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					Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY
              (6th Ed--redone 7th)

        Chapter 8
     James A. McCubbin, PhD
       Clemson University

        Worth Publishers
OBJECTIVES:          The student will know and understand
the Learning demonstrates how we make changes in our
behavior through experience with the environment, usually
focusing on classical conditioning, instrumental
conditioning, and cognitive learning. After completing their
study of this chapter, students should be able to:

1)discuss the importance of learning and the process of
learning associations

2) describe the general process of classical conditioning as
demonstrated by Pavlov’s experiments

3) explain the processes of acquisition extinction,
spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination
4) discuss the importance of cognitive processes and
biological predispositions in classical conditioning

5) explain the importance of Pavlov’s work, and describe
how it might apply to an understanding of human health and

6) describe the process of operant conditioning, including
the procedure of shaping, as demonstrated by Skinner’s

7)identify the different types of reinforcers, and describe the
major schedules of partial reinforcement

8) discuss the effects of punishment on behavior
9) discuss the importance of cognitive processes and
biological predispositions in operant conditioning

10) explain why Skinner’s ideas were controversial, and
describe some major applications of operant conditioning

11) describe the process of observational learning as
demonstrated by Bandura’s experiments, and discuss
      the impact of antisocial and prosocial modeling.
Learning      Learning
                change in an
                behavior due
                to experience
                (nurture) is
                the key to
John B. Watson
  viewed psychology
    as objective
  recommended study of behavior
  without reference to unobservable
  mental processes
     not universally accepted by
     all schools of thought
   It is widely known that
  human beings are born
    with only two natural
 fears. One is the fear of
falling and the second is
the fear of loud noises.
Where, then, do all of our
  other fears come from?
John B. Watson in his experiment with Little Albert,
   an 11 month old baby, studied how emotions are
 learned. He presented (A) a white rat (CS) and (B) a
     loud noise (US) to Little Albert. After several
  pairings, Albert showed fear (CR) of the white rat.
Later, Albert generalized the fear to stimuli that were
          simular to CS, such as (C) a beard.
We learn by association
  Our minds naturally connect events
   that occur in sequence
  Aristotle 2000 years ago
  John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs
Associative Learning
  learning that two events occur together
    two stimuli
    a response and its consequences

      Event 1                     Event 2

                                                     Learning to
                                                      two events
   Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock

Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

                         We learn to
                          associate two

We learn to associate a
 response and its
Classical Conditioning

 Ivan Pavlov
   1849-1936
   Russian
   Nobel Prize in
   studied digestive
Ivan Pavlov (1849-
 1936) discovered
  the process of
  conditioning by
   accident while
    research on
The core of classical conditioning
 stems from reflex responses.
    A REFLEX is an unlearned
response that is naturally elicited
   by specific stimuli that are
   biologically relevant for the
A stimulus that elicits a reflexive
behavior is called an UNCONDITIONED

          The behavior elicited by the
       unconditioned stimulus is called
              the UNCONDITIONED
                   RESPONSE (UCR).
The neutral
stimulus paired
with the
stimulus is called
(CS).               After several trials, the
                 CS will produce a response
                 called the CONDITIONED
                           RESPONSE (CR).
NOTE: Prior to the experiment the “tone”
 used had no prior meaning for the dogs.
  This was a NEUTRAL STIMULUS and
             elicits no effect.
 * The UCS naturally elicits the UCR.
Dogs were placed in a restraining harness.
 At regular intervals, a tone (NS) sounded
and the dogs were given food (UCS). With
repeated pairings of the NS and UCS, the
neutral stimulus becomes the CS and dogs
           began salivating (CR).
The CS (tone) can now be sounded
  and elicit the CR (salivation)
  without food being present.
Pavlov’s Classic Experiment

                          Before Conditioning

UCS (food
in mouth)
                          UCR                   stimulus      No
                          (salivation)          (tone)        salivation

       During Conditioning                        After Conditioning
              UCS (food
              in mouth)

   Neutral                                      CS
   stimulus           UCR                       (tone)
   (tone)             (salivation)                         CR (salivation)
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

