Sociology by MikeJenny

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									    CHAPTER


              Juvenile Justice


Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency

                   CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
   After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
    1.   Define what drugs are and assess their impact on
         American youth.
    2.   Identify the major heroin production areas and
         the various forms of heroin.
    3.   Explain what a rave is and describe the types of
         drugs commonly found at such events.
    4.   Define and describe date rape drugs.
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                   CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
   After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

    5.   Identify the three categories of inhalants and
         discuss their abuse by juveniles.
    6.    List and give example of the three major types
          of drug intervention and prevention programs.
    7.   Explain the concept of zero tolerance.
    8.   Describe four alternatives to the current U.S.
         drug policy.
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              12.1 Drugs and Youth

    The use and abuse of drugs is not a new
    phenomenon. Drug use among humans can be
    found in almost all civilizations during every
    period in time.
                        drug: A chemical that
                        interacts with the body
                        and alters normal body
                        and mind functioning.
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                   Drugs and Youth
    The drugs most commonly associated with
    abuse are classified as:
                 • Opiates
                 • Stimulants
                 • Depressants
                 • Hallucinogens
                 • Marijuana
    There are thousands of substances capable of altering
    human perception and behavior.
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                   Drugs and Youth
    There has long been a connection between
    drug abuse and crime.

    The relationship between drug abuse and
    crime was fully analyzed during the crime
    wave of the 1960s.
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                   Drugs and Youth
    Today, the abuse of drugs and alcohol among
    adolescents is considered one of the most
    serious problems facing America, and
    juveniles seem to be taking drugs at a younger
    age than ever before.
    Dug abuse is associated with the spread of
    AIDS and HIV, as well as overdoses.
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                       SELF CHECK

   1. What is a drug, and what are the common
      drugs of abuse?
   2. During which period of U.S. history was the
      link between illegal drug use and crime best
      explored?
   3. What are the risks commonly associated
      with drug abuse today?
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      12.2 A Short History of Drugs
               in America
    There are a number of theories that attempt to
    explain drug use, addiction, and delinquency.

    However, few of these theories actually link
    specific patterns of drug use to historical
    policy-making.
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    In the U.S., the leading policy concerning the
    prevention and eradication of drug abuse is
    prohibition.
                    prohibition: Policies that
                     forbid the use of certain
                      drugs and/or alcohol.
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    This philosophy began with the enforcement
    of the 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act and has
    remained the dominant theme of efforts to
    combat drug abuse.
                   1914 Harrison Narcotics Act:
                     The first act in U.S. history
                     designed to attach criminal
                    penalties to the use of drugs.
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    In 1971, President Richard M. Nixon declared
    a national emergency and proclaimed that
    drug abuse was America’s “Public Enemy
    Number One.”
    In response, Congress created the Special
    Action Office of Drug Abuse Prevention.
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    Efforts to control drug abuse included:
    • New, stiffer drug control legislation
    • Tightening U.S. borders against the inflow
      of drug traffic
    • Attempts to control the foreign manufacture
      and exportation of drugs, especially heroin
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    These efforts to control drug abuse are similar
    to those used to control the use of alcohol
    during the Prohibition Era.
                   Prohibition Era: A period in
                   American history during the
                   1920s when the manufacture,
                      distribution, and use of
                        alcohol was illegal.
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   A Short History of Drugs in America
    These efforts were unsuccessful during
    Prohibition (and led to the development of
    organized crime) and have been unsuccessful
    recently.
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       Drug Use Among Adolescents
    In 1996, about 13 million Americans were
    illicit drug users (using an illicit drug at least
    once a month).
    All forms of drug use appear to be escalating
    among adolescents.
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       Drug Use Among Adolescents
    The actual extent of illicit drug use in the U.S.
    is difficult to estimate, but it is clearly
    extensive, especially among youth.
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       Drug Use Among Adolescents
    • An estimated 25 million Americans smoke
      marijuana on a regular basis.
    • 71 million Americans have tried marijuana
      at some point in their lives.
    • The DEA estimates that 750 metric tons of
      cocaine and 4,000 metric tons of heroin are
      consumed in the U.S. each year.
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                       SELF CHECK

   1. What is the dominant policy concerning
      drug use in the United States?
   2. How big is the drug problem in the United
      States?
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             12.3 The Drugs of Abuse
    Because juveniles are precluded by their age
    from engaging in any type of drug use
    (including alcohol and tobacco), all drugs
    become drugs of abuse.

