Methodology by MikeJenny


									       Community Building

• Community Building Methodology
                   On the forehand…
• MyCommunity:
  – Participate in a community of your choice. You must be
    new to this community.
  – Show and reflect upon your participation.
  – Some suggestions:
         –   What made it easy?
         –   Why was it difficult?
         –   Why did you want to participate?
         –   Why did you go back to this site (apart from this being an
             assignment of course)?
         –   What kind of participant were you?
         –   How was the community organised?
         –   What could be the commercial model behind the community ?
         –   …
  – Make the link towards the concepts dealt with in Amy Jo
    Kim & Preece
               On the forehand…
• Project
  – Write out a consultancy report for our
    commissioner: problem definition,interview,
    questionnaire, processing system and conclusions,
    feasibility study, prototype.

  – Set up a –mostly- graphical & conceptual
    prototype for the intermediary presentations
• What is methodology?
       – Pronunciation: "me-th&-'dä-l&-jE
         Function: noun
         Inflected Form(s): plural -gies
         Etymology: New Latin methodologia, from Latin
         methodus + -logia -logy
         1 : a body of methods , rules, and postulates
         employed by a discipline : a particular procedure or
         set of procedures
         2 : the analysis of the principles or procedures of
         inquiry in a particular field

  – Wikipedia
       – Methodology is the study of the methods involved
         in some field or endeavor, or in problem solving.
• Jenny Preece basic idea is...

We shape our buildings, and afterwards our
           buildings shape us’
                     Winston Churchill

• In the construction of a community we
  need to understand both the technical and
  the social issues
• Jenny Preece basic idea of an OC is…
• People –make the community. Group
  dynamics, needs and roles shape the
• Purposes – people come together for a
  shared purpose(s).
• Policies – behavior is governed by group
  norms, rules and sometimes formal
• Software – supports and influences
  community activity.
• Human Computer Interaction prof defined OC as
  – Members have a shared goal, interest, need, or
    activity that provides the primary reason for
    belonging to the community.
  – Members engage in repeated, active participation;
    often, intense interactions, strong emotional ties,
    and shared activities occur among participations.
  – Members have access to shared resources, and
    policies determine the access to those resources.
  – Reciprocity of information, support, and services
    among members is important.
  – There is a shared context of social conventions,
    language, and protocols
• Human Computer Interaction prof also
  – seven noncore attributes:
    • different roles and the reputations of people
      in those roles;
    • awareness of membership boundaries and
      group identity;
    • initiation criteria for joining;
    • community history and long duration of
    • notable events or rituals, shared physical
    • and voluntary membership
• We will deal with:
  – Human-driven

  – Place & Interaction

  – Social + contextual

  – Inclusive Design

  – Community Centered Design
Humanity Driven

             We want to develop this
             Community from the inclusive
             Collaborative perspective
                  “We need to learn to design with
                  customers/users by using design tools
                  to support team-based co-creation”
– J Preece “Designing Usability and supporting
– Characteristics of an OC (preece):
  • People –make the community. Group
    dynamics, needs and roles shape the
  • Purposes – people come together for a
  • Policies – behavior is governed by group
    norms, rules and sometimes formal policies.
  • Software – supports and influences
    community activity.
• Sociability
  – A community must stimulate social
  – good sociability have unambiguous,
    supportive, social structures.

• Usability
  – human-computer interaction
  – good usability
     • Consistent             rapid learning, high skill
                              retention, low error rates,
     • controllable           high productivity
     • predictable

• Sociability
     • Purpose – provide a clear statement of
       purpose, brand name, symbol
        – Why is this important (newcomers, initial visit)
        – (? How about the off topic…-element? Is this
          important too?)
     • People – support different types of
       participants and participation, show presence
       when appropriate, keep participants
        – What kind of roles could we identify?
        – Deal in more detail with Amy J Kim
        – Critical mass-problem
• Sociability
• Policies – guide behavior by providing and
  encouraging conventions, moderate with policies,
  support trust and security
  – Community Governance
     • Joining & leaving requirements
     • By-laws (the internal rules)
     • Codes of practive for communication
     • Rules for moderation
     • Issues of privacy & trust
     • Practies for distinguishing professionally contributed
       info that can be releid upon
     • Rules for copyright
     • Democracy & free speech in the community
         – Now of any examples?
Evaluating & measuring sociability

Purpose Number of messages
          Amount of on-topic discussion
          Level of interactivity
          Degree of reciprocity
          Quality of contribution
          Satisfaction with social interactions

