Middle Childhood Physical Development (PowerPoint)

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					Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                      Chapter 11
                  Middle Childhood:
                 Physical Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

Middle Childhood: Physical Development Truth or Fiction?

      Children outgrow “baby fat.”


      The typical American child is exposed to about 10,000 food
       commercials each year.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

Middle Childhood: Physical Development Truth or Fiction?

   Most American children are physically fit.


   Hyperactivity is caused by chemical food additives.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

Middle Childhood: Physical Development Truth or Fiction?

   Stimulants are often used to treat children who are already
    hyperactive.


   Some children who are intelligent and provided with enriched
    home environments cannot learn how to read or do simple math
    problems.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                      Growth Patterns
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

    What Patterns of Growth Occur in Middle Childhood?


  • Height and Weight
       – Gain a little over 2 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year
       – Boys are slightly heavier and taller than girls until 9 or 10
       – About age 11, boys develop more muscle and girls more fatty tissue
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




    Figure 11.1 Growth Curves for Height and Weight
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

     How Many Children in the United States Are Obese?


  • About one quarter of American children are obese
       – Prevalence of obesity has risen overall in America
  • Most overweight children become overweight adults
  • Overweight children and adolescents
       – Often are rejected by peers
       – Perform poorly in sports
       – Tend to like their bodies less than children of normal weight
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                        A Closer Look

             Treating High Blood Pressure in
                    Middle Childhood
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 11

                  What Are the Causes of Obesity?


  • Heredity
  • Number of fat cells (adipose tissue)
       – Hunger drive is connected to number of fat cells
           • More fat cells – feel hunger sooner
  • Environmental factors
       – Obese parents may model poor dietary and exercise habits
       – Sedentary habits
           • TV watching encourages snacking, exposes children to commercials for
             food and is low physical activity
  • Stressors and emotional reactions
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                        A Closer Look

               Helping Children Lose Weight
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                 Motor Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

          What Changes in Motor Development Occur
                   in Middle Childhood?
  • Gross Motor Skills
       – Increase in speed, strength, agility, and balance
       – Type of game/sport encourages large muscle growth
       – Connections between cerebellum and cortex become myelinated
           • Reaction time gradually improves
  • Fine Motor Skills
       – Tie shoes and hold pencils as adults do
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

           Are There Sex Differences in Motor Skills?


  • Boys show slightly greater overall strength
       – More forearm strength – batting and throwing
  • Girls show greater coordination and flexibility
       – Gymnastics, dance, balancing
  • Boys more likely to be encouraged in athletics
  • Physical activity decreases with age in both sexes
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

       Are Children in the United States Physically Fit?


  • Most children in the United States are not physically fit
  • Reasons for decline in fitness?
       – Watching television
       – More focus on sports than continuous exercise
           • Participation in sports declines after age 10
  • Fit children usually have parents who exercise and encourage
    them to exercise
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




           Children With Disabilities
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

How Does Run-of-the-Mill Failure to “Listen” to Adults Differ
     From Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
  • Characteristic of ADHD
       – Developmentally inappropriate or excessive inattention,
       – Impulsivity, and
       – Hyperactivity
  • Onset occurs by age 7
       –   Behaviors must persist for at least 6 months
       –   Impairs function at school
       –   Difficulty getting along with others
       –   More common in boys than girls
  • Some argue ADHD is over-diagnosed and overmedicated
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

                   What Are the Causes of ADHD?


  • Heredity
       – Runs in families
  • Associated with other disorders
       – Anxiety, depression, tics
  • Brain abnormality or impairment
  • Inefficient inhibitory processes
       – Lack of executive control in the brain
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




               Developing in a World
                   of Diversity
           African American Youth and ADHD
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

   Why Are Children With ADHD Treated With Stimulants?


  • Hyperactivity stems from inability of cerebral cortex to inhibit
    more primitive areas of the brain
  • Stimulants used to stimulate the cerebral cortex
       – Blocks reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline
  • Children with ADHD on stimulants demonstrate
       – Increased attention span, improved cognitive performance
       – Reduction in disruptive, annoying, and aggressive behavior
  • Medication may cause side effects
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective treatment
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11




                        A Closer Look

               Back To School – With Ritalin
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

                   What Are Learning Disabilities?


  • Characterized by inadequate development of specific academic,
    language and speech skills
       – Problems with reading, math, writing
       – Difficulties with speaking or understanding speech
       – Problems with motor coordination
  • Performs below expectations for age and intelligence
  • Usually persists throughout life
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

                                   Dyslexia


  • Persistent problem in reading
  • Affects 5 to 17.5% of American children
       – More common in boys than girls
  • Treatment
       – Initially – remediation
       – Later – accommodation
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

                 What Are the Origins of Dyslexia?


  • Genetic factors
       – Parent or sibling with dyslexia
  • Neurological problems
       – “Faulty wiring” in left hemisphere – angular gyrus
       – Difficulty associating letters with sounds
  • High levels of prenatal testosterone
       – Slows growth in the left hemisphere
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 11

         Should Children With Learning Disabilities Be
               Placed In Regular Classrooms?
  • Research evidence is mixed
  • Segregation may negatively influence teacher expectations
  • Mainstreaming students
       – May overwhelm some
       – in others increases achievement
  • High performing disabled students benefit more from regular
    classes