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Violent Crimes

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					           Violence
1.   Violence
2.   Roots of violence
GST




 Strain           Criminal
          ANGER
                  Behavior
Assignment # 4
   According to Agnew, males and females
    tend to experience different types of
    strain.
   Males: 1) financial problems; 2) work-related
    problems, 3) status; 4) conflict and competition
    with peers;
   Females: 1) abortion; 2) STD 3) verbal, sexual,
    and physical victimization; 4) gender-based
    discrimination; 5) child care problems; 6)
    stressors involving family and friends; 7) low
    prestige at work; 8) fitting in (looks+popularity);
Assignment # 4
   Males and females differ in terms of their
    emotional reactions to strain.

 Males: Anger+Moral outrage
 Females: Anger+Fear
  +Depression+Anxiety+Guilt+Self-blame
Assignment # 4
   Males and females differ in terms of their
    behavioral reactions to strain.

Males: Crime and delinquency
Females: Self-destructive behaviors such as
  eating disorders, alcohol/drugs, running
  away from home, self-injuring, self-
  cutting, prostitution.
Final Exam
 New Format
 50 Multiple Choice Questions
 Practice questions?
Roots of violence
 What causes people to
  behave violently?
 Adults and violence
 Children and violence
 Several competing
  explanations
Sources of Violence

                       Substance abuse
Ineffective families                     Cultural Values




  Personal Traits                           Ganging
                           Violence


Firearm availability                     Regional Values

                       Human Instincts
Personality Traits
 Abnormal personality structures
 Depression, impulsivity, aggression,
  dishonesty, pathological lying, lack of
  remorse, psychopathology
 Many murderers kill themselves shortly
  after committing their crime
 There cases when people who commit
  murder wait for the execution (form of
  “Suicide-murder”)
Ineffective families
 Absent/deviant parents
 Inconsistent discipline
 Lack of supervision
 Abused children
Patterson’s Social-Interactional
Developmental Model (1989)
 Children and their environment are in
  constant interchange
 The start of antisocial behavior happens
  in dysfunctional families (harsh and
  inconsistent discipline, little positive
  parental involvement, poor monitoring)
 Family members directly “train” the child
  to perform antisocial behaviors
Patterson’s Social-Interactional
Developmental Model (1989)

   In dysfunctional families, coercion is a way of life
   Child might see that only coercion can stop other
    family members from employing hitting
   Antisocial children manifest “conduct problems”
    outside the home (rejected by peers)
   Later they gravitate toward “deviant peer groups”
   This association reinforces delinquent behavior
   Later these children will have dysfunctional
    families and promote coercion
Mark Colvin-Differential Coercion Theory


  Non-coercive and consistent
  Non-coercive and erratic
  Coercive and consistent (depression)
  Coercive and erratic (chronic criminal)
  Likelihood of crime varies according to the
   amount of coercion experienced
  Low coercion produces low anger, high self-
   esteem, strong social bonds
  High erratic coercion produces high anger, low
   self-esteem, weak social bonds
Mark Colvin-Differential Coercion Theory
 Individuals with background of coercion
  are more likely to get involved in coercive
  situations and respond to them with
  violence
 They create and maintain the cycle of
  coercion (coercive to future
  children+partners)
 They become caught up in a coercive cycle
Abused Children


   Eric and Lyle Menendez were convicted of first-
    degree murder for the brutal shotgun slaying of
    their parents in Beverly Hills. Their defense was
    based on the “abuse excuse”
   The apparent motives ranged from the brothers’
    fear of their father’s abuse to their desire to
    collect $11 million in insurance
Evolutionary factors
 Human instincts (survival
  instinct)
 Violent behavior is
  committed predominantly
  by males
 Sexually aggressive males
  have been the ones most
  likely to produce children
Exposure to violence
 At home, school,
  neighborhood
 Mental health
 Deviant behavior
 Victimization
 Vulnerable to the lure of
  gangs and other deviant
  groups
Cultural/Regional Values
 Violence-prone
  subcultures
 Violence is used to solve
  social conflicts and
  dilemmas
 Ganging
 Regional values (murder
  rate is higher in the
  South)
Ganging

 Rising homicide rates in the 1960s and
  1970s have been linked to increased gang
  activity and drug trafficking in central cities
 Patterns of violence in large cities strongly
  influence national trends
Homicide rates
Cultural Values

 “Legitimation of violence” hypothesis
  (Archer, Gartner, 1984) argues that during
  wartime pro-violent values are reinforced
  and these values are carried over to postwar
  periods
 Increase in homicide rates after World War
    II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War are
    consistent with this idea
Firearm availability

 Greater social acceptance of
  violence as method of conflict
  resolution
 Violence is deeply woven into the
  fabric of American culture (street
  talk, prime-time television
  programming, “gangsta rap”
  music lyrics)