People    Number of participants
          Number different types

Policies Flaming and uncivil behavior
          Level of trustworthiness
          Degree of empathy

 Usability
      Dialog & social interaction support –provide
       support for communication – icons, reduce
       typing, visualizations
      Information design – distinguish between
       new & old content, different types of content
      Navigation – support moving around the
       community, searching messages, moving
       between modules
      Access – consider speed of connection, not
       everyone has most recent technology
    Evaluating & measuring usability
Dialog &      Time to learn to read or send, move, etc.
social        Number of messages. Time to do a task
              Satisfaction with dialog & interaction
interaction   Amount remembered. Number of errors
Information   Time to read & understand.
design        Satisfaction with information design.
              Amount of information remembered.
              Number of misunderstandings
Navigation    Time to learn to navigate application.
              Time to complete navigation task.
              Satisfaction with navigation.
              Amount remembered. Wrong paths, errors
Access        Can the software be run/down loaded?
              Time to download. Response time.
              Satisfaction with access
Pillars of participatory community-centered

   Sociability           Usability
  Purpose             Dialog & social
                        interaction support
  People
                       Information design
  Policies            Navigation
                       Access


We shape our buildings, and afterwards our
           buildings shape us’
                  Winston Churchill
         Criteria for success
Sociability            Usability
No. participants       Speed of
No. messages           learning
Reciprocity            Productivity
On-topic discussion    User satisfaction
Empathy                Retention
Trust                  Errors
Social satisfaction
Uncivil behavior
           Intermezzo: Social Capital
• Robert D Putnam

• “The central premise of social capital is that social
  networks have value. Social capital refers to the
  collective value of all "social networks" [who
  people know] and the inclinations that arise from
  these networks to do things for each other ["norms
  of reciprocity"].

• According to Putnam and his followers, social
  capital is a key component to building and
  maintaining democracy.
          Intermezzo: Social Capital
• Putnam warns that our stock of social
  capital - the very fabric of our connections
  with each other, has plummeted,
  impoverishing our lives and communities.
  Putnam draws on evidence including nearly
  500,000 interviews over the last quarter
  century to show that we sign fewer
  petitions, belong to fewer organizations
  that meet, know our neighbors less, meet
  with friends less frequently, and even
  socialize with our families less often. We're
  even bowling alone.
         Intermezzo: Social Capital
– How does social capital work?
– “… a wide variety of quite specific benefits that flow
  from the trust, reciprocity, information, and
  cooperation associated with social networks. Social
  capital creates value for the people who are
  connected and - at least sometimes - for bystanders
  as well.”
– Social capital works through multiple channels:
   a.information flows
   b.norms of reciprocity (mutual aid)
   c.Collective action depends upon social networks (e.g.,
     the role that the black church played in the civic rights
     movement) although collective action also can foster
     new networks.
   d.Broader identities and solidarity are encouraged by
     social networks that help translate an "I" mentality into
     a "we" mentality.
         Intermezzo: Social Capital
• Examples:

  – One housewife keeps an eye on all the
    children of the neighbourhood playing on the
  – Building a church in one day with a religious
  – Cleaning the streets by some young families
    in the environment
          Intermezzo: Social Capital
• Putnam states:
• “a variety of technological, social, and
  economic changes over the last three
  decades have "rendered obsolete" a stock
  of social capital. Shorthand for saying that
  things like television, two-career family,
  generational changes have made fewer of
  us go on picnics, join the Rotary or hang
  out at the bar.”
• Starting from 1800: industrialisation > life
  changed: emigration: “In the process
  millions of Americans left friends, families
  and social institutions behind.”
            Intermezzo: Social Capital
• !: Americans: inventive about creating the social
  institutions to reconnect Americans in their
  changed circumstances.
• Boy Scouts
• League of Women Voters
• Rotary
• ...
• reading groups
                              Now: new re-invention of
• playgrounds                 changed world?
• kindergardens
• settlement houses           USING OC to re-build
• …                           Social Capital?
                 Intermezzo: interpersonal

•    “Cues-filtered-out theory”                           (Kiesler et al. 1984)
1.   Absence of regulating feedback
2.   Dramaturgical Weakness
           No non-verbal elements
           No Paralinguïstic elements: tempo, toonverschillen,…
            (indicator of hesitation, irritation,…)

3.   Few social cues (status, hierarchy,…)
       •    Who am I talking to – pope / - a 6-year old

4.   Anonimity
       •    I am who I want to be (or I am who you want me to be)

           Lack of - shared physical environment - eye contact -
            physical touch - non-verbal cues
           forced to interact and channel all communication through
            a text-only medium, or at most very rough graphical
          Intermezzo: interpersonal
• “Social Presence Theory”   (Short, Williams, & Christie)

