Unit 4 Exploration and Expansion 1. European countries spread out around the globe as trade expanded. 2. The economies of Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, England and France flourished. 3. Europeans are fascinated by Asia. 4. Many read about Asia through the writings of Marco Polo. 5. Spices from the East were wanted to preserve and flavor food. Europeans wanted to Arab eliminate the middle men. 6. Europeans, especially the Spanish, wanted to spread religion. 7. Europeans were also in search of glory. 8. Gold, God, and Glory 1. Portugal led the way in exploration in the 1500's. They sailed along the western coast of Africa. 2. Africa was a good source for gold. It was known as the Gold Coast. 3. Vasco da Gama discovered a route around the Cape of Good Hope to reach India to buy spices. 4. The Portuguese took control of the spice trade from the Arabs. 1. The Portuguese went east across the Indian Ocean to India. 2. The Spanish went west across the Atlantic Ocean to find India. 3. Columbus got financed by Queen Isabella. 4. In October of 1492, Columbus landed at Hispaniola. He thought he was in Asia. He tried 4 times, but never reached Asia. 5. Portugal and Spain signed a treaty that split territory in the Atlantic Ocean. Spain got the east; Portugal got the west. 6. John Cabot explored the New England coastline for England. 7. Pedro Cabral, a Portuguese captain explored South America in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci rode along several times. 1. Spanish conquerors were known as conquistadors. 2. Hernando Cortes defeated the Aztecs in the 1521. 3. The Incans were defeated in Peru. 4. The Spanish took control of Western South America and made the "Indians" their subjects (laborers). 5. European diseases (small pox, measles and typhus) killed millions of Native Americans. 6. Spanish missionaries converted thousands and established schools and hospitals in South America. 7. Native American culture was wrecked by the European influence. Tenochtitlan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4Jabd IKx8s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DgfGU2Gd4vE&featur e=related Hernando Cortes Montezuma 1. Columbian Exchange-- the export of goods and wealth from the New World to the Old World. Spain prospered. 2. Portugal challenged Italy as a major trader in Asia. 3. Magellan sailed around the world in the name of the Spanish. He "discovered" the Philippines and established a base there. Magellan is killed in the Philippines. 4. The Dutch become active in India in 1595 through the East India Company. They also formed the West India Company to trade in the Americas. 5. Mercantilism was a philosophy created through the trade established through the colonies. The powers wanted to bring in wealth and establish a favorable balance of trade. 1. Slavery was nothing new in Africa when the Europeans arrived in the 1400's. 2. Portugal was the first European country to take slaves from Africa. 3. Spain was the first European country to take African slaves directly to the New World. 4. Sugar cane was the main reason slaves were needed in South America and in the Caribbean. 5. Triangular Trade: finished goods from Europe to Africa>>slaves from Africa to the Americas>>raw materials (tobacco, cotton, sugar, etc.) from the Americas to Europe. 6. As many as 10 million Africans were brought from Africa between 1500 and the late 1800's to the Americas. Triangular Trade http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/slave_tra de.htm Layout of a Slave Ship Loose Pack Tight Pack 1. The slave trade brought chaos to the African continent. 2. Many African kingdoms engaged in the slave trade and fought among themselves. A lot of their culture was lost. 3. Islam spread through Africa despite slavery and modest attempts by Christian missionaries. 4. The British ban the slave trade in 1807. 5. America bans the slave trade in 1808. 6. Spain and Portugal ban slave trade by 1861. 7. Cuba and Brazil don't ban slavery until the 1880's. 1. The European spice trade in SE Asia was first established by the Portuguese. They set up trading posts. 2. These areas were known as the Spice Islands. 3. The Spice Islands included Sri Lanka and Indonesia. 4. Eventually, the Dutch push the Portuguese out of the Spice Islands. 5. Although the Portuguese and Dutch set up trading posts on mainland SE Asia (Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam), they are pushed out. 1. In France, Huguenots and Catholics go to war from 1562-1598--The French Wars of Religion. 2. Huguenots were Calvinists. Huguenots were a minority, but about half of the French nobles were Huguenots. 3. The war ends with Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot becomes king. He converts to Catholicism and allows Huguenots to practice. 4. Philip II, in 1556, makes Spain a Catholic state and pushes to rid Spain and its possessions of Muslims and Calvinists. 5. Calvinists in the Netherlands, under William Prince of Orange, oppose the Spanish. 1. In 1558, Elizabeth I became Queen of England. 2. She made England a Protestant country under the Church of England. 3. Philip II wants to conquer England, but his navy is no match for England and is destroyed in a storm. 4. Spain fades as a power because they are broke. England and France emerge as the powers of Europe. 