                        device for
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

 Classical Conditioning
    organism comes to associate two stimuli
        lightning and thunder
        tone and food
    begins with a reflex
    a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that
       evokes the reflex
    neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
   effective stimulus that unconditionally-automatically
    and naturally- triggers a response
 Unconditioned Response (UCR)
   unlearned, naturally occurring automatic response to
    the unconditioned stimulus
     salivation when food is in the mouth
 Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
   previously neutral stimulus that, after association with
    an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a
    conditioned response
 Conditioned Response (CR)
   learned response to a previously neutral conditioned
  the initial stage of learning, during which a
   response is established and gradually
  in classical conditioning, the phase in which a
   stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned
  in operant conditioning, the strengthening of
   a reinforced response
    diminishing of a CR
    in classical conditioning, when a
     UCS does not follow a CS
    in operant conditioning, when a
     response is no longer reinforced
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

Spontaneous Recovery
 reappearance, after a rest period, of an
 extinguished CR
  Strength   (CS+UCS)
  of CR
                           Extinction    recovery of
                           (CS alone)    CR

                                           (CS alone)

Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

   tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar

     in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish
       between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal
       an UCS
     in operant conditioning, responding differently to
       stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or
       will not be reinforced
Drops of saliva   60
in 30 seconds




                       Hind       Pelvis   Shoulder     Front
                  0    paw                              paw
                          Thigh        Trunk      Foreleg

                              Part of body stimulated
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning

    kiss)         UCR

    breath)       UCS
                  Kiss)         UCR
    CS                          arousal)
    breath)       CR
Nausea Conditioning in
Cancer Patients

   room)      UCS
   room)      CR
Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning
  type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if
   followed by reinforcement or diminished if
   followed by punishment
Law of Effect
  Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by
   favorable consequences become more likely and
   behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences
   become less likely
Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior
  complex or voluntary behaviors
     push button, perform complex task
  operates (acts) on environment
  produces consequences
Respondent Behavior
  occurs as an automatic response to
  behavior learned through classical
Operant Conditioning
 B.F. Skinner
 Harvard University

    Thorndike’s Law
    of Effect
B.F. Skinner was a
prolific researcher
whose work was central
to modern behaviorism.
He was especially
successful in his studies
dealing with operant
conditioning, which is
how we learn to make a
response because it
leads to a reinforcing
effect, or how not to
make a response because
of the punishing effect.
In one experiment,
Skinner placed a rat
inside a box with two
levers, one that
issued a reward when
pulled and the other
that issued a
punishment. Over
time, the rat began
to stop pulling the      As a result, Skinner was
lever that shocked      able to show the effects
him and just focused       of reinforcement and
on the lever that          punishment in operant
gave him food.                       conditioning.
Thorndike's Puzzle Box, used a cat solving
the puzzle of how to escape from the box.
However, unlike Skinner's experiment with
 rats, the cat did not show any systematic
strategies in learning. He simply scrambled
 around in the box until he stepped on the
From this, Thorndike proposed the Law of
Effect which says that an animals learned
    response that results in rewarding
 consequences are strengthened, and the
responses with punishing consequences are
Operant Chamber

             Skinner Box
               soundproof chamber
                with a bar or key
                that an animal
                presses or pecks to
                release a food or
                water reward
               contains a device to
                record responses
Operant Conditioning
   any event that strengthens
    the behavior it follows
   conditioning procedure in
    which reinforcers guide
    behavior toward closer
    approximations of a desired
Successive Approximations
   reward behaviors that
    increasingly resemble
    desired behavior
Operant Conditioning
Principles of Reinforcement

   Primary Reinforcer
     innately reinforcing stimulus
     satisfies a biological need
   Secondary Reinforcer
     conditioned reinforcer
     learned through association with
      primary reinforcer
Schedules of Reinforcement
 Continuous Reinforcement
   reinforcing the desired response each time
    it occurs
   learning occurs rapidly
   extinction occurs rapidly
 Partial Reinforcement
   reinforcing a response only part of the time
   results in slower acquisition
   greater resistance to extinction
Schedules of Reinforcement
1) Fixed Ratio (FR)
  reinforces a response only after a specified number of
  faster you respond the more rewards you get
  different ratios
  very high rate of responding
  like piecework pay

       2) Variable Ratio (VR)
           reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of
           average ratios
           like gambling, fishing
           very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
Schedules of Reinforcement
3) Fixed Interval (FI)
  reinforces a response only after a specified time
   has elapsed
  response occurs more frequently as the
   anticipated time for reward draws near

      4) Variable Interval (VI)
         reinforces a response at unpredictable time
         produces slow steady responding
         like pop quiz
In essence, if one's actions
make the thing happen it is
       a ratio; if time
   must pass then it is an
 Schedules of Reinforcement