• A media’s “capacity to transmit information
  about facial expression, direction of looking,
  posture, dress and nonverbal, vocal cues”
         Intermezzo: interpersonal
• Social presence > Immediacy
  – The psychological distance a communicator
    puts between him/herself & the conversation

• Most (internet) CMC negativism > lack of
  – CMC = degraded form of communication
  – unable to communicate any emotion
    • the writers’ loss of contact with their audience
                   Intermezzo: interpersonal
• “Media/Information Richness Theory”          (Daft and
  Lengel, 1984 & 1986)

• the extent to which a medium or information
  is perceived as rich or lean by the

• the ability of a medium to carry information

• The media’s capacity for immediate feedback
           Intermezzo: Interpersonal
•   Social Information Processing (Walther)
    – relationships grow because all parties first
      gain information about each other and use
      that information to form impressions

    – SIP focuses on the first element: the
      personal information which is available
      through CMC and its effect on the
      “composite mental image” of the other.

    – Walther: “nonverbal cues are filtered out”
      • This isn’t as devastating is proclaimed by
        many researchers
            Intermezzo: Interpersonal
•   Two features on social relationships...
    – Verbal cues: CMC users create impressions
      of others based on linguistic content of

    – Extended time: the exchange of social
      information is slower via CMC than face-to-
      face > BUT the relationships formed are
      not weaker or more fragile.
      • Eg. You’ve got mail
         – “You’ve Got Mail” portrays an online relationship.
         – illustrates verbal cues and extended time
Intermezzo: Interpersonal communication
• Experiment: 2Groups: CMC & F-t-F

• F-t-F: highly developed impressions
  (like/dislike; type of personality, etc.) after
  1st meeting

• CMC: impressions were equivalent to F-t-F
  after 3rd task
Intermezzo: Interpersonal communication
• Social development & Time-experiment
  – “Measuring degree to which trust,
    affection, and informality develop
    between CMC and F-t-F interactants”

• no time restrictions

• CMC groups became MORE socially
  oriented than F-t-F groups
           Intermezzo: interpersonal
• High potential of misunderstanding:
  – Try to help to overcome the mostly textual
     • Icons, photo’s, avatars,… represent members
     • Educate participants: linguistic softeners
        – Eg, IMHO: in my humble opinion
     • “Verbalisation of the physical condition” Reid 1991
        – Emoticons & smileys
            » ;p
        – Verbalisations
            » Hehe hmmm
        – Thoughts in between stars
            » *sigh*
        – Shouting
            Common ground - theory
• “common ground theory can be used as a
  framework for determining how two people or a
  small group validate that they understand each
  – Focus: how communication processes & content are
     • MOSTLY depends upon social presence or the ways of
       compensating for this absence

  – Grounding must happen…
     • Participants must belief that they share a common
     • Mostly done by non-verbal elements: nodding,
     • People try to establish grounding
        – Different for each medium: nod OK F2F not over
        – See pg 161 of Preece for Common ground & diff media
• Community Centered Development Method

    • A community grows organically
    • Members, Leaders & managers are the
    • Communities fail as developers think a
      community can take care of itself after the
• We will use the

• Refresh:

• User Centered
• So then, Community Centered Design:
  – Focus on the community
  – Members of the community work with
    developers to build the community
  – Focus on evolution
  – When software design is complete
    • social policies are in place
    • People start to participate
    • Constant monitoring the evolution of the
      community > change community according to
      these evolution
           CCD: social + contextual
• Consists out of
  – User-centered design:
     • User > technology
     • Contextual inquiry: understanding the
       importance of the user context
       – “staying in context enables us to gather ongoing
         experience rather than summary experience and
         concrete data rather dan abstract data”
           » the context in which a product is used >
             essential for design
           » the user is a partner in the design process
     • ~participatory design
     • Continuous iterative develop-and-test-cycles
Community Centred Development

         Support evolving community
    (frequently reassess community needs)

Design usability          Plan Sociability
Interaction dialog        Policies for
Navigation                membership
Registration froms        Codes of conduct
Feedback                  Security
Support tools             privacy
etc                       etc

           Assess community needs
• Four Stages in a community’s life cycle:
  – Prebirth/ early life/ maturity/ death