                   drugs of abuse: Any illegal
                   drug consumed or ingested
                      by American society.
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    The number one drug of choice among
    adolescents and young adults has historically
    been alcohol.
    A significant number of drinkers under age 21
    (4.4 million) are binge drinkers.
     binge drinkers: Individuals who consume five or
     more alcoholic drinks on at least two occasions per
                          month.
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    Alcohol is a general depressant. Users
    experience an initial “high” and loss of
    inhibition, followed by:
         •   Slurred speech
         •   Impaired judgment
         •   Depressed sensory and motor capabilities
         •   Drowsiness and sleep
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    Alcohol overdoses are not rare. Symptoms
    include:
        • Severe nausea
        • Ruptured stomach vessels
        • Convulsions
        • Prolonged stupor or coma
        • Death
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    Alcohol use has been linked to:
         •   Addiction and resulting health hazards
         •   Academic failure
         •   Crime
         •   Violence
         •   Suicide
         •   Car accidents
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    Along with the recent increases in alcohol use
    among juveniles, there has been an increase in
    tobacco use.
       • An estimated 75 million Americans use
         tobacco.
       • 80% of all smokers began smoking before
         age 20.
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    The active ingredients in cigarettes are:
     • Nicotine                   nicotine: A powerful
     • Tar                     stimulant ingested during
                                 smoking or chewing a
     • Carbon monoxide              tobacco product.
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               Alcohol and Tobacco
    Symptoms of nicotine overdose include:
     • Tremors from increased heart rate
     • Dizziness
     • Nausea
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                               Heroin
    Pure heroin is a white powder (although it
    can vary in color from white to dark brown)
    with a bitter taste.
              heroin: A highly addictive, opiate-
             derived drug which produces a deep,
              dreamy state referred to as a “nod,”
                        when ingested.
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                        Heroin
    • Heroin was first synthesized from the opium
      poppy in 1874 and first marketed in the U.S.
      by Bayer as a pain remedy.
    • Heroin is typically injected into a vein. It
      can also be snorted.
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                           Heroin
    Until recently, most heroin in the U.S. came
    from three major growing areas:
    1. The Golden Crescent
       Golden Crescent: The traditional area of
       opium poppy cultivation and production;
      comprised of the region encompassing Iran,
             Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
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                            Heroin
    2. The Golden Triangle
        Golden Triangle: A poppy-growing area in
       southeastern Asia cultivating and producing a
       high grade of opium; comprised of the region
        encompassing Burma, Thailand, and Laos.

    3. Mexico and other countries in Latin
       America
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                         Heroin
    A form of Mexican heroin being sold as
    “chiva” has been responsible for a string of
    tragic deaths throughout the U.S.
                   “chiva”: Powdered, brown
                   or tan heroin from Mexico,
                   usually snorted or inhaled.
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                   Crack and Cocaine
    The most potent stimulant of natural origin is
    cocaine.
                     cocaine: White, crystalline
                    powder derived from the coca
                        plant grown in South
                    America’s Andes mountains.
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                   Crack and Cocaine

    • Cocaine was first isolated in the 1880s and
      was used as an anesthetic in eye surgery.
    • Cocaine was once legally marketed in the
      U.S. and was originally a component of
      Coca-Cola.
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                   Crack and Cocaine
    Cocaine can be snorted or injected. Users
    experience:
      •   A very strong, but relatively short euphoric high
      •   Increased respiration and heartbeat
      •   Pupil dilation
      •   Muscle twitching
      •   Brain delirium
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                   Crack and Cocaine
    A speed-ball has been linked to the deaths of
    celebrities such as Chris Farley, John Belushi,
    and River Phoenix.
                      speed-ball: A mixture of
                     cocaine and heroin giving a
                     dual and opposite effect of
                     stimulation and depression.
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                   Crack and Cocaine
    Converting cocaine into its original base to
    form chips, chunks, or “rocks” produces
    crack. Crack produces a very short, very
    intense high, followed by a deep crash,
    leading to frequently repeated doses and rapid
    addiction.
                      crack: Processed “rock”
                     cocaine usually smoked by
                      the user; produces a very
                            intense high.
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                         Stimulants
    Most of the misuse of stimulants in the U.S.
    has focused on amphetamines and
    methamphetamines.
             Amphetamines/ methamphetamines:
                Powerful central nervous system
             stimulants; also known on the street as
                    speed, crank, or crystal.
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                      Stimulants
    Amphetamines and methamphetamines are
    usually taken orally, but the effects can be
    much more profound when taken
    intravenously.
    • Users experience a wildly euphoric
      condition often accompanied by psychotic
      and paranoid delusions.
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                       Stimulants
    In the early 1990s, a crystalline form of
    methamphetamine, known as ice, emerged
    that looks like Epsom salt and is almost totally
    pure.
                   ice: A processed form of
                    methamphetamine. The
                   chips look like clear ice.
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                          Stimulants
   Synthetic drugs which are chemically related to
   amphetamines but have hallucinogenic and
   psychedelic effects are known as designer drugs.