Number of
                Fixed Ratio
                                Variable Ratio

        750                                        Fixed Interval
                               Rapid responding
                               near time for
        500                    reinforcement
                                                  Variable Interval


                                             Steady responding
                    10    20      30    40      50      60      70    80
                                    Time (minutes)
   Operant vs Classical Conditioning
                  Classical                        Operant
                  Conditioning                     Conditioning

The Response      Involuntary, automatic            “Voluntary,” operates on
Acquisition       Associating events;               Associating response with a
                  CS announces UCS.                 Consequence (reinforcer or

Extinction        CR decreases when CS is           Responding decreases when
                          repeatedly presented alone.      reinforcement stops.

Cognitive         Subjects develop expectation      Subjects develop expectation that
processes         that CS signals the arrival of    a response will be reinforced or
                  UCS.                              Punished; they also exhibit latent
                                                    learning, without reinforcement

Biological        Natural predispositions           Organisms best learn behaviors
predispositions   contain what stimuli and          similar to their natural behaviors;
                  responses can easily be           unnatural behaviors instinctively
                  associated.                       drift back toward natural ones.
Psych in Life, ver 2, #8, Meet the Parents
  aversive event that decreases
    the behavior that it follows
  powerful controller of unwanted
Problems with Punishment

 Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's
  suppressed- behavior returns when
  punishment is no longer eminent
 Causes increased aggression- shows that
  aggression is a way to cope with problems-
  Explains why aggressive delinquents and
  abusive parents come from abusive homes
Problems with Punishment

Creates fear that can generalize to desirable
  behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned
  helplessness, depression
Does not necessarily guide toward desired
  behavior- reinforcement tells you what to do--
  punishment tells you what not to do-
  Combination of punishment and reward can be
  more effective than punishment alone
Punishment teaches how to avoid it
Psych in Life, ver 2, #1, The War
and #19, Dazed and Confused.

    Dr. Phil: Focus on Family
Cognition and Operant
Latent Learning
  learning that occurs, but is not apparent
   until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Latent Learning
 Latent Learning
Average   32
errors    30
               1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Cognition and Operant

Overjustification Effect
  the effect of promising a reward for
   doing what one already likes to do
  the person may now see the reward,
   rather than intrinsic interest, as the
   motivation for performing the task
Martin Seligman’s
Taught dogs that they were helpless to
  escape from an electric shock by
  placing a barrier in the cage to prevent
  dogs from escaping when they were
Removed the barrier but the dogs made
  no effort to escape.                     Father of Positive
                                          Univ. Pennsylvania

This “learned helplessness” has been compared to people
who are depressed. They feel past/future events are out of
their control and they are helpless = depression.
Cognition and Operant

 Intrinsic Motivation
   Desire to perform a behavior for its
    own sake and to be effective
 Extrinsic Motivation
   Desire to perform a behavior due to
    promised rewards or threats of
Observational Learning

 Observational Learning
   learning by observing and imitating others
   process of observing and imitating
 Prosocial Behavior
   positive, constructive, helpful behavior
   opposite of antisocial behavior
Observational Learning

 Mirror Neurons
    frontal lobe neurons that fire when
     performing certain actions or when
     observing another doing so
    may enable imitation, language
     learning, and empathy
Albert Bandura (1925- )
University of British Columbia in 1949.
 University of Iowa, Ph.D. in 1952
1953, teaching at Stanford University

Bandura wanted to study aggression in adolescents. He
suggested that environment causes behavior, true; but
behavior causes environment as well. He labeled this
concept reciprocal determinism: The world and a
person’s behavior cause each other.
 The bobo doll studies:
 *made of film of one of his students, a young woman,
 essentially beating up a bobo doll.
 *showed his film to groups of kindergartners who, as you
 might predict, liked it a lot.
 *when they were let out to play, the little kids started
 beating the daylights out of the bobo doll.

He called the phenomenon observational learning or
   modeling, and his theory is usually called social
                   learning theory.
Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)

*humans use various symbols and items that
help us to develop cultures
*we change, interact and go through
development within our cultures
*higherハthinking skills depend on the
internalization of the items we used to
develop within our culture and communicate.       Born in Russia
*used blocks to distinguish children's
mastery of the concept from simple                 Law degree
memorization                                        Unive of
**His work was suppressed by Marxist                Moscow
Russian authorities for over 20 years after his
death.                                            PhD Literature
                                                   & Linguistics
Lev S. Vygotsky (cont)

Several theories regarding learning and development.

