Pressure Testing Research of Female Beach Volleyball Clothes

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					       Pressure Testing Research of Female Beach Volleyball Clothes
                                               Li Zhang, Jun Xua
     Apparel & Art Design College, Xi’an Polytechnic University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710048, China
                            Corresponding author’s email:

Abstract: According to the sports features of beach volleyball, the clothing pressure measurement system based
on LabVIEW is used to take out the dressing test in this paper. And the pressure distribution is surveyed and
analyzed when wears the beach volleyball clothes for different postures and parts.

Key-words: beach volleyball clothes, comfortable pressure, pressure survey

1 Introduction                                                  This experiment uses the pressure measurement
As an emergingly competitive sports, beach                      system based on LabVIEW clothing pressure survey
volleyball has become a formal event since the 1996             system, including three modules: data acquistion
Atlanta Olympic Games.In the complexible human                  module, data saving module, data reading and
organs and function systems,as to the beach                     displaying module [2].
volleyball athletes, the most important function of
physical fitness level are nervous-muscles system,              2.2.1 Data acquisition module
energy supply system and respiratory circulatory                (1)It uses DAQ Assistant to get data from various
system[1]. The muscle should be given proper                    voltages;
pressure to reduce muscle vibration and unnecessary             (2)It uses waveform graphic to show the real-time
energy loss ,so the muscle contraction can be                   wave of various voltages ,and shows waveform
enhanced.Therefore,it is significant to combine the             when it finished;
characteristics of muscle movements with                        (3)It save the data to a measruement frofile named
appropriate clothes to comfortable pressure. To this            test.lvm ,using a written-into module;
issue,this article selectes a specific beach volleyball         (4)It haults DAQ equipment data acquisition
clothe,carries out human dressing experiment using              operations when reaching the fixed time,using two
the pressure measurement system based on                        clock modules and a While cycle to fix time. The
LabVIEW clothing pressure survey system,                        process of data acquisition module as shown in
measures and analizes the pressure distribution of              figure 1.
the different positions in different parts of the body.

2 Beach Volleyball Clothing Pressure
Testing System
2.1 Testing device
The system uses piezoresistive sensor, the model of
which is CL-YB-97, and the specification is
diameter of 16 mm, thickness of 3 mm, for human
clothing pressure measurement, a range of 10000 Pa;
It selects an inline acquisition card of PCI-6220 , the
specification is the 16 single-ended (or double-8)
analog input circuit,and the measuring voltage range                   Fig.1 Data acquisition process diagram
is ±10v, the sampling rate is 1Mhz and the
resolution is 16 (±15-bit); It uses LabVIEW8.0                  2.2.2 Data saving module
software to collect ,display and store data .                   Collected data has been temporarily saved in a
                                                                measured document, the three main functions of
2.2 Procedure designing                                         data storage module are reading the measurement
                                                                data from a temporary measurement document,

processing and saving the data to EXCEL used for                fingers and put the palms together, extend the arms
the follow-up analysis.The process of reading data              and keep two thumbs parallel forward;
from measurement document as showm in figure 2.                    Spiking: Rise the chest and exhibit the abdomen,
                                                                rise the arms upward to the back, make the body an
                                                                   Blocking: Extend the arms and maintain them
                                                                parallel, rise the shoulders;
                                                                   Defense: Bend the knees,rise the heels a little,and
                                                                lean the upper body forward,keep the arms straight
                                                                and suppress the hands,make the forearm in a plane.

        Fig. 2 Data reading process diagram

 2.2.3 Data reading and displaying module
This module has three main functions after the data
is saved in EXCEL, reading data from EXCEL,
showing the data as graphic, processing the data
simply through the MathScript node,such as
showing the maximum,minimum,average of seven-
voltage data etc. Its procedures diagram as shown in
figure 3.
                                                                        Fig. 4 Movement postures