             designer drugs: Synthetic drugs related
               to the amphetamine family; usually
             includes a MDMA derivative known as
                       ecstasy, X-TC, or X.
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                      Stimulants
    Designer drugs combine the effects of speed
    with strong hallucinogenic properties, but are
    not physically addicting.
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                         Stimulants
    Designer drugs popularity has emerged with
    the growth of raves.

                    raves: All night parties usually
                     located in downtown bars or
                     warehouses; usually involves
                   significant drug and alcohol use.
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                   Hallucinogens
    Other popular psychoactive drugs include:
      •   D-lysergic acid (LSD)
      •   Mescaline
      •   Psilocybin (mushrooms)
      •   Phencyclidine (PCP)
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                     Hallucinogens
    Use of psychedelic drugs, especially LSD or
    acid, became widespread in the 1960s.
    Acid is usually ingested and users experience:
     •   Increased heart rate and blood pressure
     •   Tremors                      acid: Street name for d-
     •   Convulsions                   lysergic acid or LSD.
     •   Wildly highlighted perceptual distortions and
         hallucinations.
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                   Hallucinogens
    Another synthetic hallucinogen is angel dust,
    a white, crystalline powder that is usually
    snorted, but can also be added to cigarettes
    and smoked.
                      angel dust: Street name for
                        phencyclidine or PCP.
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                   Hallucinogens
    PCP is unique among popular drugs in its power
    to produce psychoses indistinguishable from
    schizophrenia. Effects vary, but often include:
    • Auditory hallucinations
    • Image distortion—the world looks like a fun-house
      mirror
    • Severe mood disorders, including acute anxiety,
      paranoia, and violent hostility
    • Inability to speak because of numbness and slurred
      or blocked speech.
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     MYTH                          FACT
      Most drugs act as an More ofteninhibitnot, illicitdrive
                           drugs tend to
                                         than
                                              the sex
      aphrodisiacs—that is,        and result in the inability to
                                   achieve an erection in men or
      they generally enhance       orgasm in women. The infamous
                                   “Spanish Fly,” a species of
      sexual desire and            beetles renowned for its
      performance.                 aphrodisiac qualities, irritates the
                                   urethra (and a variety of
                                   important body organs) and leads
                                   to inflammation of the bladder; at
                                   worse, it causes death by shock
                                   and internal bleeding.
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                   Hallucinogens
    Peyote and psilocybin are the only naturally
    occurring hallucinogenic substances. Both
    have been used for centuries by Native
    Americans in religious rites.
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                      Hallucinogens
    The peyote is ground into a powder and taken
    orally, causing hallucinations from the
    mescaline in the plant.
     • The psilocybin mushroom is chewed.
     • Either plant can be brewed into a tea.
           mescaline: The primary active
          ingredient of the peyote cactus; a
                strong hallucinogen.
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                     Depressants
    In the world of illicit drug use, depressants,
    such as barbiturates, and alcohol are often
    used as self-medication to sooth the impact of
    other drugs.
                       barbiturates: A family of
                         strong depressants or
                     sedatives; usually sold on the
                         street in a pill format.
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                     Depressants
    Used with alcohol, barbiturates cause:
    • Body functions, such as heart beating and
      breathing, to slow down and eventually stop
    • Low blood pressure
    • Impaired balance
    • Slurred speech
    • Deep coma and even death
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                     Depressants
    Two of the most widely prescribed drugs in
    the U.S.—Librium and Valium—are
    depressants. They are used as anti-anxiety
    sedatives and sleeping agents.
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                      Depressants
    A resurgence of use of depressants is being
    seen among juveniles. Of particular note is
    methaqualone.
                      methaqualone: A strong
                    depressant often used to calm
                   the effects of other drug highs;
                   known on the street as “ludes.”
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                        Marijuana
    The cannabis sativa hemp plant grows wild
    throughout most of the tropic and temperate
    regions of the world. Marijuana, hashish, and
    hashish oil are all derived from this plant.
          cannabis sativa: The pharmaceutical,
         Latin name for the marijuana plant; also
          known as just “cannabis” or “hemp.”
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                        Marijuana
    The active ingredient is
    tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

                tetrahydrocannabinol or THC: The
             active ingredient in all marijuana (cannabis
                       sativa)-derived products.


