The Industrial Revolution Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth (1800-1844) Created by: Ruben Garcia Chapter Vocabulary • Industrial Revolution- a change from an agricultural economy to a manufacturing economy. • Factory System- brought many workers and machines under one roof. • Lowell Mills- factories located in Lowell, Mass. Created a “village” for it’s workers. Vocabulary (cont) • Interchangeable parts- identical parts that could be easily replaced. • Robert Fulton- Invented a steamboat that could move against the current or a strong wind. • Samuel F.B. Morse- invented the telegraph. Allowed for fast communication Vocabulary (cont) • Eli Whitney- invented a machine to quickly clean cotton in 1793. • Cotton Gin- could clean 50 pounds of cotton in a day. (it would take 1 person a day to clean 1 pound of cotton.) • Nat Turner- led 70 other slaves and killed 55 white men, women, and children in his struggle for freedom Vocabulary (cont) • Nationalism- a feeling of pride and unity with one’s country. • Henry Clay- Nationalist, believed that the U.S. could grow stronger without the help of Foreign trade. • Erie Canal- water route connecting the Great Lakes with New York. • James Monroe- 5th president, wrote the Monroe Doctrine Vocabulary (cont) • Sectionalism- Loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country. • Missouri Compromise- laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave and free states. • Monroe Doctrine- policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the Western Hemisphere, announced in 1823. Section 1: Early Industry and Inventions • Main idea- New machines and factories changed the way in which people lived and worked in the late 1700 and early 1800. • Why it matters now- The industrial development that began more than 200 years ago continues today. Ahh… this too could be yours! • Some argue that the increasing GDP has improved standards of living, such as better availability of food, housing, clothing, and health care. • Many believe that a capitalist economy offers far more opportunities for individuals to raise their income through new professions or business ventures than do other economic systems. Free Enterprise and Factories • The War of 1812 brought great economic change. • The invention of machines made it so that unskilled workers could produce goods and merchandise. • The introduction of the factory system pushed production even faster. • Most factories were located near water. free enterprise and factories (cont) • People began to leave the farm life for the city life. • Many Americans did not want the U.S. to Industrialize. I don’t want your Where are you life! going son? Factories Come to America • Samuel Slater memorized the details on how to make a textile mill. • He hired eight kids, ages 7-12, to work his mill. • His system grew and spread throughout New England • New England had many fast moving rivers that could be used to run the mills. Slater’s Mill Slater’s Tomb The Lowell Mills • Francis Cabot Lowell employed farm girls to run textile mills. • “Lowell girls” worked 12.5 hours a day in deafening noise. • Were under strict watch. They had to go to church, read and attend lectures. • They usually only worked a few years until they married. A New Way to Manufacture • Eli Whitney was hired to make 10,000 muskets for the U.S. army. • He had boxes of musket parts and assembled a musket in seconds, proving the need for parts. • Showed the importance of interchangeable parts. Speeds up production. 1. Butt 2. Wrist 3. Comb 4. Heel Anatomy of a musket 5. Butt plate with screws 6. Toe 7. Trigger guard 8. Flint lock 9. Barrel breech 10. Ramrod 11. Front sling swivel with screw 12. Thimble 13. Thimble pins 14. Entry thimble 15. Muzzle 16. Front sight 17. Bayonet lug 18. Ear for the sling swivel screw 19. Double ear – pin ear – for securing the thimbles 20. Single ear- pin ear - for securing the barrel to the stock 21. Flash hole 22. Rear sight notch 23. Tang 24. Breech plug 25. Barrel 26. Rear sling swivel with screw 27. Ramrod stopper 28. Trigger 29. Trigger guard screws 30. Trigger assembly 31. Bayonet socket 32. Elbow 33. Bayonet lug slot 34. Shoulder 35. Triangular blade 36. Front side plate screw 37. Rear side plate screw 38. Side plate 39. Muzzle cap 40. Tang screw 41. Brake spring for the ramrod 42. Back of the thimble 43. Butt nose 44. Barrel pin 45. Butt nose 46. Fore-stock 47. Cheek piece 48. Breech plug Modern use of interchangeable parts • LS9 engine for the 2009 Chevy Corvette. • 638 horsepower! 200+ mph • Over $100,000 Interchangeable parts Modern Factories • Can produce an entire car in 1 day! Moving People, goods and messages • Robert Fulton invented a steamboat that could move against the current. • Samuel Morse created a fast way of communicating. • The telegraph allowed people to communicate in seconds. • Both invention brought the U.S. closer together and created unity. Technology Improves Farming • Blacksmith, John Deere, created the steel plow. This allowed farmers to work the land of the Midwest. • Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper and thresher improved agricultural. • The reaper could cut grain while the thresher separated kernels from husks. Make iron cheaper Coal Iron ore • The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur. This opened the way to increased iron production. Welcome to the Future! 