                                                                3.2 Setting of the measurement sites
                                                                Power, that is, muscle contraction capacity of the
                                                                moment,plays a decisive role in the beach volleyball
                                                                match. So it calls for different clothing pressure in
                                                                some parts of the body (such as shoulders,chest,
                                                                back,waist,hip,legs,etc). The affected muscles in
                                                                Beach Volleyball are the hand muscles, the forearm
                                                                flexor muscles, the arm extensor muscles,the
                                                                shoulder muscles, the back muscles, the chest
Fig. 3 Data reading and displaying process diagram              muscles, the thigh extensor muscles, the Leg flexor
                                                                muscle, the hip muscles, the waist muscles, the
                                                                abdominal muscles, etc[4-6].
3 Dressing Experiment                                              Because of the specific requirements of the FIVB
                                                                for women's clothing(vest and shorts), the super-
3.1 Position setting                                            maximum width of bikini shorts is 12 cm. So the the
According to the beach volleyball features, the 7               muscles which can be combined with clothes are as
selected movements as showm in Figure 4 [3]:                    follow, the shoulder muscle Group (trapezius), the
   Natural posture: Open the limbs naturally, the               back muscles (latissimus dorsi), the chest muscle
left foot and the ball in left hand are in front of the         (pectoralis major, the former saw muscle), the hip
body;                                                           muscles (gluteus maximus), the abdominal muscles
   Serving: Lift the right arm,keep the elbow and               (TRAM). Therefore, the seven measurment sites and
shoulder at the same level,open palms as a spoon,the            the corresponding measurement sensors code
upper body turns right Slightly, rise chest, exhibit            followed by: 1 - chest, 2 - back, 3 - shoulder, 4 -
abdomen,and the focus moves to the left;                        abdomen, 5 - armpit, 6 - the hip, 7 - quaddafi. As
   setting: Ttread,spread knees and arms, open                  figure 5 shows.
hands slightly;
   Passing: Open feet wider than shoulder, lift the
heels slightly, and bend the knees inward, fold the

            Fig. 5 Measurement sites

3.3 Steps of the experiment
The eperimental object wears appropriate beach                               Fig. 7 Data-processing procedure
volleyball clothe, with 7 sensors placed at the right
position, of the required movements above,the order                 3.4.2 Data analysing
is: natural state, setting, passing, serving, spiking ,             It performs the changeable pressure data dirrectly
blocking,defense.Then run the data collection                       after storying it to EXCEL.Figure8 shows the
procedure,it could collect 100 data per second, the                 Comparisive mean of different sites in different
test time for each action is 6 s, that is, 600 data at all.         postures.
Store the data to EXCEl in order to make a follow-
up analysis, meanwhile, preserve the waveform.

3.4 Data displaying and analysing

3.4.1 Data displaying
The setting time for data acquisition procedure is
6000 ms (that is, 6s), poping -up the end dialog
automatically when finished. Figure 6 shows the
waveform of spiking,and displays the changeable
pressure curve at different times.It tramsforms the
data in test.lvm to pressure data and stores it to
                                                                     Fig. 8 Comparisive mean of different sites in
EXCEl,then reads the data from EXCEl, which
displayed in different voltages ,as figure 7 shows.                 different postures

                                                                       We can see that,the back pressure is minimum
                                                                    and the quaddafi pressure is maximum under
                                                                    1(natural state); Compare2 (setting state) with 1,
                                                                    pressure of back and armpit increases slightly,
                                                                    because rising arms leads to tightness between skin
                                                                    and clothes; Compare3(passing state)with 1,pressure
                                                                    of shoulders and armpits increases, while the
                                                                    pressure of quaddafi decreases,because clamping
                                                                    arms forward leads to the tightness between the skin
                                                                    and clothes in shoulders and armpits; Compare
                                                                    4(serving state)with 1,the pressure of shoulders,
                                                                    abdomen and quaddafi decreases, because lifting the
                                                                    right arm backwards creates a gap between the
                                                                    shoulders and clothes ,meanwhile,the right turning
                                                                    of the upper body leads to the slipping between skin
           Fig. 6 Data collection wave
                                                                    and clothes in abdomen and quaddafi;Compare
                                                                    5(spiking state) with 1,the pressure of armpits

