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Chapter 11 The Industrial Revolution

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					The Industrial Revolution



            Chapter 11:
   National and Regional Growth
            (1800-1844)
        Created by: Ruben Garcia
      Chapter Vocabulary
• Industrial Revolution- a change from
  an agricultural economy to a
  manufacturing economy.
• Factory System- brought many
  workers and machines under one
  roof.
• Lowell Mills- factories located in
  Lowell, Mass. Created a “village” for
  it’s workers.
         Vocabulary (cont)
• Interchangeable parts- identical parts
  that could be easily replaced.
• Robert Fulton- Invented a steamboat
  that could move against the current
  or a strong wind.
• Samuel F.B. Morse- invented the
  telegraph. Allowed for fast
  communication
        Vocabulary (cont)

• Eli Whitney- invented a machine to
  quickly clean cotton in 1793.
• Cotton Gin- could clean 50 pounds of
  cotton in a day. (it would take 1
  person a day to clean 1 pound of
  cotton.)
• Nat Turner- led 70 other slaves and
  killed 55 white men, women, and
  children in his struggle for freedom
         Vocabulary (cont)
• Nationalism- a feeling of pride and
  unity with one’s country.
• Henry Clay- Nationalist, believed that
  the U.S. could grow stronger without
  the help of Foreign trade.
• Erie Canal- water route connecting
  the Great Lakes with New York.
• James Monroe- 5th president, wrote
  the Monroe Doctrine
        Vocabulary (cont)
• Sectionalism- Loyalty to the interests
  of your own region or section of the
  country.
• Missouri Compromise- laws enacted
  in 1820 to maintain the balance of
  power between slave and free states.
• Monroe Doctrine- policy of U.S.
  opposition to any European
  interference in the Western
  Hemisphere, announced in 1823.
  Section 1: Early Industry and
           Inventions
• Main idea- New machines and
  factories changed the way in which
  people lived and worked in the late
  1700 and early 1800.
• Why it matters now- The industrial
  development that began more than
  200 years ago continues today.
Ahh… this too could be yours!
• Some argue that the increasing GDP has
  improved standards of living, such as better
  availability of food, housing, clothing, and
  health care.
• Many believe that a capitalist economy offers
  far more opportunities for individuals to raise
  their income through new professions or
  business ventures than do other economic
  systems.
 Free Enterprise and Factories
• The War of 1812 brought great
  economic change.
• The invention of machines made it so
  that unskilled workers could produce
  goods and merchandise.
• The introduction of the factory system
  pushed production even faster.
• Most factories
  were located
  near water.
  free enterprise and factories
             (cont)
• People began to leave the farm life
  for the city life.
• Many Americans did not want the
  U.S. to Industrialize.
                       I don’t want your
    Where are you              life!
     going son?
 Factories Come to America
• Samuel Slater memorized the details
  on how to make a textile mill.
• He hired eight kids, ages 7-12, to
  work his mill.
• His system grew and spread
  throughout New England
• New England had many fast
  moving rivers that could
  be used to run the mills.
Slater’s Mill
Slater’s Tomb
         The Lowell Mills
• Francis Cabot Lowell employed farm
  girls to run textile mills.
• “Lowell girls” worked 12.5 hours a
  day in deafening noise.
• Were under strict watch. They had to
  go to church, read and attend
  lectures.
• They usually only worked a few years
  until they married.
 A New Way to Manufacture
• Eli Whitney was hired to make
  10,000 muskets for the U.S. army.
• He had boxes of musket parts and
  assembled a musket in seconds,
  proving the need for parts.
• Showed the importance of
  interchangeable parts. Speeds up
  production.
1.    Butt
2.    Wrist
3.    Comb
4.    Heel



                                  Anatomy of a musket
5.    Butt plate with screws
6.    Toe
7.    Trigger guard
8.    Flint lock
9.    Barrel breech
10.   Ramrod
11.   Front sling swivel with screw
12.   Thimble
13.   Thimble pins
14.   Entry thimble
15.   Muzzle
16.   Front sight
17.   Bayonet lug
18.   Ear for the sling swivel screw
19.   Double ear – pin ear – for securing the thimbles
20.   Single ear- pin ear - for securing the barrel to the stock
21.   Flash hole
22.   Rear sight notch
23.   Tang
24.   Breech plug
25.   Barrel
26.   Rear sling swivel with screw
27.   Ramrod stopper
28.   Trigger
29.   Trigger guard screws
30.   Trigger assembly
31.   Bayonet socket
32.   Elbow
33.   Bayonet lug slot
34.   Shoulder
35.   Triangular blade
36.   Front side plate screw
37.   Rear side plate screw
38.   Side plate
39.   Muzzle cap
40.   Tang screw
41.   Brake spring for the ramrod
42.   Back of the thimble
43.   Butt nose
44.   Barrel pin
45.   Butt nose
46.   Fore-stock
47.   Cheek piece
48.   Breech plug
   Modern use of interchangeable
               parts
• LS9 engine for the 2009 Chevy Corvette.
• 638 horsepower! 200+ mph
• Over $100,000
Interchangeable
      parts
       Modern Factories




• Can produce an entire car in 1 day!
  Moving People, goods and
         messages
• Robert Fulton invented a steamboat
  that could move against the current.
• Samuel Morse created a fast way of
  communicating.
• The telegraph allowed people to
  communicate in seconds.
• Both invention brought the U.S.
  closer together and created unity.
  Technology Improves Farming
• Blacksmith, John Deere, created the
  steel plow. This allowed farmers to work
  the land of the Midwest.
• Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper
  and thresher improved agricultural.
• The reaper could cut grain while the
  thresher separated kernels from husks.
               Make iron cheaper


 Coal




                                         Iron ore




• The burning coal remained separate from the
  iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron
  with impurities like sulphur. This opened the
  way to increased iron production.
Welcome to the Future!




