and financial interactions that increase risks of component failures, considerations. It should be noted that PEV clustering effects warranty costs, and safety/liability exposures without on the distribution system with AC Level-1 (120 Volt) or AC competitive, regulatory, or grass-roots pressure. Level-2 (240 Volt) charging should be primarily a financial U.S. vehicle purchasers express the desire for exceptional concern of typically regulated transmission & distribution fuel economy but are resistant to pay any additional price to service providers (TDSPs) or integrated municipal or coops allow the OEM to recover the incremental costs associated who are concerned with cost recovery for the potential with the required technologies. Between Federal government upgrades. Transformer loading is not a technical problem in mandates for higher fleet average fuel efficiency and search of a breakthrough. If the transformer or lines are customer reluctance to pay a premium for substantial fuel overloaded, they can be replaced with larger capacity ones efficiency improvements given low gas prices, the number of preemptively or after a failure. It should also be noted that highly efficient hybrid vehicle sales such as the Prius are charging systems beyond the already capable AC-Level-2 modest even today at approximately 2% to 3% of total vehicle (240 Volt) systems may create further stresses on distribution sales. Over time, through a combination of declining PEV system infrastructure. However, it is unclear that ultra-fast technology costs, increased gas prices, and income from grid charging with a very high capacity interface such as DC- ancillary services paid to the owner the authors expect PEVs Level-2 (500 Volt) will become viable for home charging to gain meaningful market adoption and profitability for given the extremely high cost of the charge station and the OEMs. questionable need for less-than-30 minute residential charging. Over the past century, distribution systems had to B. Grid participants be upgraded from waves of adoption of home appliances, air conditioning, and then electronics. PEVs (as well as large Grid participants include generators, transmission and Plasma/LED HDTVs and other modern loads) can be distribution firms, energy retailers/municipals/coops, considered the next wave and a new revenue source for grid independent system operators, and grid aggregators. Grid participants in the same tradition. participants would benefit most significantly from increased Aggregators can function at the premise or ISO level. energy sales to PEVs. The incentives and impacts to Premise aggregator functions can enable multiple PEVs using participants will likely be regional and dependent upon the V2P to support a specific isolated building through reverse regulatory landscape and associated market design. power flow. Aggregators are useful to enable ancillary The incentives and implications for electric generators will services , advanced intelligent charging, DSM, and be mainly dependent upon the market design and regulatory opportunistic loads by intermediating between ISOs and environment that the generator operates under. Unregulated thousands of PEVs in a particular region. For example, in generators will benefit from increased PEV loads throughout the ERCOT context, qualified scheduling entities (QSEs) the day, and may actually derive increased profits if PEV could act as aggregators and, for example, offer ancillary charging aggravates peak charging which may increase peak services into the market, with a minimum of 1MW in the marginal energy prices and market clearing prices. ERCOT zonal market or 100kW in other markets or the Regulated generators may have incentives, regulatory upcoming ERCOT nodal market . directives, and guaranteed returns which lead them to be The strength of the financial incentives to invest in more concerned with influencing PEV charging in ways advanced V2G-enabled ancillary services fosters considerable which avoid aggravating peak electric demand. debate presently. Some analyses indicate that PEV ancillary If non-intrusive mechanisms are deployed to avoid charging services could generate an attractive income to help offset the that aggravates critical peak demand, then the incremental higher initial PEV purchase price . Other studies energy sales should be particularly profitable given they indicate that the financial payback may be more modest . would require minimal, if any, additional capital equipment Regional market differences may explain a meaningful investments. This benefit may be particularly advantageous if portion of such differences. vehicle specific energy sales help to compensate for reduced An ISO’s key objectives are the maintenance of grid revenue from greater building efficiency improvements or stability and reliability while enabling the delivery of lowest demand side management (DSM) programs or if PEVs enable cost electricity in their respective region and the reduction of greater economic incorporation of renewable energy. emissions from generation. As non-profit entities, ISOs are Distribution system owners may experience the most driven by regulatory requirements, operating standards, meaningful impacts if local distribution transformers are guidance from their respective regulators such as public stressed from PEV clustering . The predominant utility commissions (PUCs), NERC, EPA, and others, and concern is whether the additional load from multiple PEVs feedback from their respective grid participants. The degree charging through a single distribution transformer may to which the various ISOs aggressively pursue and invest in increase either increase the peak load or temperature, or capabilities to enable sophisticated PEV-Grid interactions reduce the night-time cooling, all of which may reduce the will likely be unique for each ISO and strongly determined by service life of the transformer. Only experience will confirm PUC, Federal, state, and local mandates for emissions how minor or significant the PEV distribution transformer