increases while decreasing in the quaddafi,because              [2] R.P. Qiao, X. Lin, Practical Guide of LabVIEW
bending backward arms leads to the extension of                     7, Electronics Industry Publishing House, 2007
clothes in the armpits; Compare 6(blocking state)               [3]
with 1,the pressure of back and quaddafi increases              [4] K.Zhang, X.H.Chen,, S.Q.Pu, Volleyball and
obviously,because the lifting of arms and extension                 Physical Fitness, Journal of the Nanjing Institute
of waist leads to clothes extenxion; Compare                        of Physical Education, Vol.9, No.2, 1995, pp.
7(defense state) with1, the pressure of the                         70-73
back,armpits and hip increases,while decreasing in              [5] G.Xue, Study on the Physical Characteristics
abdomen and quaddafi,because the tightness of the                   and Strength Training of Chinese Female Beach
arms leads to the clothes extension in the back and                 Volleyball players, Journal of the Nanjing
armpits.The squatting of knees leads to the clothes                 Institute of Physical Education , Vol.3, No.1,
tightness in the hip,meanwhile,the pressure of                      2004, pp. 47-49
abdomen and quaddafi decreases because of leaning               [6] G.H.Xu, J.Q.Jin, H.M.Yin, Comparative
forward .                                                          Study of the Dynamici Mechanism between
                                                                   Vertical Jump on Beach and Hard floor,
                                                                   China Sports Science, Vol.37, No.6, 2001,
4 Conclusion                                                       pp. 39-41
The appropriate clothing pressure in some way
plays a positive role on the human body.Wearing
some protective equipment will improve the
movement and increase the tolerance of athletes, but
excessive pressure on clothes has a negative impact
on physiology.To the people of different shapes, the
various parts of the human body and different sports
condition,it requires different clothes pressure. From
the above analysis, we can draw the following

Under the natural state, the pressure is minimum in
the back and maximum in quaddafi when one wears
this beach volleyball clothes. The pressure of
different parts of the body varies according to
changes of the movements. Overall, the pressure is
greater in quaddafi and armpits.

We can see the pressure distribution features under
different movements.The pressure of chest is about
1100 Pa,and 1000 Pa above in the armpits,3000Pa
above mostly in the quaddafi (except the defensive
posture), that of other parts is almost within 1000 Pa.

We acknowledge to the supporting of found of
shanxi international cooperation (No. 2003KW-01)
and found of nature science of shanxi education
committee (No. 07JK262) on work in the paper.

[1] S. Li, B. Wang, Comments on the Development
    of the Beach Volleyball, Shanxi Journal of
    Radio and Television University, No.3, 2006,

                  3-D Fabric Surface Techniques in Fashion Design
                                                     Shu Suna
                  Institute of Textiles & Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
                                   Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong CHINA
                               Corresponding author’s email:

Abstract: Modern fashion is quite diverse, emphasizing unique and individual aesthetic approaches to style,
especially in an age of change of lifestyle, quick development of science and technology, and the evolution of
art. Today, more and more people pursue unique aesthetic effects while they require comfort and functionality.
Textile effect plays an important role in fashion design, which has a rich tradition with civilization. 3-D fabric
surface design technique is an approach to textile design which includes embroidery, stitching, laminating,
pleating, folding, etc. It can be applied in textile design to influence the whole fashion look as an individual
aesthetic directly. Integrated with pattern, color, and texture designs, it will contribute to textile and garment to
release exquisite embellishment details. As great potential of achievement unique effects with different
materials and techniques, which can express personality in clothing through creative application of shape,
texture and color to develop innovative fashion designs in an expressive art form. It is significant to
explore/develop fashion design via fabric surface design and decorative techniques for aesthetic purposes. The
expression of individual aesthetic appearance is an important aspect to the future development of fashion.

