Discovery and Crisis in the th and th Centuries by MikeJenny

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									                Discovery and Crisis in the 16th and 17th Centuries
   An Age of Expansion and Discovery The Sixteenth Century
   Overseas Exploration and Conquest
        o The outward expansion of Europe began with the ______ voyages, and then the ________,
        o The presence of the _____________ in the East frightened the Europeans and forced their
            attention westward.
        o Political ______________ in Spain, France, and England prepared the way for expansion
   The Motives For Exploration
        o A Long Time Fascination with the East
        o Renaissance _________ caused people to seek out new worlds.
   Marco Polo’s Travels
   Hopes for Wealth through Trade
        o Limited economic and political ___________ for upper-class men.
        o Government encouragement was also important.
   The Economic Motive
        o The quest for material_______ was the basic reason for European exploration and expansion.
        o ______ were another important incentive.
   Christian Missions
        o The desire to ____________ the Muslims and pagan peoples played a central role in European
            expansion.
   The Technological Means Needed
        o The development of the cannon aided European expansion.
        o New _______ and navigational developments, such as the caravel ship, the magnetic compass,
            and the astrolabe, also aided the expansion.
   Navigational Tools
        o The Astrolabe, The Caravel, Ptolemaic Worldview, Medieval T and O Map
        o _________ and Dead Reckoning
   The Portuguese Maritime Empire
   Prince Henry, the Navigator
        o Prince Henry the Navigator established a ______ of navigation and cartography at Sagres in
            1419.
        o The Portuguese, under the leadership of Henry, pushed south from North Africa.
        o Prince Henry sought “lost” Christian kingdoms as allies against the Muslims.
        o New trade routes around ______ and worlds for missionaries were also sought.
   Portuguese in Africa
   Bartholomew Diaz
        o In 1487, Diaz rounded the Cape of _________ at the southern tip of Africa, but the fear of
            mutiny forced him to return to Portugal.
   Vasco da Gama
        o Da Gama, with the aid of an Arab pilot, made a successful journey across the Arabian Sea to the
            Indian port of Calicut.
        o He returned with a great ______ in spices.
        o The Portuguese quickly gained control of the Indian trade by overpowering Muslim forts in
            India.
   Alphonso de Albuquerque established the headquarters of Portuguese empire at the Indian port of ___.
   The Portuguese pushed on to _______, taken by Albuquerque in 1511.
   Trading ports were established in the islands of the Moluccas (the Spice Islands) and in China.
   India and Malacca
       o ________ soon controlled the flow of spices to Europe.
   Voyages to the New World
   Christopher Columbus
       o Genovese sailor / navigator - he persuaded Queen ________ of Castile of the possibility of
           finding a direct route to Asia by the west across the Atlantic.
       o He set sail on August 3, 1492 with three ships - the Niña, The Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
       o He landed on San Salvador Island on October 12 believing he had reached the outskirts of the
           ______.
       o When it was clear that he had not found great new spice markets, he turned to setting up a
           government in the islands, believing to his death he reached Asia.
       o The people of Columbus's era came to realize that he had discovered a "_________.“
   Other Explorers of the New World
   John Cabot
       o Giovanni Caboto, a Venetian sailor, made two voyages of discovery (1497 - 98) for King Henry
           VII of _______.
       o Cabot made landfall on Newfoundland but disappeared on his second voyage.
   Pedro Cabral
       o Pedro Alvares Cabral accidentally "discovers" ______.
       o He intended to sail east around Africa and on to India, but his fleet was blown westward by a
           storm onto the Brazilian coast.
   Amerigo Vespucci
       o The writings of Vespucci, who accompanied Cabral, led to the use of the name “_______” to the
           New World.
   Vasco Nunez de Balboa
       o Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and “discovered” the Pacific Ocean.
       o He was tried and jailed for treason but his plan for conquest of the Incas was carried out by
           _______.
   Ferdinand Magellan
       o 1519-22 - _______ expedition circumnavigates the globe under the leadership of the Portuguese
           explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who was killed in the Philippine Islands
   Voyages of Discovery
   The Treaty of Tordesillas
       o 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divides the non-Christian world between _____ and ________.
       o By this treaty Brazil becomes Portuguese, the rest of the Americas, Spanish.
       o Portugal claimed the East Indies, and Spain the Philippines.