1) Theory of Value: what knowledge and skills are worth
   learning? (varies--past experiences and prior
   knowledge important to create new ideas--language,
   culture and social interactions important)
2) Theory of Knowledge: how is knowledge different from
   belief? (intellectual abilities are specific to the
   culture in which the child was reared)
   1) Incoherent coherence: making mistakes is crucial
      to child development.
Lev S. Vygotsky (cont)

3) Theory of Human Nature: how do humans differ from
    other species? (we develop as humans through the
    ways we interact with those around us--ability to
    develop psychological tools that are "used to gain
    mastery over one's own behavior and cognition")
4) Theory of Learning: how are knowledge and skills
    acquired? (through social interaction and language--
    learning is what leads to the development of higher
    order thinking) (IMPORTANT CONCEPTS: Zone of
    Proximal Development (ch 4), Scaffolding (ch 4, ))
Lev S. Vygotsky (cont)

5) Theory of Transmission: who is to teach? methods?
    curriculum? (defined those who are to teach as the
    "More Knowledgeable Other." (MKO) includes
    parents, teachers, peers, siblings
    method, teacher as collaborator)
6) Theory of Society: what institutions are involved?
    (allows the learner to develop cognitively through
    social interactions--language and environment
    important---learning takes place in ANY
Lev S. Vygotsky (cont)

7) Theory of Opportunity: who is to be educated?
    (socialization is the process of cultural
    transmission, both unintentional and deliberate--
    children w/ disabilities should not be separated)
8) Theory of Consensus: why do people disagree?
    (because they are engaged in class struggle for
    dominance among competing social groups--the
    most powerful members of dominant groups create
    the rules for success and opportunity in society,
    often denying subordinate groups such success and
   The Gregorc Mind Styles

       Take test
     "The Gregorc model is a cognitive model
      designed to reveal two types of abilities:
perception and ordering. Perceptual abilities, the
   means through which information is grasped,
  translate into two qualities: abstractness and
concreteness. Ordering abilities are the ways the
learner organizes information, either sequentially
  (linearly) or randomly (non-linearly). Gregorc
   couples these qualities to form four learning
      categories: concrete/sequential (CS),
   abstract/sequential (AS), abstract/random
        (AR), and concrete/random (CR).
By combining the two ides, Gregorc builds the following
four quadrants:

           Concrete/Sequential   Concrete/Random

          Abstract/Sequential    Abstract/Random

Concrete-Sequential: Practical and well organized. They
like to plan their work and work their plan
• Thinking processes are logical, instinctive and
• Strive for perfection and have an eye for detail.
• Focus on material reality and physical objects.
• Creativity lies not with originality but with making it more
effective than the original.
• Prefer an environment that is ordered, practical, quiet,
and stable.
Concrete-Random: Practical and live in the
physical world, but they like to learn by trial and
error. Rather than a plan, they want options.
• Thinking processes are instinctive, intuitive, and
• Events affected by outside variables.
• Focus on practical applications, methods, and
• Creativity is original, inventive, and unique.
• Prefer an environment that is stimulus rich and
Abstract-Sequential: Like to develop ideas in a logical
way. How someone feels about something does not
change reality.
• Thinking processes are intellectual, analytical,
correlative, fluid, and quick.
• Loves books.
• Focus attention on knowledge, concepts, and ideas.
• Creativity lies within models, theories, and
• Prefer an environment that is ordered, quiet,
independent, and mentally stimulating.
Abstract-Random: Work from the heart, not the
head. How someone feels about it makes a great deal
of difference.
• Thinking processes are based in feelings, which makes
this type of person good at establishing a rapport with
• Make sense of the world using feelings and emotions.
• Focus on emotional attachments, relationships, and
• Creativity is imaginative and often expressed through
music and art.
• Prefer an environment of emotional experiences, active
and colorful, and physical freedom.
Concrete/Sequential                        Concrete/Random
Likes: - Order, predictability - Logical   Likes: - Experimenting - Take risks -
sequence - Following directions            Independent problem solving
Learns best with: - Structured             Learns best with: - Trial-and-error
environment                                approaches
Dislikes: - Incomplete or unorganized -    Dislikes: - Restrictions and
Questions without right/wrong              limitations - No options
Makes sense - Step-by-step - A             Makes sense: - Try it - Concrete
schedule to follow                         examples
Abstract/Sequential                        Abstract/Random
Likes: - Their points to be heard -        Likes: - Listen to others - Group
Analyzing before deciding - Applying       harmony - Healthy relationships
logic                                      with others
Learns best with: - Able to work alone     Learns best with: - Group
Dislikes: - Expressing their emotions -
Too little time to be thorough             Dislikes: - Criticism - Focusing on
                                           one thing at a time
Makes sense: - Well researched
information - Work through ideas           Makes sense: - From the heart not
thoroughly                                 the head - Personal examples
Components of
CONCEPTS: Mental representations of
categories of items or ideas, based on
*building blocks of thinking
*allow organization in systematic ways
CONCEPTS: Might be
*classes of objects (chairs, birds,
birthday parties)
*properties (red, large)
*abstractions (truth, love)
*relations (smarter than….)
*procedures (how to tie your shoes)
*intentions (intention to break into a
Natural concepts: mental classifications
that develop out of everyday experiences
in the world. (birds, mother’s face,
artichokes, Statue of Liberty)
Artificial concepts: defined by a set of
rules or characteristics (dictionary
definitions, mathematical formulas)