1840 How much do your shoes cost? Section 2: Plantation and Slavery Spread • Main Idea: The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton caused slavery to spread in the south. • Why it matters: The spread of Slavery created lasting racial and sectional tensions. The Cotton Boom • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin could clean cotton far more efficiently than by hand. • Increased the demand for cotton. Increased the Native need for Need for more Americans were cheap/free labor land. driven off their (slaves) land. The Cotton Gin Slavery Expands • From 1790-1860 cotton production rose, so did the number of enslaved. • In 1820 the South earned $22 million from cotton exports. • By the late 1830s earnings went up to $200 million. • In the 1790s a male slave could cost up to $300. By the 1830s the price went up to $1000. The Cotton Gin Modern textile factory Dividing Issue of Slavery • Only 1/3 of Southern whites owned slaves. Only a small portion of that had 20 or more slaves. • Enslaved African Americans formed about 1/3 of the South's population. • About half worked on large plantations. • Not all slaves worked in the fields. Some worked in the master’s home, or as skilled craftsman who could be let out to neighbors. Dividing issue of Slavery (cont) • In 1840 about 8% of African Americans were free. They had either been born free, freed by their owner, or bought their freedom. • Many free slaves lived in southern cities such as Baltimore and Washington D.C. • Some states made the free slaves leave once they gained their freedom. • They were endanger of being captured and sold into slavery again. Tension Rises • Many slave families were separated when sold at auction. • Slaves would often runaway to try and find their family. • Anger and hatred grew. • Nat Turner led the most famous rebellion, killing many white people. • The rebellion ended when Turner was captured, tried and hung. • In fear, many slaves were killed in revenge. • 1831 wood cut Section 3: Nationalism and Sectionalism • Main Idea: Patriotic pride united the states, but tension between the North and South emerged. • Why it matters: The tension led to the Civil War, and regional differences can still be found in the United States. Nationalism Unites the Country • President Madison wanted the U.S. to become economically self- sufficient. His Plan: 1. Protective Tariff- tax imported goods so Americans would buy American products. 2. Establish a National Bank- that would use one type of money. (Most banks issued their own money) 3. Improve the country’s transportation system- which was important for a strong economy. Poor roads made transportation slow and expensive. • Henry Clay called it the American System. Roads and Canals Link Cities • The Cumberland Road connected Cumberland Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia. • The Erie Canal connected New York City to Buffalo, New York. • The Canal opened the upper Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes Region to trade and travel. • The Canal allowed farm product from the west to flow east and manufactured goods to flow west. The Erie Canal The Erie Canal (cont) • Trade allowed New York to become the largest city. • Population swelled from 125,000 to 200,000 in less than 10 years. The Cumberland Road • Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland. Plans were made to continue through St. Louis, Missouri, on the Mississippi River but funding ran out and construction stopped at Vandalia, Illinois in 1839. Turnpikes • Toll booths used to pay for a large portion of highway. Era of Good Feeling • James Monroe becomes the 5th President in 1816. • The Federalist party showed little resistance and disappeared. • Political differences gave way to an “era of good feeling”. The Supreme Court under President Monroe • McCulloch vs. Maryland- The state could not tax the Federal Bank. • Gibbons vs. Ogden- Interstate commerce can only be regulated by the Federal Government. • Chief Justice John Marshall clearly stated than the Federal government had more power than the state governments. U.S. Boundaries 1818- 1819 President Monroe gave Spain a choice 1. Police Florida Or 2. Turn over Florida to the U.S. Spain gives up Florida. Sectional tension increases • Sectionalism, loyalty to one’s section grew as due to the differing economic activities. • The South was heavily reliant on cotton and agriculture. • The North was heavily based on manufacturing (Factories). • In the West the settlers wanted cheap land and good transportation. The Missouri Compromise • Sectionalism became an issue when Missouri applied for statehood in 1817. • At the time there were 11 slave states and 11 free states. • The balance was now in question. Would Missouri come in as a Slave or Free state? The Missouri Compromise (cont) • Debates continued for months. • Angry southerners felt that if the balance shifted to the Free states, then they would eventually try to do away with slavery. • Would you want to lose $200,000,000 dollars? The Missouri Compromise (cont) • Henry Clay saw a chance for a compromise. • Maine also wanted to come into the Union. • Maine would come in as a free state and Missouri would come in as a slave state. • It created a temporary peace. The Missouri Compromise Stay The Monroe Doctrine out! • States that the Americas are closed to further colonization. • European countries are to stay out or else… • The U.S. would stay out of European affairs. The “Bird Cage” • The final resting spot of President James Monroe. • Located in Richmond, Virginia.