   The Spanish Empire
   Hernan Cortes and Mexico
       o A Spanish expedition led by Hernan Cortes began the conquest of ______ in 1519.
       o By 1521 the Spaniards killed the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma, and the city of Tenochtitlan fell to
           Spanish arms, the enmity of other Indians, and ________.
       o The Aztec city was razed and the Spaniards constructed Mexico City over it.
   Francisco Pizarro
       o 1533 - A Spanish expedition led by Francisco Pizarro began the conquest of ____.
       o By 1535 the Spaniards had murdered the Inca Atahualpa and defeated a massive Inca revolt.
   Spanish Colonial Administration
       o The Spanish Conquistadors were granted the __________ or right to control and exploit native
           labor.
       o The abuses of the system led to the deaths of thousands of indigenous people.
       o The abuses led to calls for reform - led by the Dominican friar Bartholome de _________.
       o The Encomienda system was ultimately abolished.
        o The Spanish monarch divided his new world into four _____________, each with a viceroy and
            audiencia or board of judges, that served as an advisory council and judicial body.
        o The __________ were royal officials responsible directly to the monarch.
        o The Spanish acted on the mercantilist principle that the colonies existed for the financial benefit
            of the mother country.
        o The Crown claimed the ______, one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America.
   The Impact of Expansion
   Destruction of Native Cultures
        o Native cultures were destroyed - languages lost, religions and social institutions were disrupted.
        o Millions of Native Americans died of Smallpox, alcohol abuse and deprivation.
        o The population of Hispaniola declined from _______ to ___
        o Indians and black Africans were imported to continue the mining.
   Black Slavery and Racism
        o Black slavery originated with the end of white slavery (1453) and the widespread need for labor,
            particularly in the new _____-producing settlements.
        o Beginning in 1518 Africans were brought to America to replace Indian slavery; this was
            promoted by the missionary las Casas who wished to protect Indians.
        o African kings and dealers sold black slaves to European merchants; the first slaves were brought
            to Brazil.
        o African Slave Trade
   The Belief in European Superiority
        o Settlers brought to the Americas the racial attitudes they had absorbed in Europe from
            Christianity and Islam, which by and large depicted blacks as primitive and ________.
   The Enrichment of Europeans
        o 1545 - Spaniards discovered and began to exploit huge silver deposits at ______ in Bolivia.
   The Economic Effects of Spain's Discoveries in the New World
        o Enormous amounts of American gold and silver poured into Spain in the sixteenth century.
        o European _________ hurt the poor the most.
   National Rivalries
        o _____________ feelings, economic rivalries, mercantilism and increased capital gave rise to the
            global economy and Capitalism.
   Politics and Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century
   The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
   Weakening of the French Monarchy
        o The Renaissance Valois monarchs Francis I and Henry II were strong rulers.
        o Unfortunately Henry II was killed in a tournament at a fairly young age.
        o Henry’s three sons turned out to be weak and ineffective, and were dominated by their Italian
            Catholic mother Catherine di ______.
        o This led to a long series of bloody __________.
        o These wars were a reflection of strong religious, political, economic and social forces at work in
            France.
   The Religious Causes
        o The _________ forces were the most important cause of the conflict.
        o The kings feared the spread of _________ and tried to persecute the protestant group.
   The Huguenots
        o The Huguenots, as French ___________ were called, came from all levels of society – artisans,
            shopkeepers, merchants, - people both rural and urban.
        o ______ of the French nobility were Huguenots, including the house of _______, the next in line
            of succession after the Valois.
   Henry of Navarre
        o The Bourbon, Henry of Navarre, was converted to Protestantism by his mother.
        o Huguenots were only __ of the population but were well organized and strong-willed.
   The Catholic Majority
        o The Valois Monarchy were staunchly Catholic and had strong control over the Gallican Church
            in France.
        o Catherine di Medici was a moderate who sought to compromise with the Protestants.
