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					    Nutrition 101

Creating a More Productive
Meeting with “Smart” Menus
              Nutrition 101

 Basic Nutrition

 Special Dietary Needs

 How Foods Affect the Mind

 Meeting Menu Analysis
              Nutrition---Who Cares?
 79 percent believe nutrition impacts their
  health, yet only 39 percent are committed to
  achieving a healthful eating plan. Source: ADA1997
   1/3 of Americans are obese Source: U.S. News and World
Have You Seen Me?
Nutrition 101

Basic Nutrition
         Food Guide Pyramid
 Developed by the USDA and the
  Department of Health
 The Pyramid is meant for all healthy people
  from age two up.
 All five food groups are equally important.
     The Food Guide Pyramid
 Fats, Oils, Sweets: sparingly
 Milk, Yogurt, Cheese: 2-3 servings
 Meats, Poultry, Fish Beans, Eggs, Nuts: 2-3
        Have You seen Me?
      The Food Guide Pyramid
 Vegetables: 3-5 servings
 Fruits: 2-4 servings
 Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta: 6-11
   Serving Sizes and Exchange
 Serving sizes are not based on typical
  restaurant portions

 The 6-11 servings suggested of grains
  refers to a smaller amount than you think--
         Serving Sizes

Pasta      ½ cup   Tennis ball
Meat       3 oz.   Card deck
Cheese     1 oz.   4 Dice
Fruit      1cup    Baseball
             Exchange Lists
 Exchange Lists refer to servings measured
  when following a strict diet
 Concentrate on serving size and nutrient
  content, allowing substitution, e.g. Corn and
  potatoes, starchy vegetables, can be
  exchanged for grains
   Nutrition 101

Three Energy Nutrients

 Grains, Vegetables, Fruits
 Simple--Sugars
 Complex---Starches
 4 calories/gram
 Carbohydrates (CHO‟s)

 The fundamental energy nutrient from which
  all other energy nutrients are derived.
 Primarily used for quick bursts of energy
 Preferred energy source of brain
 Plants: Primary source of CHO‟s
 Milk is the only significant animal source
        Simple Carbohydrates
 Simple CHO‟s: sugars found in fruits and

 Table sugar is a simple CHO

 glucose, fructose (found in fruit), lactose
      Complex Carbohydrates
 Complex CHO‟s: starches found in grains,
  grain products, vegetables

 Fiber---indigestable complex CHO found in
  whole grains, fruits, and vegetables
  more on fiber later...
 Meats, Poultry, Eggs, Seafood,
  Legumes, Cheeses
 Subunits called amino acids
 Vary in Quality
 4 calories/gram
 Quality depends upon how well the
  source meets nutritional needs---the
  amount of essential amino acids
 Animal sources are more complete
  than than legumes or grains
 Vegetarians must combine foods to
  complement essential amino acids---
  rice and black beans
 Plant sources: Corn, Olive, Soybean,
  Palm, Coconut
 Animal Sources: Dairy, Meat, Poultry,
 Types: saturated, unsaturated
 11 calories/gram
Fat---It‟s Hiding!
Besides the obvious fatty foods---
 Avocado
 Olives
 Peanut Butter
 Salad Dressing
 Disguised as Meat…
  bacon, hot dogs
     Good Fat --- Bad Fat?
 Unsaturated fats      Saturated fats are
  are from plants        typically from
 Liquid at room
                        Solid at room
  temperature eg.
  Olive oil              Lard
 Are preferable        exceptions: palm,
 Mediterranean Diet     palm kernel,
                         coconut are plant
                         derived saturated
 Energy storage
 More energy dense than CHO‟s
 Immediate energy source for some body
  parts---e.g. muscular system
Other Roles:
  – maintain skin and hair
  – storage and transportation fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  – keeps body warm
  – protects cell walls and organs
           Fat & Cholesterol
 Besides dietary cholesterol, too much fat or
  oil, esp. saturated fats, can raise blood
 high cholesterol  heart disease
 Heart disease is the #1 killer in North
           Fat & Cholesterol
LDL: low-density lipoprotein
 known as “bad cholesterol”
 deposits fats and cholesterol on the lining of
 the arteries: atherosclerosis
          Fat & Cholesterol
HDL: high-density lipoprotein
 called “good cholesterol”
 carries fat and cholesterol away
 generated by the body during exercise
           Fat & Cholesterol
Best defense against heart disease-- cut
  down on dietary fat, especially saturated fat
(found in beef, pork, whole-milk dairy products
  like ice cream, butter)
       Fat Substitutes
 Olestra, sucrose polyester, has texture
  similar to fat
 Molecule is too large to be absorbed
  through intestinal lining
 Can cause GI problems and
  malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins
 Found in savory snacks---Olean
       Fat Substitutes
 Simplesse is made from protein from
  egg whites or milk
 Fat-like texture
 Digestable and provides few calories
 Not heat stable
 Found in ice cream, frozen casseroles
           Fat Substitutes
 Z-trim was developed by USDA from by-
  products of grains (hulls)
 Fat-like texture
 Adds fiber to diet
 No apparent digestive problems
 Heat stable, but not for deep-frying
 Mostly commercial use
 A Balancing Act

          A Balanced Diet

PROTEIN       CHO's          FAT
  20%          60%           30%
                            or less
           Dietary Fiber
Soluble                  Insoluble
 apples, oats, barley    wheat bran, whole
 lowers cholesterol       grains, vegetables
 slows absorption of     Regularity
  glucose---fight off     May help prevent
  hunger                   cancer
              Dietary Fiber
Whole grains
 provide both soluble and insoluble fiber
 good source of complex CHO‟s
 naturally low in fat & saturated fat
  Nutrition 101