  – Prebirth: software is designed or selected
  – Initial social policies are planned
     • Core Community: the seed for the
       community’s growth
     • After the Software development > huge task
       starts: feed the community
– 1. Assessing community needs and
  analyzing user tasks, focusing on the
  purpose, people, and their tasks, interaction
  and policies on the Community’s needs
  • Eg. PDF: pre-Qualifier
– 2. Selecting Technology and testing
– 3. Refining and tuning sociability & usability
– 4. Welcoming and nurturing the community
              The development team
• Goals

• Major milestones

• Short term interim deadlines

• Allocate tasks
  Team manager
  Technical specialist
  Human computer interface specialist
• Assessing Community Needs: main
  kinds of activities of the OC
 • Information Dissemination: unidirectal,
   spreading info…
 • Exchange of information: everyone
   sends & requests info
 • Giving & receiving emotional support:
 • Social Chit-chat, entertainment
 • Discussions on each others ideas
• Analyzing Users tasks
      –becoming a com member;
      –quitting the community?
      –receive messages;
      –Reading messages;
      –Writing messages
      –Sending messages
      –Searching for info, people,
      –How can I consult extra sources
           1. Assessing community needs II
• Identify main users’ activities
   –   Spread information
   –   Exchange info
   –   Discussion
   –   Support
   –   Entertainment
• Analyse users’ tasks
   –   Join and leave community
   –   Receive & read messages
   –   Make & send messages
   –   Search for messages, info, other members
   –   Trying to locate sources outside the community
            Other elements for the needs
•   Key needs of the community
•   Tasks
•   Demographic info of the population
•   Internet experience level
•   Technical constraints
• Different users: demographic
   – Physical;
   – Psychological;
   – Personal;
   – Gender;
   – Cultural Differences;
   – Experience;
   – Age;
   – Physically Disabled;
   – Social;
   – Economically
             2. Select technology & plan
• What choice of Software (mind usability)
           » depends on users needs analysis
  – Program it yourself?
        – From our experience: lots of debugging, constant
          problems, BUT the best to get “original” concepts

  – Glue together
        – Use elements from different sources
        – Free foprum boards, chat sites,…

  – Web homesteading
        – MSN Groups
           » Little control – advertisements.
  – Depends of course on time, costs, technical skills &
    constraints and usability & the users’ needs
    2. Select technology & plan sociability
• Planning sociability
   – Should it be an open or a closed comunity?
      • Why?
   – Moderator?
      • Can have a huge influence, but time-wasting
   – Editorial policy?
      • What will it look like?
   – By laws needed?
      • Extra internal laws needed? Encourage memebers to
        write them.
   – Disclaimer
      • Copyright statement, a policy for archiving,…
   – How to support social interaction (subgroups etc)
      • What kind of subgroups willl/can form?

• Registration
   – registratie policy
   – What can guests do?
• Governance
   – Are the owners the moderators?
   – Define free speech
   – How will we organise voting ets
   – What’s the netiquette
• Trust & Security
   – Protect info
   – Disclaimer, copyright statement
   – How will we enhance trust
    2. Result of this phase?

• Software with the appropriate functionality
  & good usability

• The design of a website

• Identification of main sociability issues
      3. Designing, implementing & testing
• Evaluate the design by testing it on
  usability & sociability issues

• Involve as many typical users from the
  community as possible

• Develop scenarios in which users role-play
  typical activities so that they and the
  developers ubderstand the community
            3. Results after this phase
• Reports & recommendations: after each
  cycle of testing

• Software with usability & sociability

• A committed group of community member:
  – Involving the community in all the
    development stages encourages
       4. Refining & tuning usability and sociability

• Quite the same as the previous stage
• It focuses on fine-tuning before launching
  the community
• Final editing of messages & web page
• The aims are to uncover problems
         5. Community welkom heten en verzorgen

• Build it and they will come?
• Invite
   – Email
      • Experts, ordinary users,…
   – Website links
      • Try to find partners who place your link
   – Advertising
   – Search for remarkable personalities who join &
     support your community

• Community support
   – Find something to draw people in the community
     and keep them coming
             5. Results after this stage
• Plan to seed the community

• Plan your “observations” in the first 6
  – What will be your evaluation points
  – How & when will you fix technical or “social”
• Develop a long-term support plan
• Create a secure environment! HEALTH

  – What’s your source;
  – Privacy guaranteed;

  – Protection against quacks;
  – Protection against flaming?;

  – Info on diff levels
  – Info + empathy;

  – Who is the intermediary?
       Found out about these elements…
•   Interview
•   Trying to find more info
•   Tape the possible user in their environment
•   Try to analyse how they would “behave” on
• Jenny preece “On line communities”

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