Key-words: Fashion design, Textile design, 3-D fabric, Surface design technique, Embellishment, Modern

                                                                  hand and with painstaking details, and was used
1 Introduction                                                    exclusively by the upper class. Generally these
Modern fashion is quite diverse, emphasizing unique               decorative processes had additional historic and/or
and individual aesthetic approaches to style,                     symbolic value. Along with development and
especially in an age of change of lifestyle, quick                application of new technologies, new machines and
development of science and technology, and the                    synthetic fabrics have brought great change to
evolution of art. Nowadays, more and more people                  fashion design, more and more people can wear
pursue unique aesthetic effects while they require                fashion clothing. Nowadays, embellishment is still an
comfort and functionality.                                        important approach to fashion design, however,
   Textile design plays an important role in fashion              modern decoration emphasizes unique and individual
design, which has a rich tradition with civilization.             design. Less is more is one of modern design views,
3-D fabric surface design technique is an approach to             which also influence decorative style of fashion. On
textile design which includes embroidery, stitching,              the other hand, development and application of new
laminating, pleating, folding etc. It can be applied in           technologies provides wider space to explore novel
textile design to influence the whole fashion look as             forms of garment. It is significant to develop fashion
an individual aesthetic directly. Integrated with                 design via new decorative techniques for aesthetic
pattern, color, and texture design, it will contribute to         purposes. The expression of individual appearance,
textile and garment to release exquisite                          the creation of novel form, is important aspect to the
embellishment details. In the past, 3-D                           future development of fashion design.
embellishment of clothing was made or decorated by

                                                                    The relationship of fabric and fashion design,
                                                                 Christian Dior stated that fabric material not only
2 Fabric and Fashion Design                                      expressed a designer’s dream but also stimulated his
Fabric and fashion design are inextricably linked.               own ideas, and believed it could be the beginning of
Fashion designers always seek interesting and special            an inspiration. Donna karan described that many a
fabrics to get inspiration, and move them to design,             dress was born of the fabric alone [3]. Her quest was
which allow them freedom to explore a wider range                for that particularly elusive fabric that was precisely
of design space, and to express their own design                 the correct color, texture, weight and handle. She
concept and individual aesthetics. Japanese fashion              stressed the future of fashion was in fabrics and that
designers are often successful in showing collections            everything came from fabrics [4]. Junya Watanabe
on the international fashion stage. One of reasons for           celebrated a vision ahead of his time by exploring
this success is the development of a traditional textile         concepts combined with advances in material
industry, where fashion designers work closely with              technology. A constant stream of young radical
textile designers and industries. The innovative fabric          designers now exploring material innovations raises
designs that result from this collaborative work                 the question as to whether material innovations
integrate traditional techniques and culture with new            themselves actually assist the fashion designer in
technologies. Claire Wilcox, in Radical Fashion,                 becoming more adventurous.
explains the developments of cutting-edge
technologies in textiles in East: As part of the
post-war regeneration, Japan built up its industrial
base and now leads in the development of ‘techno
                                                                 3 3-D Decorative Techniques in Fashion
textiles’. Working with specialist technicians and
factories, these designers have been central in
harnessing and advancing textile technologies to                 Fashion and textiles share an interest in the drama of
replicate     commercially     the    appearance      of         decoration, embellishment and visual extravagance
labor-intensive fabric techniques and develop new                [5]. Embellishment techniques include embroidery,
fibers, weaving, dyeing and fabric manipulations [1].            pleating, folding, printing and dyeing, etc. 3-D fabric
The innovative fabrics can revolutionize a fashion               surface design is one of embellishment approaches
design or can create the foundation for the                      through using of different materials and techniques to
philosophy behind a collection.                                  shape different three dimensional decorations with
   For example, Issey Miyake, uses traditional                   specific characteristics on fabric surface, such as
historical sources in relation to shape, form and                interesting shape, pattern, texture and color.
fabric. In his designs there is reference to the simple             Throughout history, 3-D embellishment is an
geometrics of the kimono, he combines traditional                important element to fashion design. As show in
Japanese textile processes, for instance, sashiko                figure 1 (Dress, 1775), on surface of the beige silk
(cotton quilting) and farmers’ checked cloth, while              satin with thin stripe and dot pattern, padded 3-D
simultaneously adopting modern material like                     decoration with smocking. Until now, the theme of
polyester jersey. In this way he blends the old with             fabric embellished manipulations is still explored to
the new; trends with traditions. That which was                  integrate with fashion design for a novel vision look.
begun with the likes of Issey Miyake, Rei Kawakubo,              Taking inspirations from traditional craft techniques
Yohji Yamamoto and Junya Wattanabe essentially                   used to create various forms on fabric surface for
involved innovation in fabric as much as exploration             expressing modern silhouettes. Such as figures 2
of silhouette, and has been labeled as ‘textile-led              (Maurizio Galante, A/W 1994), the pullover uses
“artistic” dress’ [2].                                           traditional technique shibori, twisted and dyed silk