1. 1560-1650 Europe had crises. Inflation was a major problem. 2. Witch Trials took place throughout Europe. Most "witches" were female. They were usually over 50 and single or widowed. 3. People confessed under torture. They confessed to many things including partnering with the devil and casting spells. 1. The Thirty Years' War was fought over religion. There was dispute between Calvinists and Catholics. 2. The war lasted from 1618-1648. It was fought in Germany and involved every major power except England. 3. The war ended the power of the Holy Roman Empire and splintered Germany. 1. Elizabeth I was a Tudor. 2. James I came into power in 1603. He was from Scotland. He was a Stuart. 3. Divine right of kings--God put royals in power and they only answer to God. 4. Puritans begin to dissent with the Church of England. They are Calvinists. 5. Many Puritans will eventually leave England and go to Massachusetts. 1. Charles I, the son of James I, is overthrown by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell is supported by the Puritans. 2. Cromwell has Charles I executed. Cromwell established a commonwealth. He disbanded the House of Lords which is composed of Nobles. 3. Charles II and James II, sons of Charles I, succeed Cromwell. They are friendly to Catholics. This worries people. 4. William and Mary come from the Netherlands and take the throne of England. This is known as The Glorious Revolution. 1. Absolutism-- a system in which the ruler holds total power 2. Stability in the 1600's was thought to improve if monarchs assumed more power. 3. Monarchs received their power from God and they were responsible to only God. 4. Louis XIV of France ruled from 1643-1715. The "Sun King." 5. His paternal grandparents were Henri IV of France and Marie de Medici of Italy. 6. He was a great grandson of Phillip II of Spain. 7. Louis XIV drove France into debt by fighting 4 wars and living a life of great lavishness. 8. He built a great army and navy. The fleet was essential in developing mercantilism which supported France. 9. An example of Louis XIV lavish lifestyle was shown through the Palace of Versailles. It has 700 rooms! Palace of Versailles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G93EhI GlVS0 Louis XIV Germany 1. After the Thirty Years' War, Germany was fragmented into over 300 states. 2. The main two were Austria and Prussia. 3. Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia established a large army of 40,000. 4th largest in Europe. 4. The first king of Prussia was King Frederick I, the son of William Frederick. Austria 1. Austria lost power following the Thirty Years' War. 2. The Hapsburgs were in power in Austria. 3. Austria was a collection of territories. 4. Austrian Empire included: Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. 5. Bohemia is now the Czech Republic Russia 1. 16th century Ivan V calls himself czar (Caesar) 2. Ivan expands Russia east. He is supported by the boyars (nobility). 3. Ivan IV is known as Ivan the Terrible. He killed his own son. 4. A new family was chosen to lead Russia in 1613--the Romanov's, Michael Romanov. They ruled until 1917. 5. The greatest of the Romanov leaders was Peter the Great. 1. Peter the Great became czar in 1689. He claimed the divine right of kings. 2. Peter "westernized Russia after visiting western Europe. Boyers were forced to shave their beards and change the way they dressed. 3. He brought technology to Russia and modernized the army and navy. 4. Peter created a powerful military. Peter the Great 1. The ideals of the artistic Renaissance gave way to Mannerism. Mannerism was an attempt to seek spirituality. This occurred in the 1520's an 1530's. 2. The Baroque style emerged in the 1500's. It was a combo of spirituality and art. Religious buildings, especially, used this style. Bernini was a well known Baroque artist. He designed the St. Peter's Basilica. 1. Between 1580 and 1640 theatre was popular. 2. During Queen Elizabeth's reign, it flourished. It became known as the Elizabethan Era because most of it happened then. 3. William Shakespeare was popular during this time. He built the Globe Theatre. 4. Admission was cheap so that everyone could attend. 5. He wrote a diverse array of plays that appealed to a wide audience. 1. Theatre was also popular in Spain. The playwright of the day was Lope de Vega. He wrote plays that were popular with his audiences. 2. A popular writer was Miguel de Cervantes. He wrote Don Quixote. 1. Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651. 2. He believed that humans were brutes not guided by ideals or morals. They were out for self-preservation. 3. The solution to this was a social contract in which people obey a ruler with unlimited power. This kept order. 1. John Locke wrote The Treatises of Government in 1690. 2. Locke believed in the natural rights of men-- life, liberty and property. 3. The people established a government to protect their rights. The government/ruler had the obligation to look after the people. If he did not, the people had the right to change the government. 4. Locke thought this fell to the wealthy, not the common people. He did not necessarily believe in democracy. 5. Locke inspired the American and French revolutions. The Declaration of Independence and Constitution were based on Locke's beliefs.