reductions and renewable portfolio standards. There is no 11 pure profit incentive for the ISO to drive sophisticated PEV- IX. CONCLUSIONS Grid interactions. Residences are expected to be the dominate charging PEV-grid capabilities will be defined not only by the rate location. Workplace charging of fleets, rentals, and employee of technology development but will likely also be guided, vehicles is expected to be the next most pervasive, but still far accelerated, or limited by the regionally unique financial less popular than residential charging. For a number of incentives, regulatory structure and requirements, and values years, public charging is expected to be the least pervasively of each participant. deployed location (Figure 3). Vehicle OEMs are fundamentally driven to create PEVs with compelling design, image, and features that will create profitable vehicle sales. Safety and durability are, of course, also critical and fundamental objectives. The additional software cost to enable “grid friendly” charge window programming is negligible and hence expected to be incorporated in all PEVs. More advanced grid-advised or renewable generation coincident charging can be enabled by relatively simple broadcast of emission or price related information to PEVs. Algorithms programmed into the PEV on-board computer can then deduce the optimal charging profile. With more advanced communications and grid aggregators, the sale of limited regulation up/regulation down ancillary services could produce revenue for the PEV owner by regulating G2V charging of the vehicle. Enabling basic two-way power flow for V2L, V2H, or V2P adds extra hardware costs, adds risk of stress and failure Figure 3: Hierarchy of likely charging locations to PEV components and battery, and increases product liability exposure. An extra cost V2L contractor site For a number of years, every PEV will likely charge from generator or V2H/V2P backup generator option that avoids home (or home base) at night. Public charging stations the need for sophisticated external communication and reduce range anxiety for BEV owners, provide a location coordination could be profitable for vehicle manufacturers. where PEV owners can further reduce their petroleum PEVs enabling V2L, V2H, V2P or basic V2G-Net-Metering consumption by daytime charging, or provide a charging capability can likely be profitably offered as an extra cost location for drivers who otherwise would not purchase a PEV option once sufficient field experience has been gained to given they street park or do not have their own residential understand and address key technology failure mechanisms. charging location. From the CARB ZEV experience, public Given there are few dependencies upon advanced external charging station owners will likely have difficulty in communications and control or industry standards achieving profitability without subsidies. Public charging development, this option holds promise of commercialization stations would likely need to deploy a gas-station like model as soon as vehicle manufactures can profitably engineer a to be profitable, These pubic charging stations may require sufficiently robust hardware and software solution. ultra-fast high-capacity charging stations and large numbers V2G with limited communication could be useful and of PEVs on the road in order to create sufficient energy sales financially attractive in regions with substantial time-of-use volumes and asset utilization for the charging station. Lower price differentials or premise solar or wind generation which cost public charging stations may be able to achieve is net-metered back to the grid. Over the next five to ten profitability even with modest AC Level 2 energy flow if the years, introduction of the most advanced V2G capability equipment and facilities costs are minimized, but charge which supports the sale of a rich set of ancillary services is times would be much longer than the traditional 10 to 15 expected to be limited by the availability of assured PEV-Grid minute required at a conventional gas station hence the communications and two-way power flow capability and charger may need to be at a non-traditional location where control on the PEV. The varied communication and control the driver has other activities to occupy their time (e.g. pathways, reliability requirements, other performance shopping, movies, restaurant). Profitability may also be parameters, and financial payback are complex and all areas achieved by higher pricing of the public charging service than of further research. Vehicle manufacturers may also be typical retail residential energy prices. Key challenges for hesitant to offer this capability for a number of years until the public charging stations are standards to enable charge times wear mechanisms and risks are well known and they that are comparable to traditional gas stations, achieving understand how to profitably offer this feature. sufficient energy sales volumes to enable profitability, and Grid participants are typically motivated by increased success at installation of public charging stations where vehicle-specific energy sales while also avoiding the drivers typically spend considerable time. aggravation of critical peak demand. To encourage PEV adoption to create this demand, grid participants will be focused on safe, convenient, and cost effective access to 12 charging stations. In order to avoid aggravating peak progression of PEV-grid interactions is synthesized and demand grid participants will likely encourage grid friendly summarized in Table 1. charge windows through simple peak/off-peak pricing programs combined with manual driver inputs to the PEV on- board computer, the offer of subsidized home EVSE installation in return for demand response control, or rudimentary signaling of CO2 and prices to the PEV over various communication pathways. Significant investment and interest in advanced V2G PEV- Grid interactions will likely require policy action or regional specific circumstances which create sufficient financial incentives. Using PEVs