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Social Roles and Social Interaction Sociology

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 46

									 Social Roles &
Social Interaction

 Sociology 175

     Prof. B
         Announcements
Read on blackboard: Williams (Sexual
Harassment); Zimmerman and West (Gender
and Talk); Brooks (Macking & False
Commitment); England et.al. (Hooking Up);
Brooks Book Sale and Signing
  Book is regularly $22 – on sale for $15.40
  Nov 5th 2-4pm @ Campus Bookstore
    Studying Group Behavior
• What is a group?
• How do persons become members of a
  group?
       eGroup, dGroup
Groups have their own culture, norms, and
practices.
Groups develop their own culture, status and
social order that determines pattern of
interaction and creates social expectations for
group members.
Thus, social order can be very particular-and
the group can even be deviant from an
outsider’s perspective-but within the group
their social order sets the norms and
determines what is normal/deviant.
Who is In-Group, Out-Group
        the in-group?
Who is the out-group?
How do we know?
 Studying In-Group/Out-Group
• How do you know who belongs to which
  group?
• Ask others about the individual
• See who they associate with
• See who talks, how others respond,
  how they talk after the person leaves
 Status Hierarchy:
Whyte’s Corner Boys
                Studying Social Order
Who sets the agenda?
What criteria/status attribute matters most?
How do members split up, pair up?
Who notifies whom?
Who has influence?
Who gets blamed?
Who speaks to whom?
Who vouches for whom?
Who gets ridiculed?
Quality of experience for individuals?
Internal and External Consistenc
When the group’s values/norms of the
group match or do not match the social
prescriptions for behavior and values
and norms of the wider society.
          Interaction and Status
                  at Macro Level
Who sets the agenda? –What is
 Stratification Order, historically and
 presently?
What criteria/status attribute matters
 most? - What criteria is considered
 legitimate?
How do members split up, pair up? Who
 associates, lives with, dates whom?
Who has influence? - Who has power?
          Interaction and Status
                  at Macro Level
Who gets blamed? - Who gets less
 opportunity for upward mobility?
Who speaks to whom? - Who gets left out
 of decision making?
Who vouches for whom? – How do
 people get jobs?
Who gets ridiculed? – Who is at bottom
 and why?
Quality of experience for individuals? –
 Gaps in opportunity?
        Expectation States

Status determines social order and
  expectations for individual behavior
Expectations guided by evaluations and
  determinations of one’s and others’
  status
One’s status judgments and evaluations
  are rooted in their construction of reality
                 Review
Structure and Interaction
 Race
 Limited vs recurring; situational vs. institutional
  Interaction processes,
inequality, and differences
Basic Assumption
Groups form and become
distinguishable
   through natural and
unnatural means.
 Power in Groups
Groups form and become
distinguishable due to universal
notions of exclusivity and
limited resources – people want
resources and power for
themselves and their group.
     Stratification
 And the unique stratification is not
“natural” stratification but rather a
reflection of the social order and
which group controls the
distribution of power and resources.
Those in power have the power to
define themselves (usually as
normal) and others (as “other” or
less than).
 Therefore, stratification occurs
in predictable ways with
predictable outcomes.


    Stratification
           Power
Power is the ability to influence
others and resist the influence
of others.
                  Higher Groups
  Group formation is historically and based
  upon, “immutable” and “real” and “natural”
  attributes.
  Race, Gender, Class are social constructs,
  but we know that constructs have real
  implications
  We associate certain behavior, values, norms
  with different groups.
• Stereotypes – superiority and inferiority
   – Model minority, natural athletes, gender
     order,
   – Keep it classy
                 Higher Groups
Are these associations used to explain/justify
social stratification?
Groups have not adjusted well.
Blacks are lazy.
Asians and Latinos are immigrants-
Don’t speak English.
It’s a man’s world.Women, Queer need to
change when they work with men in
heterosexual world-meaning they need to
conform.
                              Higher Gro
Does this impact quality of
life/experiences?
Does this impact outcomes, opportunity
and power, influence?
                    Higher Groups
  Does this impact quality of
  life/experiences?
• Qualitative differences in group
  experiences-race, gender, class
  Does this impact outcomes, opportunity
  and power, influence?
• Stereotype Threat
      20 Highest Paid Athletes
TIGER WOODS | golf
                                         GRANT HILL | basketball
MICHAEL SCHUMACHER | auto
   racing                                DEREK JETER | baseball

PEYTON MANNING | football               BARRY BONDS | baseball

MICHAEL JORDAN | basketball            MANNY RAMIREZ | baseball

SHAQUILLE O'NEAL | basketball          OSCAR DE LA HOYA | boxing

KEVIN GARNETT | basketball             LEBRON JAMES | basketball

ANDRE AGASSI | tennis                  VINCE CARTER | basketball

DAVID BECKHAM | soccer             DALE EARNHARDT JR. | auto racing

ALEX RODRIGUEZ | baseball                 ARNOLD PALMER | golf

KOBE BRYANT | basketball                 PHIL MICKELSON | golf
           Source: www.forbes.com/celebrities2004/093tab.html
Are Racial/Ethnic
Differences Real?
What do these folks
have in common?
         2004 Top 10 Most Highly Paid CEOs