    Marijuana is usually smoked in cigarettes.
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                         Marijuana
    • During the Vietnam War, over half the
      marijuana entering the U.S. came from
      Southeast Asia.
    • During the Gulf War, hashish from the
      Middle East became popular.
             hashish: Resin secretions from the
             cannabis plant having a higher THC
                  content than marijuana.
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                      Marijuana
    Cannabis-derived drugs produce:

    • Mild euphoria
    • Relaxed inhibitions
     There has never been a reported overdose of
     marijuana or hashish that resulted in death.
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   MYTH                       FACT
     All drugs are       Marijuana, PCP, Ecstasy, and
                         numerous other drugs have been called
     addictive.          addictive, which they are not. Addiction
                         means very specifically a craving for a
                         particular drug, accompanied by physical
                         dependence, which motivates continuing
                         usage, resulting in tolerance to the drug’s
                         effects and a group of identifiable
                         symptoms appearing when it is suddenly
                         withdrawn. Heroin, crack, cocaine, and
                         most barbiturates (depressants) are
                         addictive drugs.
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                       Steroids
    It has only been recently that anabolic steroids
    have been taken seriously, propelled by high-
    profile athletes being banned from sports and
    the Olympics for their use.
    It is estimated that over 250,000 high school
    students could be anabolic steroid users.
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                          Steroids
    Although steroids are not physically addicting,
    abusers can develop psychological dependence.
    There are also numerous health risks such as:
       •   Delusions, violence, and aggression
       •   Severe depression
       •   Visual and auditory hallucinations
       •   Sleep disorders
       •   Thoughts of suicide
       •   Psychomotor retardation
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                                                                     FIGURE 12-4

        The Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids
          Men                   SOURCE: FDA Drug Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 3, October
                                1987, p. 27, with modification.


           Breast enlargement
           Testicular atrophy with
            consequent sterility or
            decreased sperm count
           Impotence
           Enlarged prostate
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                                                             FIGURE 12-4 continued

        The Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids
             Women                SOURCE: FDA Drug Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 3, October
                                  1987, p. 27, with modification.


              Breast diminution
              Clitoral enlargement
              Facial hair growth
              Deepened voice
              Menstrual irregularities
              Baldness
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                                                             FIGURE 12-4 continued

        The Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroidsc
      Both Sexes                  SOURCE: FDA Drug Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 3, October
                                  1987, p. 27, with modification.
       Increased aggression, known as “roid rage”
       Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, or
        obstructed blood vessels
       Acne
       Liver tumors, jaundice, and peliosis hepatitis
        (blood-filled cysts)
       Preteen and teenagers, accelerated bone
        maturation leading to permanent short stature
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                      Inhalants
    A growing trend among young people in
    America is inhalant abuse.
    • The practice involves deliberately inhaling
      or sniffing common household products.
    • Some inhalants act as stimulants, some as
      depressants, all are hallucinogenic.
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                      Inhalants
    Inhalants fall into three broad categories:
    • Volatile solvents: correction fluid, spray
      paint, glue, rubber cement, etc.
    • Gases: chloroform, ether, helium, freon,
      whippets (nitrous oxide), and the propellant
      used in cooking spray and whipping cream
      spray.
    • Nitrites: room odorizers
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                      Inhalants
    Inhalants are very addictive and are quite
    toxic. Chronic use can cause:
    • Long-term damage to the lungs, brain, and other
      vital organs
    • Severe allergic reactions causing convulsions and
      death (from sniffing model airplane glue or
      correction fluid)
    • Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome is linked to first-
      time inhalant use and immediate strenuous
      physical exertion
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                     Gateway Drugs
    The process of becoming a drug abuser as a
    juvenile has been the focus of researchers
    since the 1950s. Considerable attention has
    been given to so-called gateway drugs.