as synergistic grid storage will be more compelling to utilities when new sources of fast ramp/zero- CO2 generation, spinning reserves or regulation ancillary services are needed to enable greater deployment of intermittent renewable generation. This increased thrust for greater renewable generation and hence sophisticated PEV storage control may be most strongly accelerated by increasing renewable portfolio credits, renewable fuel credits, production tax credits, carbon taxes or other policy actions. PEV purchasers will evolve over time from innovators, to early adopters, early majority purchasers, late majority purchasers, and laggards. Innovators and early adopters will be willing to pay a premium for green or alternative fuel vehicles and are typically tolerant of early innovation problems. Early majority purchasers will appreciate the green or alternative fuel vehicle technologies but will be sensitive to substantial costs or inconveniences above conventional vehicles. Late majority purchasers will likely be much less emotionally attached to green or alternative fuel vehicles and demand a better overall cost or some other clear form of differentiated value from a PEV over traditional vehicles. Laggards will select PEVs only when it they become a substantial portion of the market and have absolutely clear advantages, or when they have no alternative. This paper includes a comprehensive attempt to articulate the most important factors which affect PEV adoption, characteristics, capabilities, and interactions with the grid over the next decade. A likely, or at least possible, 13 Table I Progression of PEV-Grid Interactions Communications PEV-Grid Interaction PEV Generation Power Flow Characteristics Characteristics First Generation Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) Over cell phone network (if G2V with manual driver any) programmed “grid friendly” charge window Second Generation Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) Real-time broadcast of CO2 G2V with advanced and price information to intelligent charging aligned PEVs with renewable generation Grid-to-PEV G2V with limited regulation communications via up and regulation down aggregator ancillary services Third Generation Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) plus EVSE-PEV communication V2L for construction site Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) only (no external generator communications) Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) plus EVSE-PEV communication V2H for home backup Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) only (no external generator (isolated through communications) premise transfer switch) Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) plus EVSE(s)-PEV(s) V2P as building backup Vehicle-to-Premise (V2P) communication only (no generator (isolated through external communications) transfer switch and coordinated by a local aggregator) Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) plus EVSE-PEV communication V2G-Net-Metered: Local Vehicle-to-Grid-Net Metered only (no external generation (such as rooftop (V2G-NM) communications) photovoltaics) with reverse power flow of excess energy and net-metering. Fourth Generation Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) plus Assured secure two-way V2G-Advanced: Grid Advanced Vehicle-to-Grid Grid-PEV communication Ancillary Services provided (V2G-Advanced) by two-way power flow of PEV battery energy and/or local generation (such as rooftop photovoltaics) 14 X. REFERENCES  S. Hadley and A. Tsvetkova, "Potential impacts of plug- in hybrid electric vehicles on regional power generation,"  SAE International. "SAE standard on EV charging Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, connector approved". Available at ORNL/TM-2007/150, Jan. 2008. Available: http://www.sae.org/mags/AEI/7479. Retrieved 2010- http://apps.ornl.gov/~pts/prod/pubs/ldoc7922_regional_p 03-14. hev_analysis.pdf  EPA Dynamometer Driving Schedules (DDS),  P. Denholm, W. 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Kortum, K, Kockelman, K. “Household Dave Tuttle received his B.S. and Master of Engineering Energy Use and Travel: Opportunities for Behavioral in Electrical Engineering with Highest Honors from the Change“,89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation University of Louisville, Speed Scientific School in 1981 Research Board and forthcoming in Transportation and 1982 and an MBA with the Dean’s Award from the Research Record Part D University of Texas at Austin in 1991. He was  R. Tillerson, CNBC, 2008, interview with responsible for designing microprocessors and leading ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson microprocessor and systems development teams at IBM  E. Rogers, Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New (1982-2000). He later formed a design team for Sun York: Free Press.1995 Microsystems in Austin, Texas focused on  S. Stoft, Power Systems Economics: Designing multicore/multithread microprocessor development. He Markets for Electricity, 2002 is a Research Fellow and PhD student in the Department  Kintner-Meyer, M. Schneider, K., Pratt, R, of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID of Texas at Austin. His current research interests are VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND PEVs, PEV interactions and synergies with the electric REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS, Pacific grid, and renewable energy. Northwest National Laboratory, November 2007, p16 15 Ross Baldick (F’07) received his B.Sc. in Mathematics and Physics and B.E. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Sydney, Australia and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences in 1988 and 1990, respectively, from the University of California, Berkeley. From 1991-1992 he was a post-doctoral fellow at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. In 1992 and 1993 he was an Assistant Professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin.
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