Yahoo Inc.                    Terry S. Semel                $109,301,385

Coach Inc.                    Lew Frankfort                  $64,918,520

XTO Energy Inc.               Bob R. Simpson                 $62,141,981

United Health Group Inc.      William W. McGuire             $58,784,102

Viacom Inc.                   Summer M. Redstone             $56,017,985

TXU Corp.                     John C. Wilder                 $54,960,893

Countrywide Financial Corp.   Angelo R. Mozilo               $52,993,637

Occidental Petroleum          Ray R. Irani                   $52,648,142

KB Home                       Bruce Karatz                   $47,288,228

Gateway Inc.                  Wayne R. Inouye                $46,338,744

   Source: http://www.aflcio.org/corporatewatch/paywatch/
 So this important to the study
 Why is
Social Roles and Social Interaction?
  Inequality is not natural and
           unequal with our
 leads toimplicationsquality of life
There are
 stratification system
Some people are predictably
 disadvantaged
Society is organized in a way that
 maintains advantaged for some and
 disadvantage for others
Stratification is reinforced and affirmed
 through ideology, culture, individual
         Perhaps, most
           importantly…Opportunities
Inequality, Privilege, Gaps in
 and Outcomes are seen as “natural,”
 taken for granted, explained as the result
 of individual actions, within expectations
 and stereotypical associations of
 individual’s master status group
 membership.
And those with dominant master status
 are invisible and privileged.
     The “cost” of being Asian
• So far we have been identifying the cost of
  being “Asian”
• Identifying the auxiliary characteristics and
  statuses associated with “Asianess”
• And the impact on life chances or Asian
  lived experiences
         Flip side to the coin
• Rather than their being a cost to skin color,
  for whites there is a benefit or advantage

• This advantage, known as white privilege,
  is generally invisible and claimed to be
  neutral, operating as “natural” and without
  the knowledge and deliberate actions of
  whites
           White Privilege
• But if Asianess carries auxiliary
  characteristics and statuses-images of
  asexuality (for men), exotic (for women),
  high intelligence in math, etc… then
  whiteness also carries baggage and
  status
• In the same way that whiteness defines
  the Other, the Other reveals whiteness as
  its opposite
• So racism is the culturally sanctioned
   New RacismWellman 1977whether
  protection of white advantage
  intentional or unintentional
• Racism maintains the status quo such that
  some groups are disadvantaged and
  others are simultaneously advantaged
• There is no such thing as neutral action,
  policy has differing impacts upon groups of
  people based upon their social position,
  gender, sexuality and racial designation
     Intersectionality
   Because status is associated with social
    groups and personal attributes, there’s an
    overlap in inequality for persons belonging to
    lower status groups and particularly when we
    consider
    Race, Class, and Gender & Sexuality
    Intersectionality
  A Latina/o experiences life differently than an
  Asian – think of “model minority” and the
  impact of this image on interaction between
  Asians and non-Asians.
 A woman experiences life differently than a
  man.
 A poor person experiences life differently than
  a middle class or affluent person.
How does stratification
continue generation after
generation?
       Socialization
 The ways in which people learn to
 conform to their society’s norms, values,
 and roles.
 People learn (roles) to behave according
 to the norms of their culture.
 As society changes, so do roles, behavior
 and expectations
     What is Privilege?
And how do folks experience
             it?
There are inherent advantages and
disadvantages that come with one’s
grouping and structures of
power/advantage that operate
simultaneously.



        Privilege
         Privilege
          begins at a structural level but
 Privilege
 plays out at all levels.
 Privilegeis based upon structural status
 position in which implicit power of one’s
 group influences interaction with
 members of non-privilege group.
         is both perceived and real,
 Privilege
 known and unknown.
         Privilege
          begins at a structural level but
 Privilege
 plays out at all levels.
 Privilegeis based upon structural status
 position in which implicit power of one’s
 group influences interaction with
 members of non-privilege group.
         is both perceived and real,
 Privilege
 known and unknown.
McIntosh – invisible knapsack
           Privilege




McIntosh, P. “White Privilege”
      Intersectionality social
 Becausestatus is associated with
 groups and personal attributes, there’s
 an overlap in inequality for persons
 belonging to lower status groups and
 particularly when we consider
 Race, Class, and Gender & Sexuality
           Announcements
Read on blackboard: Williams (Sexual
Harassment); Zimmerman and West (Gender
and Talk); Brooks (Macking & False
Commitment); England et.al. (Hooking Up);
Brooks Book Sale and Signing
  Book is regularly $22 – on sale for $15.40
  Nov 5th 2-4pm @ Campus Bookstore

								
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