       gateway drugs: A series of drugs believed
      to lead to heavier drug use; usually includes
       alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and inhalants.
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                   Gateway Drugs
    The theory suggests that juveniles become
    exposed to increasingly more powerful and
    dangerous drugs through their
    experimentation.
    Also, juveniles involved in abusing gateway
    drugs become associated with peers that
    have connections to heavier drugs.
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                   Gateway Drugs
    It is important not to think of gateway drugs
    as the cause of later illicit drug use, but as a
    possible early indicator of higher risk toward
    deeper drug involvement and more serious
    delinquent behavior.
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                       SELF CHECK

   1. What are the major heroin production
      regions or growing areas in the world?
   2. What are the three broad categories of
      inhalants?
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       12.4 Drugs, Delinquency, and
             Juvenile Violence
    The relationship between drug use and
    delinquency, particularly as it relates to
    violent criminal activity, has been the subject
    of much study and debate.
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             Drugs, Delinquency, and
                Juvenile Violence
    In 1985, Paul Goldstein developed a
    theoretical framework in which to study the
    relationship between drugs and violence:
    • Psycho-pharmacological—drugs alter behavior
    • Economically compulsive—individuals commit
      crime to get money for drugs
    • Systemic violence—turf battles related to drug
      dealing
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             Drugs, Delinquency, and
                Juvenile Violence
    A more recent review reveals four major
    changes that now characterize the drug
    subculture:
    1. Drug use does not cause crime, however, it
       intensifies and perpetuates criminal activity
       among users.
    2. Drug users are not crazed maniacs incapable of
       controlling their behavior.
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             Drugs, Delinquency, and
                Juvenile Violence
    3. The drug street culture has changed. The new
       generation of drugs users is more likely to take
       several drugs. The age of first drug use and the
       age of addiction has declined. Younger drug users
       tend to be more group-oriented, as seen in the
       vast increase in gang activity.
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             Drugs, Delinquency, and
                Juvenile Violence
    4. Most incidents of drug-related violence occur in
       deteriorated communities characterized by the loss
       of informal and formal social control.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency

               Drug-Related Homicides            FIGURE 12-5
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                       SELF CHECK


   What is the connection between drugs and
   violence?
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


              12.5 Intervention and
              Prevention Programs
    The current national policy concerning drugs
    has concentrated on interdiction and
    incarceration.
    Many observers suggest the policy does not
    work and more effort should be directed at
    intervention and prevention.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


              Anti-Drug Slogan and
             Advertisement Programs
    Beginning with the “Just Say No” program
    initiated by Nancy Reagan, media blitzes
    attempting to reach first-time users began to
    appear.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


              Anti-Drug Slogan and
             Advertisement Programs
    The problems with these slogans are:
    • They fail to take into account that juvenile drug
      use is the result of many factors.
    • They highlight the failure of government officials
      to understand the complexities of the drug scene.
    • They overemphasize scare tactics and lose
      credibility, sometimes because of patently incorrect
      information.
    • Teens are more willing to experiment with risk
      during adolescence.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


        D.A.R.E. and Other School-
             Based Programs
    The Los Angeles Police Department created
    D.A.R.E. in 1983.
    The program has two purposes:
    • To encourage youth to avoid drugs
    • To build a stronger relationship between
      police and youth
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        D.A.R.E. and Other School-
             Based Programs
    Today, D.A.R.E. is America’s most prominent
    and controversial school-based drug education
    program.
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


         D.A.R.E. and Other School-
              Based Programs
    Proponents say that D.A.R.E.:
    •   Warns young people about the use of illicit drugs
    •   Improves self-esteem
    •   Improves decision-making skills
    •   Allows police officers to interact with students in a
        positive environment
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


        D.A.R.E. and Other School-
             Based Programs
    Studies showing problems with D.A.R.E.
    began to appear in 1994 when a report by the
    Bureau of Justice Assistance found D.A.R.E.
    less effective than other methods.
    A later study showed D.A.R.E. had no long-
    term effects on a wide range of drug use
    measures.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