   The Ultra-Catholics
        o The Ultra-Catholic extremists, led by the _____ family, favored strict opposition to the
            Huguenots.
        o The Guise were rich and well connected and the Ultra-Catholics held the allegiance of the
            majority of the city of _____.
        o The Guise posed a _________ threat to the royal family of Valois.
   The Political and Economic Factors
        o The towns and provinces sought ____________ from the power of the crown and were willing to
            revolt.
        o Many nobles also wanted to gain political power and because they were Huguenots they posed a
            major threat to the trend of ______________ of power in France.
   The Politiques
        o A group of moderates placed ________ before ________ and realized the wars would weaken
            France’s position in the world – they sought compromise.
   The War of the Three Henries (1588-89)
   The Guise Attack
        o 1562 – the Duke of Guise massacred a group of Huguenots sparking a religious war.
        o The Huguenots armies held their own in _________ fighting.
   The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
        o Henry of Navarre was set to marry the sister of King Charles IX.
        o Many Huguenot nobles traveled to _____ for the wedding.
   St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
        o Catherine di’ Medici and the Guise feared the Huguenots and used the gathering as a means of
            attacking the Protestants.
        o August 24-26, 1572 – a wave of violence against Huguenots swept through Paris leaving
            ___________The massacre discredited the ______ with out ending the crisis.
   Charles IX
        o Charles IX died in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother __________
   Henry III
        o In 1576 Henry issued the Edict of ________, which accorded more privileges to the Huguenots.
   The Holy League
        o 1576 – In response, the Ultra-Catholics formed the ___________ to get Henry, Duke of Guise,
            on the throne of France.
   The War of the Three Henries
        o Henry of Guise took Paris with aid from _________ of Spain and forced Henry III to make him
            his top minister.
        o Henry III had Henry of Guise ____________.
        o Henry III then allied with Henry of Navarre to defeat the Holy League and retake the city of
            Paris.
        o Henry III was ____________ by an irate monk.
        o Henry of Navarre now claimed the throne and in order to stop the war reverted to ___________.
        o “Paris is worth a mass.”
   The _____ of ______
        o Issued in 1598 -- it acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion of France, but guaranteed
            Huguenots the right to worship in certain regions.
        o It allowed the Huguenots the right to protect themselves by _____.
        o The Edict of Nantes ended the French religious wars and Henry IV (the first _______ king) had a
            relatively peaceful 20-year reign.
   King Philip II of Spain
        o Philip II of Spain lived in his palace / monastery called the Escorial; where he spent much time
            in ______.
        o El Escorial
   Consolidation of Hapsburg Possessions
        o Philip sought to consolidate his hold over Spain, the ___________, Italy and the New World.
        o He wanted to further the cause of the Counter-Reformation through the use of the Spanish
            ___________.
        o Philip was hampered by the ____ of _______ control, enormous bureaucracy and his own
            micromanagement.
        o "Your majesty spends so long considering your undertakings that when the moment to perform
            them comes the occasion has passed and the money has been spent." (Pius V)
   New World Inflation
        o Philip used the wealth of the New World to make Spain a major economic power but the influx
            of gold and silver led to _________.
        o Even with all of this wealth Philip was forced to ___ heavily and ______ – these economic
            problems will lead to the decline of Spain.
   Most Catholic King
        o Philip had a _________ spirit that led to great victories and terrible defeats.
        o His greatest victory was against the Turks in the Mediterranean
        o In 1571 a Spanish fleet defeated the Turkish navy at the Battle of _______.
        o But most of his other military ventures ended in defeat.
   The Revolt of the Netherlands (1556-1587)
   The Netherlands Under Charles V
        o The Low Countries were part of the Habsburg empire and enjoyed commercial success and
            relative ________.
        o In 1556 Charles V abdicated and divided his empire between his brother, Ferdinand of Austria,
            and his son, King Philip of Spain.