Special Dietary Needs
             Kosher Diet
Kosher market generates $3.25 billion in
 sales annually.
              Kosher Diet
Three Basic Principles
 No mixing of meat and dairy
 No pork products
 No shellfish
               Kosher Diet
People follow kosher diets to varying
….consult with a local rabbi or kosher
   Proteins: Potential Problems
Gluten Intolerance / Celiac Disease
 gluten is a protein found in wheat that gives
 allergic: must avoid wheat products or suffer
  digestive problems
   Proteins: Potential Problems
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
 problem with amino acid phenylalanine
 used to cause mental retardation in children-
  --now diet controlled
 avoid aspartame (Nutrasweet)
           Vegetarian Diets
 Lacto-ovo: not meat, poultry or fish,
includes eggs and dairy
 Vegans: no meat, poultry, fish, eggs, or
           Vegetarian Diets
Vegetarian menus should not be the usual
  catering menu, minus meat!
 Get menu ideas from health food
 Remember to keep it appetizing.
              Vegetarian is Healthy
Studies show that vegetarians have a lower
  rate of morbidity and mortality due to chronic
  diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
Source: ADA
    Nutrition 101

How Food Affects the Mind
           Food for Thought
Besides Energy, food can affect:
 Alertness
 Memory
 Mood
      Food for Thought

The following conclusions are from
  several studies found in:
 The British Journal of Nutrition („97,
 International Journal of Food Science
  & Nutrition („99)
Did you eat your Wheaties?
Mom was right---breakfast is the most
  important meal of the day…
 in the morning glycogen stores are low-
  --glucose levels low
 period between dinner and breakfast
  >8 hrs
Poor nutritional intake can alter learning,
 memory, information processing, and mood.
 Over the past decade, appropriate
 scientific research has flourished.
    Did you eat your Wheaties?
 Scientific studies indicate that alertness
  ratings increase immediately after eating
 A high-fiber, carbohydrate-rich meal
  provides highest levels and longest
  alertness periods
        Breakfast Study

Subject were fed 4 different menus—the same for
High fat/Low     Croissant        Eggs &

Low fat/ High    Kellog’s         All-Bran
   Breakfast Experiment
 All provided equal calories
 Bread, margarine, and jam used to
  compensate lower-calorie meals
 Fattier foods were smaller portions
  than subjects were used to (more
    High-Fat Breakfast Results
 Both the croissant and eggs with bacon
  were more palatable
 Provided low fullness rating
 Faster onset of subsequent eating
 Greater calorie consumption in the morning
     High-Fiber/CHO Breakfast
 Less palatable than high-fat breakfasts
 Greatest post-breakfast alertness due to 
  blood glucose and  fullness
         I Don‟t Have Time...
 The number of adults who skip breakfast in
  the US has increased over the past 25
 Studies suggest that skipping breakfast
  negatively affects cognitive functioning.
          Food For Thought
 Findings suggest that eating breakfast
  improves cognitive ability....
     Food For Thought
  …cognitive tasks affected include:
 recall of items on a list
 editing
 Results do not suggest that skipping
 breakfast affects performance on
 intelligence tests!
        Food and Your Mood
Research indicates that carbohydrates can
 alter neurotransmitter levels in the brain,
 affecting one‟s mood...
        Food and Your Mood
1. Janet eats a CHO-rich, protein-poor meal --
  - a candied apple and a plain bagel
2. Insulin is released from the pancreas to
  cope with the influx of glucose.
        Food and Your Mood
3. Amino acids are forced from the blood to
  the muscles for energy.
4. Tryptophan, lacking competing amino
  acids, floods the brain.
5. The brain converts tryptophan into
        Food and Your Mood
Janet ends up feeling sleepy shortly after
  breakfast. She has trouble concentrating
  and staying awake towards the end of the
  morning session.
         It‟s (not) Just Lunch!
Breakfast isn‟t the only important meal---
Both observation and experimental studies
  have established that poor lunch habits can
  impair mental functioning.
        It‟s (not) Just Lunch!
 Skipping lunch can have the same negative
  effects as skipping breakfast.
 Also…having too big a lunch can affect
        It‟s (not) Just Lunch!
The post-lunch dip:
 occurs about 1 hour after lunch
 recovery late in the afternoon
      Sample Menus

From: “Pass the Tums!” by Melinda Ligos,
    Successful Meetings, June 1999.
#1---hors d‟oeuvres for Dinner

Good…                Not Good…
 p.m. snack---       Sausage biscuit
  pretzels, apple     2nd grapefruit
 Veggies              juice (acid)
 Chicken satay       High-sodioum
 Shrimp--low fat,     lunch items
  high protein        Spanakopita &
 #2---Quick , Call a Doctor
Good…            Not Good…
nothing really    Pound cake
                  Fried foods
                  Onion rings
                  Beer and Liquor
  #3---Look Ma, No Lunch

Good…                 Not Good…
 Lots of water        Didn’t eat
 Steak, potato, &
  Baked beans
 Orange Juice
 Probably didn’t
  gain weight,,,but
#4---Market Basket Approach

Good…                  Not As Good…
 High in protein,      Fried chicken not
  carbohydrates, and    so great, but one
  fiber                 fried item all day is
 Low fat
 Great snack
 Lots of water

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