NOTE: Cognitive psychology is an artificial
concept; so is the concept of a “concept”.
   We organize much of our memory into
Level 1                 Animal

Level 2
           Bird                  Fish

Level 3

  Canary      Ostrich        Shark       Salmon
Most research done on concept formation is
done with cultural specificity. For example,
not all words mean the same thing in all
parts of the globe.
        One big cultural difference is the use of
     logic. Some groups do not value the use
              of logical reasoning the same as
    Europeans or North Americans. A greater
    emphasis is placed on “common sense” or
……and in Asian cultures, more emphasis
is placed on the relationship between the
concepts, not on the precise definitions of
the concepts.

Question: What are the shape of a
German Shepard’s ears?
   You probably consulted a visual image of
   a German Shepard stored in your memory.
   You have not intentionally learned the
   shape--it is latent learning.
Cognitive Maps
  Mental, visual representation of the
  layout of one’s environment
  example- after exploring a maze, rats act
  as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

Cognitive maps help you get to psychology
class or drive your mom to the theatre or
help you walk around your house.
Take a look
at this
map of how
we get up
in the
    Cognitive maps also reflect our impressions of physical
  reality. The maps we have in our mind regarding the world
             are reflected in our cultural upbringing.

STUDY: 4000 students in 71 cities in 49
countries were asked to draw a map of the
world.     Most maps were Eurocentric, but
            many placed their own country in
            center with others surrounding it.

 The most accurate maps came from students in
 former Soviet Union and Hungary. The most
 inaccurate came from American students.
Schema: Cluster of related concepts that
provides a general conceptual framework for
thinking about a topic, an event, an object,
people or a situation in one’s life. (Zimbardo)

   *provide contexts
   *provide expectations
   *provide features likely to be found
   when encountering familiar people or
For example, take the word, TERMINAL.

Are you in:
*an airport?
*a hospital?
*an auto shop?

  How does the meaning change?
We also have SCHEMAS about persons,
roles, and ourselves. An event schema is
called a SCRIPT.              We have scripts for
                             going to restaurant,
Culture influences our
scripts. U.S. servicewomen going to church, going
in the middle east had to         to the library, or
change many behaviors                 making love.
taken for granted at home,
such as walking unescorted
in public or driving a car or
wearing clothing that
showed their faces and legs,
when they went into Arab
Conflicting scripts can make people
awkward and difficult to understand.
Sometimes it can be so uncomfortable,
they don’t want to play the scene again.
Read the following passage carefully:
Chief Resident Jones adjusted his face mask
while anxiously surveying a pale figure secured
to the long gleaming table before him. One swift
stroke of his small, sharp instrument and a thin
red line appeared. Then the eager young
assistant carefully extended the opening as
another aide pushed aside glistening surface fat
so that the vital parts were laid bare. Everyone
started in horror at the ugly growth too large for
removal. He now knew it was pointless to
   Now write down which of the following
     words appeared in the passage:
    Patient   Scalpel    Blood     Tumor
   Cancer     Nurse     Disease Surgery