   Religious Troubles
        o _________ took deep root among the merchants and financiers of the Netherlands.
        o ________, daughter of Charles V, was made regent in the Netherlands and attempted to destroy
            Protestantism by establishing the Inquisition.
        o She also raised _____, causing those who opposed the repression of Calvinism to unite with
            those who opposed the taxes.
   Philip II
        o These provinces had no real political bond holding them together except their common ruler, and
            that ruler was _________, a foreigner who was out of touch with the situation in the Netherlands.
        o Philip II hoped to strengthen his control in the Netherlands, regardless of the traditional
            privileges of the separate provinces.
        o This was strongly opposed by the ______, _____, and provincial ______, which stood to lose
            politically if their jealously guarded privileges and freedoms were weakened.
        o Resentment against Philip was also aroused when the residents of the Netherlands realized that
            the taxes they paid were being used for _______ interests.
        o Finally, religion became a major catalyst for rebellion when Philip attempted both to reorganize
            the ecclesiastical structure of the Dutch Catholic church and to crush ______.
   William the Silent
        o Resistance against the king's policies increased, especially from the aristocrats led by William of
            Nassau, the prince of ______, also known as William __________.
        o Violence erupted in 1566 when Calvinist -especially nobles- began to destroy statues and stained
            glass windows in _________________.
   Duke of Alva
        o Philip responded by sending the ____________ with 10,000 veteran Spanish and Italian troops to
            crush the rebellion.
        o The repressive policies of the duke proved counterproductive.
   Council of Troubles
        o A special tribunal, known as the _______ of ________ (nicknamed by the Dutch the Council of
            Blood), inaugurated a reign of terror in which even powerful aristocrats were executed.
        o As a result, the revolt now became organized, especially in the ________ provinces where
            William of Orange and Dutch pirates known as the "___________" mounted growing resistance.
        o In 1573, Philip removed the Duke of Alva and shifted to a more conciliatory policy to bring an
            end to the costly revolt.
   Pacification of Ghent
        o William of Orange wanted to _____ all seventeen provinces, a goal that was briefly realized in
            1576 with the Pacification of _____.
        o Under this agreement all the provinces would unite under William's leadership, respect religious
            differences, and demand the withdrawal of all Spanish troops.
        o But religious differences were too strong for any lasting union.
   Duke of Parma
        o When the next Spanish leader, the ____ of _____, arrived in the Netherlands, he played upon the
            religious differences of the provinces and split their united front.
   Union of Arras
        o In 1579, the southern provinces formed the Catholic _____ of _____ and accepted Spanish
            control.
   Union of Utrecht
        o To counter this, William of Orange organized the northern, Dutch-speaking states into a
            Protestant union - the _____ of _______.
        o The Netherlands was now _______ along religious, geographical, and political lines into two
            hostile camps.
        o The northern provinces sought to place themselves under either the French king or the English
            queen Elizabeth.
   The United Provinces
        o The war ended in ____ with a twelve-year _____ that virtually recognized the independence of
            the northern provinces.
        o These "United Provinces" soon emerged as the _____ ________, although the Spanish did not
            formally recognize them as independent until ____.
        o The southern provinces remained a _______ possession.
   Elizabeth I of England
        o After the death of queen Mary in 1558, her half-sister _________ ascended the throne of
            England.
        o During Elizabeth's reign, England rose to prominence and became __________ of the Protestant
            nations of Europe.
        o Elizabeth tried to avoid the religious troubles associated with Mary’s reign.
        o Elizabeth based her religious policy of __________ and __________.
        o People could believe as they wished as long as they didn’t threaten the state.
   New Religious Rules
        o 1559 - the Catholic legislation of Mary was repealed.
        o A new Act of Supremacy was passed.
        o An _________________ restored the Book of Common Prayer.
   Religious Opposition
        o Catholics and ________ continued to oppose the new religious settlement.
        o Catholics became a minority aided by the identification of Catholicism with King Philip II of
            Spain.