        D.A.R.E. and Other School-
             Based Programs
    Other programs are starting to take D.A.R.E.’s
    place, such as D.A.V.E., Drug and Violence
    Education, which is taught by regular
    educators, not police officers.
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        D.A.R.E. and Other School-
             Based Programs
    American society believes that drug education
    is the best way to reduce the use of illegal
    drugs by youth.
    In order to be effective, future drug education
    programs must conform to proven teaching
    and pedagogical methodologies and be
    research-based.
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                   At-Risk Programs
    The National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA)
    has identified several risk factors that
    differentiate adolescents who use drugs from
    those who do not:
    • Chaotic home environment, particularly in which
      parents abuse substances or suffer form mental
      illnesses
    • Ineffective parenting, especially with children with
      difficult temperaments and conduct disorders
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                   At-Risk Programs
    • Lack of mutual attachments and nurturing
    • Inappropriately shy or aggressive behavior in the
      classroom
    • Failure in school performance
    • Poor social coping skills and associations with
      deviant peers or drug-using peers
    • Perceptions of approval of drug using behaviors in
      the school, peer, and community environment
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                   At-Risk Programs
    Schools and communities have developed
    programs that focus on youth with high risk
    factors by teaching personal and social
    development skills.
    Several programs focus on strengthening
    families and improving basic parenting skills.
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                   At-Risk Programs
    One of the most successful “at risk” programs
    has been the Juvenile Mentoring Program
    (JUMP), developed by the Office of Juvenile
    Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                   At-Risk Programs
    A central theme of the mentoring program is
    avoidance of alcohol and drugs and keeping
    away from negative peers and gangs.
      mentoring program: A program that teams an at-
      risk youth with a caring and nurturing adult in the
        community, promoting positive role modeling,
         reduction in family and youth violence, and
                    avoidance of drug use.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                       SELF CHECK

   1. What is D.A.R.E., and what problems have
      been encountered with this program?
   2. What are risk factors?
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


         12.6 National Drug Control
           Policy and Alternatives
    Historically, the government’s approach to
    drug abuse and drug control has been
    prohibition. The strategy has two main
    objectives:
      • Reduce the supply of drugs
      • Reduce the demand for drugs
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    In fact, in the “war on drugs,” drugs are seen
    as a threat to national security.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    • The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 further
      stiffened penalties for drug traffickers and
      authorized more government money for law
      enforcement.
    • A law passed in 1988 created the Office of
      National Drug Control Policy charged with
      developing a national strategy to combat
      drug abuse.
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                      Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    The most important component of the 1988
    anti-drug policy was the concept of zero-
    tolerance.
                   zero-tolerance: Policies designed to
                    attack individual drug users as well
                      as drug traffickers, and to attach
                     severe penalties for possession of
                       even small quantities of drugs.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    The zero-tolerance policy shifted the war on
    drugs from suppliers and dealers to users as
    well, especially casual users.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    In 1989, President George Bush announced a
    four-part plan to fight drugs:
    1. Expansion of the criminal justice system
    2. Direct aid to countries in the drug trade to stop the
       production and exportation of cocaine
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    3. Research on drug abuse and the development of
       specific treatment programs
    4. Funding for drug education programs; the budget
       allocation was more than $20 billion.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       National Drug Control Policy
             and Alternatives
    In 1994, the Clinton administration changed
    the shift from casual drug users to hardcore
    drug users, but continued expenditures in
    other areas.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


             Critiques of the “War on
                  Drugs” Policy
    The movement toward rethinking the nation’s
    current drug policy is gaining more wide-
    spread public support.
    Specific attention is now being paid to
    alternative versus current anti-drug policies.
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                    Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


             Critiques of the “War on
                  Drugs” Policy
    The arguments for significant change in
    America’s current drug policy are:
       •   Failure to curb demand
       •   Expense
       •   Negative effects of drug laws
       •   Resources are scarce
       •   Drug-taking culture
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       Legalization, Decriminalization,
            and Harm Reduction
    Criticisms of U.S. drug policy have provoked
    controversial discussions over alternative
    policies, such as:
    • Legalize and privatize all drugs
    • Legalize the less dangerous and serious drugs, such
      as marijuana
                                         and…
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       Legalization, Decriminalization,
            and Harm Reduction
    • Decriminalize drugs
    • Harm reduction—reduce violence related to drug
      use and trafficking, and control the spread of HIV
      and AIDS
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


       Legalization, Decriminalization,
            and Harm Reduction
    While discussion continues on developing
    more rational and balanced policies…

    …the number of adolescents experimenting
    with drugs continues to climb.
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                   Juveniles, Drugs, and Delinquency


                      SELF CHECK

   1. What are the critiques of the “war on drugs”
      policy?
   2. Can you discuss the alternatives to existing
      drug policy in the U.S.?
CHAPTER


          Juvenile Justice


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