  In the original study, most of the subjects
circled the words patient, scalpel, and tumor,
   however, none of the words were there.
INDUCTIVE REASONING: form of thinking
using individual cases or particular facts to
reach a general conclusion.
     The ice is cold = all ice is cold
thinking in which conclusions are inferred
from premises, the conclusions are true if
the premises are true (if this, then that)
All men are mortal & Socrates is a man
         = Socrates is mortal
What abilities do good thinkers possess?
a) Identify the problem
b) Select a strategy
Good problem solvers considers ALL the
If your car sputters out on the road, your action may
include getting to the gas station to get gas.
However, you may have failed to notice the loose
battery cable that interupts the electricity and causes
the gas gauge to read “empty.”
A mnemonic used to problem solve is IDEAL.
    I = identify
    D = define
    E = explore
    A = act on best strategy
    L = look back and revise
a) Trial and error (for simple problems)
b) Algorithms
c) Heuristics

ALGORITHMS: formulas or procedures. If
applied correctly, algorithms will always
*balance checkbook, figure gas mileage, calculate
gradepoint average.
HEURISTICS: simple, basic rules or “rule of
(i.e.) “feed a cold, starve a fever”

Heuristics do not guarantee a solution, but
  they give us a good start. Useful
  heuristics include:
   a) Working backward
   b) Searching for analogies. (if the new problem
      is similar to the one you’ve faced
   c) Breaking a big problem into smaller pieces
Psych in Film, ver 2,
    #5, Apollo 13
    #6, Apollo 13
    #7, Apollo 13
Obstacles to problem-solving include:
a) Mental set
b) Functional fixedness
c) Self-imposed limitations
d) others
Say this word 3 times.


What do cows drink?

Did you say milk?
They actually drink water. . . . But this is
an example of mental set.
Obstacles to problem-solving: Mental set

 The tendency to approach a new problem in the same
  way you approached a similar problem previously.

See if you can unscramble the following words:
nelin       frsca         raspe           tnsai
ensce       peshe klsta           epslo
sdlen       nitra         nolem naoce
lecam       macre dlsco           tesle
slfal       elwha         hsfle           maste
Most people, whether they realize it or not,
eventually solve the scrambled word problem with
an algorithm by rearranging the order of the letters
in all the words in the same say using the formula
     Nelin becomes           linen
     12345                           34521
However, if you use the algorithm, your answers
for the last 2 columns won’t agree with the
“correct” ones.
Correct answers:

Linen    scarf         pears           stain
scene    sheep talks           poles
lends    train         melon canoe
camel    cream colds           steel
falls    whale         shelf           meats
Obstacles to problem-solving: functional
The function of a familiar object becomes so set, or fixed,
  in you mind that you cannot see a new function for it.
Ex: Your psych prof has offered you $5 if you can tie
together two strings dangling from the ceiling
without pulling them down. But when you grab the
end of one string and pull it toward the other one,
you find that you cannot quite reach the other string.
The only objects available to you in the room are on
the floor: a ping-pong ball, five screws, a
screwdriver, a glass of water, and a paper bag. How
can you reach both strings and tie them together?
Did you realize that you could use the
screwdriver as a pendulum weight to
swing one of the strings toward you?
Obstacles to problem-solving: Self-imposed
  The idea that we impose unnecessary limitations to

                               Can you connect all
                               the dots with four
                               connecting lines
                               without lifting your
                               pencil from the
Two Solutions
Obstacles to problem-solving: Other
      a) Lack of specific knowledge
      b) Lack of interest
      c) Low self-esteem
      d) Fatigue
      e) Drugs (even legal drugs)
      f) Stress
      g) Bias
a) Confirmation bias: finding fault with
   information that doesn’t confirm your belief.
b) Hindsight bias: people overestimate their
   ability to have predicted an event
c) Anchoring bias: faulty heuristic caused by
   basing an estimate on a completely unrelated
                                 When these equations
   1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8=?             are given to 2 separate
                                 groups of people to
   8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1=?             ESTIMATE, the average
                                 answer for #1 was 512,
                                 and #2 was 2250.
d) Representativeness bias: faulty heuristic
   strategy based on the presumption that once
   people or events are categorized, they share
   all the features of other members in that
e) Availability bias: faulty heuristic strategy that
   estimates probabilities based on information
   that can be recalled from personal
        Effects of Multitasking
Robert J. Marzano is
cofounder and CEO of
Marzano Research
Laboratory in Englewood,