   Mary, Queen of Scots
        o Elizabeth’s real challenge from Catholicism came from her cousin ___________, Queen of the
            Scots and next in line to the throne.
        o Mary was ousted from Scotland by rebellious _________ Nobles in 1568 and fled for her life to
            England.
        o There Elizabeth placed her under ____________.
        o Mary was believed to be involved in a number of Catholic plots designed to kill Elizabeth and
            put Mary on the throne.
        o Mary involved herself in one too many plots and in 1587, Elizabeth had her ________.
   Puritans
        o Potentially more dangerous to Anglicanism in the long run were the Puritans.
        o The word Puritan referred to those within the Anglican Church who wanted to remove all traces
            of Catholicism from the Anglican Church.
        o Elizabeth managed to contain the Puritans during her reign, but these Calvinists would cause a
            lot of _______ in the ____ century.
   Politics and Foreign Affairs
        o Elizabeth proved as adept in government and foreign policy as in religious affairs.
   Thomas Cromwell
        o She was well served administratively by the principal secretary of state, an office created by
            Thomas ________ during the reign of Henry VIII.
   Secretaries of State
        o The talents of Sir William _____ and Sir Francis __________, who together held the office for
            thirty-two years, ensured much of Elizabeth's success in foreign and domestic affairs.
   Parliament
        o Elizabeth also handled __________ with much skill; it met only thirteen times during her entire
            reign.
        o _______, moderation, and expediency also dictated Elizabeth's foreign policy.
   Elizabeth's Foreign Policy
        o Fearful of other countries' motives, Elizabeth realized that war could be __________ for her
            island kingdom and her own rule.
        o Unofficially, however, she encouraged ______________ to raid Spanish ships and colonies.
   Francis Drake
        o Francis Drake was successful at __________ Spanish fleets loaded with gold and silver from
            Spain's New World Empire.
        o Elizabeth also provided aid to French Huguenots and Dutch Calvinists to weaken France and
            Spain.
        o All the while she pretended complete aloofness and _________________ that would force her
            into war with any major power.
   Involvement in the Netherlands
        o Gradually, however, Elizabeth was drawn into more active involvement in the Netherlands and
            by 1585 had reluctantly settled upon a policy of active military intervention there.
        o This move accelerated the already mounting friction between _____ and _______.
   War with Spain
        o Advisers persuaded Philip II of Spain to invade England.
        o They assured him that the people of England would rise against their queen when the Spaniards
            arrived.
        o Philip was convinced that the revolt in the Netherlands would never end while England provided
            _______ for the ___________.
        o For the “most Catholic King of Spain” a successful invasion of England would mean the
           overthrow of ______ and the return of England to Catholicism.
        o The execution of ____, queen of Scots, in 1587 angered the pope, who offered to provide
           financial support for the undertaking.
   The Spanish Armada
        o Philip ordered preparations for an Armada that would rendezvous with the army of the duke of
           Parma in Flanders and escort his troops across the English Channel for the invasion.
        o The Spanish Armada proved to be a ________ for Spain.
   Destruction of the Armada
        o English ships were _______, better equipped, and more maneuverable and so were able to inflict
           heavy damage on the Spanish ships.
        o Fog came in during the battle, and while the English were able to sail to harbor, the Spanish
           became disoriented, and were forced to sail around England via the _________.
   The Protestant Wind
        o Many more Spanish ships were destroyed by ______ going around England.
   Results of the Spanish Defeat
        o With the defeat of Spain, England held _______________ in the North Atlantic, engendering, to
           an extent, the colonization of America that followed.
        o Spain’s _____ of a North American Empire and a unified Catholic world was destroyed along
           with its Armada.
   Elizabethan Renaissance
        o William ___________
   Economic and Social Crises
        o _________ followed by Stagnation
        o Trade, Industry, Banking, and Agriculture
        o Population and the Growth of Cities
   The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
        o The Thirty Years' War has been described as the last major European _______________ and the
           first all-European __________________.
        o It was literally a series of wars, fought mainly on ______ soil, and was in large part a struggle to
           alter the European _______ of _____.
        o The _____________ bore the heavy cost of this devastating war.
        o Historians disagree on precise figures; but in some parts of Germany, population losses are
           believed to have been in excess of __________.