fabric. The 3-D embellished fabrics can be expressed           these collections generated a fusion of textiles with
unique aesthetics. Figure 3 (Prada, A/W 1998), the             fashion. It is evident that innovative fabric can create
top of white silk chiffon and organdy combine with             the foundation for the philosophy behind a collection
clear plastic panels inside, and pleated skirt of              and can trigger a fashion design revolution. The 3-D
non-woven fabric appliquéd with plastic panels,                embellishment idea of ‘Pleats Please’ was born out of
which display a new appearance with different                  the realization that lightweight stretch polyester could
textures and materials. [6] Figures 4, (Junya                  be permanently pleated. Scientific, technological and
Watanabe, A/W 2000), the garment was made of                   mechanical input from professionals in the textile
hundreds of layers of polyester chintz stitched to             industry fueled a fashion designer’s notions about
form a complex fabric structure. It displayed visually         possibilities in clothing. In fact, while an innovative
spectacular with the new cutting and new fabrics.              fabric is launched on the runway by designer, it can
Figures 5, (John Galliano 1997), Suit is decorated             be found in various formulations seeping into
with patterns of gold buttons. In particular, the              mainstream fashion. Since Miyake’s pleats
metallic buttons play with light and colour with               introduction in the early 1990s, wrinkled and pleated
visual power [7, 8].                                           fabrics have been and still are widely available in
                                                               fashion creation. This inevitably led to the presence
                                                               of embellished fabric in the mainstream of fashion
                                                               design [2].
                                                                  In the pursuit of personality and aesthetic, the
                                                               world of materials plays an important role. It seems
                                                               goes to the heart of fashion and textiles, because
                                                               material products provide both sensation and identity.
                                                               Actually, anything and everything can be used in
                                                               fashion and textiles design. But one thing is certain,
                                                               as never before, fibre production is a driving force in
                                                               fashion and textiles, establishing new industrial and
                                                               creative issues. It is obvious that embellishment
      Fig. 1                             Fig. 2                involves finding appropriate material for anything
                                                               that can give perfect effect.

                                                               4 Conclusions
                                                               Creating unique appearances is essential to
                                                               successfully conduct fashion design. One of the
                                                               strategies for achieving that is through embellished
                                                               manipulations in textile and fashion design. Whether
                                                               in history or today, it is important aspect of design,
                                                               which express/add unique and individual aesthetic,
                                                               directly influencing the whole fashion look. In
                                                               contemporary, it is significant to explore modern
    Fig. 3          Fig. 4                 Fig. 5
                                                               embellishment in fashion design via innovative
                                                               techniques or materials, combine with sophisticated
  Issey Miyake’s ‘Pleats Please’ (1993), and
                                                               traditional crafts or some new elements for creating
‘A-POC’ (A Piece of Cloth) concept (1999), both of

novel vision forms. It is important aspect to the future
development of fashion design.

[1] C. Wilcox, Radical Fashion, London: V&A
    Publications, 2001.
[2] C. Gale and J. Kaur, Fashion and textiles an
    overview, Uk: Biddles Led, King’sLynn, 2004.
[3] J. Dorner, Fashion in the Forties and Fifties,
    New York: Arlington House, 1975.
[4] A. M. Shiro, The Designer’s Starting Point,
    Women’s Wear Daily, 18 April, 1995.
[5] V. Rivers, The Shining Cloth: Dress and
    Adornment that Glitters, London: Thames and
    Hudson, 2003.
[6] A. Fukai, T. Suoh, M. Iwagami, R. Koga, and R.
    Nii, Fashion, A History from the 18th to the 20th
    Century, Volume 2: 20th Century, TASCHEN,
[7] M. Catherine, Made in Britain, London:
    Mitchell Beazley, 2002.
[8] Information on