•speaker, trainer, and author   BA, Iona College
dealing with instruction,              (New York)
assessment, writing and
implementing standards,         MA, Seattle University
cognition, effective
                                PhD, University of
leadership, and school          Washington.
Marzano outlined 9 strategies most likely to
improve student achievement:

1. Identifying similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
4. Homework and practice
5. Nonlinguistic representations
6. Cooperative learning
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
1. Identifying similarities and differences
   a. Venn diagrams
   b. Charts used to compare and classify terms

2. Summarizing and note taking
    a. double or triple column notes
    b. clarify questions and predict what will
        happen next

3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
   a. share stories about people
   b. keep a log of weekly efforts and
4. Homework and practice
   a. homework policy
   b. feedback
   c. timed quizes

5. Nonlinguistic representations
   a. words and images to represent relationships
   b. physical models
   c. physical movement
6. Cooperative learning
   a. group by common experience/interests
   b. vary sizes and objectives
   c. base activities on
      1. social skills
      2. face to face interaction
      3. group processing
      4. positive interdependence
      5. individual accountabiliey
      6. group accountability
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
    a. set core goal (essential question)
    b. encourage students to personalize the goal
    c. how will student meet the goal?

8. Generating and testing hypotheses
   a. ask about how things could change if….
   b. ask student to build something

9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
   a. pause after asking a question
   b. vary style of advanced organizer
      1. tell a story, graphic image, skim text
Benjamin Bloom created a
  taxonomy to categorize the
  level of abstraction of
  questions that commonly
  occur in educational
  settings. The taxonomy
  provides a useful structure
  in which to categorize test
                                BA, MA Penn State
  •   easy to comprehend but          Univ
      difficult to apply
                                PhD, Univ of
  •   focus was on mastery
Following the 1948 Convention of the American
    Psychological Association, B S Bloom took a lead in
    formulating a classification of "the goals of the
    educational process".

Three "domains" of educational activities were
  • Cognitive Domain
  • Affective Domain
  • Psychomotor Domain

Bloom and his co-workers established a hierarchy of
   educational objectives, (Bloom's Taxonomy), which
   divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging
   from the simplest behaviour to the most complex.

High school students are rarely asked higher level

Level 1:   Knowledge
Level 2:   Comprehension
Level 3:   Application
Level 4:   Analysis
Level 5:   Synthesis
Level 6:   Evaluation

Level 1:    Knowledge
  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter
  • Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe,
      identify, show, label, collect, examine,
      tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where,

Level 2:    Comprehension
  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences
  • Question Cues: summarize, describe,
      interpret, contrast, predict, associate,
      distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss,

Level 3:    Application
• use information
• use methods, concepts, theories in new
• solve problems using required skills or
• Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate,
   calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve,
   examine, modify, relate, change, classify,
   experiment, discover

Level 4:  Analysis
  • seeing patterns
  • organization of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components
  • Question Cues:

analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify,
   arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer

Level 5:    Synthesis
  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalize from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
  • Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify,
      rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design,
      invent, what it?, compose, formulate,
      prepare, generalize, rewrite