   Peace of Augsburg
        o The religious wars that had divided Germany and the Holy Roman Empire as a result of the
           Protestant Reformation ended with the Peace of ________ in 1555.
        o The compromise produced a peace between the Protestant and Roman Catholic states of the
           empire that lasted for the next ________.
        o However, in the early 17th century tensions between the rival faiths suddenly revived.
   The Bohemian Phase (1618 - 1625)
        o The Bohemian War marked the start of hostilities on May 23, ____.
        o At issue was the advance of royal power through the __________ and ________ policies of King
           Ferdinand of ________ Austria, soon to be elected Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II
        o Both sides were convinced that they were fighting for a holy cause, with the fear of not only
           political defeat but annihilation if the other won.
        o Both sides searched for ______, and as a result the conflict widened, entangling it with the
           religious and political struggles of their neighbors.
   The Defenestration of Prague
        o Calvinist Nobles rebelled against Ferdinand by throwing two Hapsburg Governors out a ______
           in Prague.
       o Rebels seized ______ and deposed Ferdinand.
       o The Bohemians appealed to the __________ Prince of Transylvania who was hoping to win the
           crown of Hungary from the Habsburgs.
   The Elector Palatinate
       o They also elected _________ V of the __________ as their new king.
       o They hoped that Frederick's father-in-law, _______ of England, and his uncle, Maurice of
           ______, virtual ruler of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, would lend support.
   Emperor Ferdinand
       o Ferdinand called on his allies including ______, his cousin Maximilian, Duke of _______ (leader
           of the Catholic League of German princes), and on the Habsburg king of _____, Philip III.
   The Winter King
       o In 1620 the Bohemians were defeated at ______________ near Prague, and Frederick V lost his
           crown as suddenly as he had won it.
       o He continued to fight, employing various mercenary leaders, relying on English and Dutch
           assistance.
       o In 1623, however, the Palatinate was overrun by Spanish and Bavarian troops, and Frederick's
           electoral vote was transferred to Maximilian of _______.
       o Protestant lands were seized and ___________ became the sole religion of Bohemia forcing
           thousands of Protestants into exile.
   The Danish Phase (1625-1629)
       o Dutch and Spanish money and military expertise fueled much of the fighting in Europe.
       o Spanish troops fought in Germany, Italy, and France.
       o The Dutch, with a much smaller population, preferred to finance military allies.
       o These allies included _________ IV of _______, who feared the continued victories of his
           neighbor's armies.
       o The Danish armies of Christian IV invaded Northern Germany.
       o The Imperial armies were led by Albrecht Von ___________ and the Bavarian Catholic
           League’s by General Johannes Tserclæs, Count of _____.
       o Christian IV was soon routed by General Tilly
   The Edict of Restitution
       o Victory apparently in hand, Emperor Ferdinand issued (Mar. 29, 1629) the Edict of
           ___________, which restored to the Catholic Church all property taken by the Protestants since
           1552.
       o After Denmark's withdrawal from the war in May of 1629 another Scandinavian power joined
           the fray.
   The Swedish Phase
       o Encouraged by France, ______ concluded a truce with its Baltic rival Poland, and in July 1630
           the Swedish king ________ _______ landed in Pomerania to begin a series of victorious
           campaigns against the imperial armies.
       o The Swedes were victorious in several battles in 1631 and 1632, although Gustavus Adolfus was
           ______ in defeating Wallenstein in November of 1632.
       o Gustavus Adolphus
       o Throughout these years, the Catholic King Louis XIII of France, the traditional rival of the house
           of Habsburg for preeminence in Europe, had observed Tilly's and Wallenstein's victories with
           increasing concern.
       o Despite the Emperor’s loss of ___________ to assassination the Swedes suffered a severe defeat
           at __________ on Sept. 6, 1634.
       o The Emperor agreed to annul the Edict of Restitution hoping to make peace with the German
           Princes.
       o France led by Louis’ minister Cardinal _________ openly declared war in 1635 to begin the
           fourth and final phase of the war.