                         1840
How much do your shoes cost?
    Section 2: Plantation and
        Slavery Spread
• Main Idea: The invention of the cotton
  gin and the demand for cotton
  caused slavery to spread in the
  south.
• Why it matters: The spread of Slavery
  created lasting racial and sectional
  tensions.
             The Cotton Boom
• Eli Whitney’s cotton gin could clean
  cotton far more efficiently than by
  hand.

• Increased the demand for cotton.


 Increased the
                                        Native
    need for
                   Need for more   Americans were
cheap/free labor
                       land.        driven off their
    (slaves)
                                         land.
The Cotton Gin
        Slavery Expands
• From 1790-1860 cotton production
  rose, so did the number of enslaved.
• In 1820 the South earned $22 million
  from cotton exports.

• By the late 1830s earnings went up to
  $200 million.
• In the 1790s a male slave could cost
  up to $300. By the 1830s the price
  went up to $1000.
The Cotton Gin
Modern textile factory
Dividing Issue of Slavery
• Only 1/3 of Southern whites owned
  slaves. Only a small portion of that
  had 20 or more slaves.
• Enslaved African Americans
  formed about 1/3 of the South's
  population.
• About half worked on large
  plantations.
• Not all slaves worked in the fields.
  Some worked in the master’s
  home, or as skilled craftsman who
  could be let out to neighbors.
Dividing issue of Slavery (cont)
• In 1840 about 8% of African
  Americans were free. They had either
  been born free, freed by their owner,
  or bought their freedom.
• Many free slaves lived in southern
  cities such as Baltimore and
  Washington D.C.
• Some states made the free slaves
  leave once they gained their freedom.
• They were endanger of being
  captured and sold into slavery again.
          Tension Rises
• Many slave families were separated
  when sold at auction.
• Slaves would often runaway to try
  and find their family.
• Anger and hatred grew.
• Nat Turner led the most famous
  rebellion, killing many white people.
• The rebellion ended when Turner
  was captured, tried and hung.
• In fear, many slaves were killed in
  revenge.
• 1831
  wood
  cut
   Section 3: Nationalism and
         Sectionalism
• Main Idea: Patriotic pride united the
  states, but tension between the North
  and South emerged.
• Why it matters: The tension led to the
  Civil War, and regional differences
  can still be found in the United
  States.
Nationalism Unites the Country
• President Madison wanted the U.S.
  to become economically self-
  sufficient. His Plan:
     1. Protective Tariff- tax imported goods so
     Americans would buy American products.
     2. Establish a National Bank- that would use one
     type of money. (Most banks issued their own
     money)
     3. Improve the country’s transportation system-
     which was important for a strong economy. Poor
     roads made transportation slow and expensive.



• Henry Clay called it the American
  System.
 Roads and Canals Link Cities
• The Cumberland Road connected
  Cumberland Maryland to Wheeling,
  Virginia.
• The Erie Canal connected New York
  City to Buffalo, New York.
• The Canal opened the upper Ohio
  Valley and the Great Lakes Region to
  trade and travel.
• The Canal allowed farm product from
  the west to flow east and
  manufactured goods to flow west.
The Erie Canal
      The Erie Canal (cont)
• Trade allowed New York to become
  the largest city.
• Population swelled from 125,000 to
  200,000 in less than 10 years.
             The Cumberland Road




• Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland,
  Maryland. Plans were made to continue through
  St. Louis, Missouri, on the Mississippi River but
  funding ran out and construction stopped at
  Vandalia, Illinois in 1839.
              Turnpikes

• Toll booths used to pay for a large
  portion of highway.
Era of Good Feeling
      • James Monroe
        becomes the 5th
        President in 1816.
      • The Federalist party
        showed little
        resistance and
        disappeared.
      • Political differences
        gave way to an “era of
        good feeling”.
   The Supreme Court under
       President Monroe
• McCulloch vs. Maryland- The state
  could not tax the Federal Bank.
• Gibbons vs. Ogden- Interstate
  commerce can only be regulated by
  the Federal Government.

• Chief Justice John Marshall clearly
  stated than the Federal government
  had more power than the state
  governments.
                U.S. Boundaries 1818- 1819




President Monroe gave Spain a choice
1. Police Florida
Or
2. Turn over Florida to the U.S.
Spain gives up Florida.
Sectional tension increases
• Sectionalism, loyalty to one’s section
  grew as due to the differing economic
  activities.
• The South was heavily reliant on
  cotton and agriculture.
• The North was heavily based on
  manufacturing (Factories).
• In the West the settlers wanted cheap
  land and good transportation.
  The Missouri Compromise
• Sectionalism became an issue when
  Missouri applied for statehood in
  1817.
• At the time there were 11 slave states
  and 11 free states.
• The balance was now in question.
  Would Missouri come in as a Slave
  or Free state?
The Missouri Compromise (cont)
• Debates continued for months.
• Angry southerners felt that if the
  balance shifted to the Free states,
  then they would eventually try to do
  away with slavery.
• Would you want to lose
  $200,000,000 dollars?
The Missouri Compromise (cont)

• Henry Clay saw a chance for a
  compromise.
• Maine also wanted to come into the
  Union.
• Maine would come in as a free state
  and Missouri would come in as a
  slave state.
• It created a
  temporary peace.
The Missouri Compromise
Stay   The Monroe Doctrine
out!
            • States that the Americas
              are closed to further
              colonization.
            • European countries are
              to stay out or else…
            • The U.S. would stay out
              of European affairs.
  The “Bird Cage”

• The final resting spot
  of President James
  Monroe.
• Located in Richmond,
  Virginia.

				
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