Level 6:   Evaluation
  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess value of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognize subjectivity
  • Question Cues: assess, decide, rank,
      grade, test, measure, recommend, convince,
      select, judge, explain, discriminate, support,
      conclude, compare, summarize
1) Classical conditioning is especially useful for
   understanding which one of the following examples
   of learning?
a) A child who, after a painful dental visit, has learned
   to fear the dentist
b) A dog that has learned to “sit up” for a food reward
c) An executive who is afraid that she will lose her job
d) A rat that has learned to run a maze
e) A psychology student who is learning how memory
2)The responses in classical conditioning were originally
a) New behaviors
b) Premeditated behaviors
c) Random acts
d) Trained reflexes
e) Innate reflexes
3) If you learned to fear electrical outlets after getting a
    painful shock from plugging in a light, what would be
    the CS?
a) The time period between seeing the outlet and
   getting the shock
b) The prong on the light cord
c) The electrical outlet
d) The painful shock
e) The fear
4) Which of the following would be most likely to be an
   unconditioned stimulus (UCS) involved in classical
a) praise
b) money
c) music
d) a flashing light
e) food
5) Thorndike’s law of effect said that an organism will
    learn to perform responses that are
a) Preceded by a conditioned stimulus
b) reflective
c) prompted
d) Preceded by a neutral stimulus
e) rewarded
6) Which one of the following is an example of negative
a) Taking away a child’s favorite toy when the child
b) Making a child watch while another child is punished
c) Giving a child a toy for misbehaving
d) Going to the dentist and having a toothache relieved
e) Spanking a child for swearing
7) Suppose that you have taught your dog to roll over for
    a reward of a dog biscuit. Then one day you run out
    of dog biscuits. Which schedule of reinforcement
    would keep your dog responding longer without a
a) Noncontingent reinforcement
b) Positive reinforcement
c) Negative reinforcement
d) Intermittent reinforcement
e) Continuous reinforcement
8) Which one of the following is a conditioned reinforcer
   for most people?
a) A sharp pain in the back
b) water
c) money
d) sex
e) food
9) Operant conditioning in contrast with classical
   conditioning emphasizes events (such as rewards
   and punishments) that occur
a) After the behavior
b) Concurrently with another response
c) At the same time as another stimulus
d) During the behavior
e) Before the behavior
10) When their goal path was blocked, Tolman’s rats
   would take the shortest detour around the barrier.
   This, said Tolman, showed that they had developed
a) Observational learning
b) Operant behavior
c) Trial-and-error learning
d) Classical responses
e) Cognitive maps
11) Cognitive psychologist Robert Rescorla has
   reinterpreted the process of classical conditioning in
   his view, the conditioned stimulus (CS) serves as
a) Stimulus that follows the UCS
b) punisher
c) Cue that signals the onset of the UCS
d) Negative reinforcement
e) Cognitive map
12) If you were going to use Bandura’s findings in
   developing a program to prevent violence among
   middle school children, you might
a) Have children role-play nonagressive solutions to
   interpersonal problems
b) Have children watch videos of aggressive children who
   are not being reinforced for their aggressive behavior
c) Reward children for nonviolent acts.
d) Punish children for aggressive acts performed at
e) Have children punch a BoBo doll to “get the
   aggression out of their system.”
13) Which of the following proved to be difficult to explain
   in purely behavioral terms?
a) A child learning to read
b) A pigeon learning to press a lever in a Skinner box for
   a food reward
c) A chimpanzee using a pile of boxes and a stick to
   obtain food hung high in its cage.
d) A dog salivating at the sound of a bell
e) A trained seal doing a trick for a fish
14) A dictionary definition would be an example of
a) An artificial concept
b) A natural concept
c) A core concept
d) An abstract concept
e) A concrete concept
15) Which one of the following list represents a concept
a) Cat, dog, giraffe, elephant
b) Animal, mammal, dog, cocker spaniel
c) Woman, girl, man, boy
d) Lemur, monkey, chimpanzee, human
e) Beaver, fox, cat, cougar
16) Knowing how to check out a book at the library is an
   example of
a) A natural concept
b) An event-related potential
c) A cognitive map
d) A script
e) A core concept
17) All of the following are components of thought,
a) concepts
b) images
c) schemas
d) stimuli
e) scripts
18) What is the first step in problem solving?
a) Selecting a strategy
b) Avoiding pitfalls
c) Searching for analogies
d) Identifying the problem
e) Developing algorithms
19) A math problem calls for finding the area of a
   triangle. You know the formula, so you multiply 1/2
   the base times the height. You have used
a) An algorithm
b) A heuristic
c) Functional fixedness
d) intuition
e) An analogy
20) Good problem solvers often use “tricks of the trade”
   or “rules of thumb” known as
a) algorithms
b) heuristics
c) Trial and error
d) Deductive reasoning
e) scripts
21) Which one of the following would be an example of
   confirmation bias at work?
a) Mary ignores negative information about her favorite
   political candidate
b) Aaron agrees with Joel’s taste in music
c) Natasha refuses to eat a food she dislikes
d) Bill buys a new RV, even though his wife was
   opposed to the purchase
e) Frank buys a lottery ticket because he read about a
   lotto winner.
22) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that is
   consistently found among highly creative people?
a) independence
b) A high level of motivation
c) Willingness to restructure the problem
d) Extremely high intelligence
e) Open-mindedness
23) Heuristic strategies show that our thinking is often
   biased on
a) Logic rather than emotion
b) Experience rather than logic
c) Trial and error rather than algorithms
d) Common sense rather than learning
e) Logic rather than creativity.


      #8 Learning

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