   The Franco - Swedish Phase
        o The ring of alliances was virtually complete; no treaty between any two states, or even group of
           states, could now end the war.
        o The intervention of France on the "__________" side cut across the religious alignments of the
           warring factions.
        o Religious aims and motivation began to drop into the background.
        o In 1640 Catholic Portugal rebelled against Catholic Spain.
        o In 1643 the Protestant Christian of Denmark, fearing the increasing power of Protestant Sweden,
           restarted the old Danish-Swedish rivalry for the control of the Sound (Oresund), the northwestern
           entrance to the Baltic.
        o Once more the Danes were heavily defeated and lost their monopoly control over the Sound.
        o Peace settlements began in 1643 with the ambassadors of the combatants meeting in peace
           congresses in __________.
        o The relative position of parties continued to change when there was no immediate truce, with all
           parties wanting to negotiate from a ____________________.
        o Therefore it took 5 years to conclude peace, beginning in January 1648 between Spain and the
           United Provinces.
   Peace of Westphalia
        o October 1648 marked peace between France, Sweden, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the
           German princes (Peace of Westphalia).
        o The war between France and Spain continued until 1659 (Peace of the ________), despite
           Britain joining France against Spain in 1656.
        o The wars between Sweden and Poland and between Sweden and Denmark flared up again and
           were not settled until 1660 (Peace of Oliva and Peace of Copenhagen).
   The Peace of Westphalia
        o The Peace of Westphalia solved some problems.
        o The Habsburgs had failed to reassert imperial power and the German princes were left with
           virtual political ____________ and with the right to choose their religion.
        o Their subjects were given no such choice but were allowed to emigrate.
        o In European power politics, ________ no longer determined alliances, nor did it lead countries
           into war.
        o ______ had become the dominant power in the Baltic, and ______ had displaced Spain as the
           dominant power in Western Europe.
   A Military Revolution?
        o Greater Firepower
        o Flexibility and Mobility
        o Discipline
   The Witchcraft Craze
        o The use of the Inquisition, a search for __________ for the Black Death, and the connection by
           the church of witchcraft to the activities of the devil led to an increase in Witchcraft trials in the
           15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
   The Malleus Maleficarum
        o Two Dominican friars, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, were sent to Germany to
           investigate witches.
        o They wrote the standard handbook on discovering and rooting out witchcraft – The ______ of
           the _______.
   Increases in Trials
        o There was dramatic increase in the number of trials during the period – estimates indicate that
           more that _______ people were prosecuted for witchcraft.
   Mannerism and the Baroque -- Art in the 16th and 17th Centuries
   Mannerism
        o Mannerism, the artistic style that gained popularity in the period following the High
            Renaissance, took as its ideals the work of Raphael and especially ____________.
        o The term was used by contemporaries who attacked artists of the period for simply copying the
            ______ of Michelangelo.
        o It is considered to be a period of great _________ accomplishment but of formulaic, theatrical
            and overly stylized work.
        o Mannerist Art is characterized by a complex composition, with muscular and _________ figures
            in complex poses, perhaps best exemplified by the artist ________.
                 El Greco
   The Baroque
        o The era in the history of the Western arts roughly coinciding with the ____ century.
        o Its earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th
            century, while in some regions, notably Germany, certain of its culminating achievements did
            not occur until the 18th century.
        o Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are ________, sensuous
            richness, _____, vitality, movement, tension, _________ exuberance, and a tendency to blur
            distinctions between the various arts.
        o Primarily Baroque designates the dominant style of European art between Mannerism and
            Rococo.
        o This style originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic ___________________, its
            salient characteristics being well suited to expressing the self-confidence and proselytizing spirit
            of the reinvigorated Catholic Church.
   Caravaggio
    Bacchus
   Caravaggio
     The Calling of Saint Matthew
   Annibale Carracci
   Domine Quo Vadis?,
   Artemesia Gentileschi
    Judith Beheading Holofernes
   Peter Paul Rubens
    Daniel in the Lion's Den
   Gianlorenzo Bernini
   Ecstasy of St. Teresa
   Bernini
   Tomb of Alexander VII

								
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