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Final Presentation - Clemson University

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Final Presentation - Clemson University Powered By Docstoc
					        Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications Through Tires

               Caitlin Motsinger
               SURE Program
               Summer 2007


               Research Advisor:
                  Dr. Todd Hubing
               Graduate Student Assistant:
                  Robert Clippard

Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Overview
               Background Information:
               • Concepts and Applications of Vehicle Communications
               • Case for Communication Systems in Tires
               My Summer Work:
               • Research Paper in Vehicle Communications for Michelin
               Americas Research Corporation
               • Small Scale Demonstration: Bike-to-Bike Communications



Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
      • Basic Idea: Equip automotive vehicles with
      wireless communication systems, allowing them
      to exchange real time information
      • Each vehicle is like a node in an ad-hoc
      wireless network
      • System is mainly autonomous from the
      drivers’ perspective – they are only aware of it
      when a situation arises that needs their attention
      • Expands drivers’ horizon, and makes them
      more conscious of their environment and
      relative position to each other
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications
               • Instead of communicating with each other, vehicles talk to
               base station nodes placed intermittently along the road
               • Utilizes wireless systems from the car to the station, which
               then communicate wirelessly or through land lines to a data
               collection center
               • Information can be collected from a large number of vehicles
               and processed by a third party




Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Applications of V2V and V2I: Safety
The power of shared information
makes drivers more aware of:
         • State of the roadways
         •Weather conditions
         • Heavy fog
         • Intersection violations
         • Potential lane change violations             Flooding of I-96 in Livonia on July 12, 2007


         • Location of “vulnerable road users” such as pedestrians and cyclists
         • Slow moving traffic around blind curves
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Applications: Driving Efficiency
   Updated information can be sent right to navigation units
   allowing drivers to easily:
      • Avoid congestion, saving
      time, fuel, and reducing
      pollution
      • Choose the best time of
      departure
      • Choose an alternate route to
      avoid accidents, flooding, etc.
      • Predict travel time and make
      more reliable deliveries
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Communication Transmission in the Tires
        The benefits of placing the transceivers in
        tires include:
        • Yields four convenient, externally located
        mounting platforms
        • Inflated tube can provide protection in the event
        of a crash
        • Older cars could be updated with
        communication systems when tires are replaced
        •The extra movement (rotational as well as
        forward) might help avoid bad transmission areas
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        The Michelin Paper: Concept
The Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation
(MARC) has two main technical opportunities in V2V and V2I:
      • Chance to utilize “smart” tire sensors, such as those that can measure air
      pressure and tire-road cohesion
      • Chance to push for placement of communication systems in tires
To better understand these opportunities, MARC requested a
research paper outlining:
      • A technical review of research initiatives in Europe, North America, and
      Asia
      • A commentary on the business environment and how it might effect
      MARC’s place in the tire market
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        The Michelin Paper: Coverage
          • A listing and short description of pertinent government research
          initiatives in Europe, North America, and Asia.
          • Bandwidth allocation on all three continents for Wireless Access in
          the Vehicular Environment (WAVE).
          • Standards development in North America in IEEE 802.11p (physical
          and MAC layers), and IEEE P1609 (upper layers).
          • Business considerations focused on both vehicle communications and
          smart tire sensors.
          • Recommendations to MARC on which initiatives yield the best
          business opportunities.

Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Building a Demonstration: The Concept
                                                                          User Interface Unit
                                            High-Powered Signals for Bike-to-Bike Comm.
                      Low-Powered Comm. Between Tire Node and User Interface
                                            Tire Mounted Comm. Nodes
                                            Speed Sensor




Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Components on Tire
        THE TIRE NODE
        Sun SPOT by Sun Microsystems Laboratory
        Features:
              2.4 GHz 802.15.4 radio
              3 axis accelerometer
              Plastic encasement
              8 multicolored LEDs
              Programmed with Java
        THE SPEED SENSOR
        Magnetic Sensor and Target from Schwinn Bike Computer
        Features:
              Hall effect sensor
              Digital open/close switch
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Demonstration End Result
        • Two nodes mounted on separate bikes

        • Each bike measures its own speed and
        distance traveled, and receives the
        current speed and distance of the other
        bike over its radio
        • One of the nodes also relays all
        information wirelessly to a base station
        hooked to a computer
        • Simple GUI allows user to view and
        save data

Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Data Collection Software




Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
          Transmission vs. Position
  RSSI at Different Distances Apart and Transceiver Orientations




Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Future of this Project: Object of Study
             • Use bikes for in field testing

                o Test bikes at different speeds and distances
                o Examine RSSI values while rotating vs. while stationary
                o Experiment to find the max range of the system
                o See if link quality is improved by tire mounting
             • Use 3 axis accelerometer to collect data
             • Flood communication link to determine performance
             • See how system is affected by the addition more
             transmitting nodes
             • Create a user interface
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Questions?




Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Acknowledgements
                Dr. Hubing, Advisor
                Robert Clippard, Graduate Student Assistant
                Dr. Haixin Ke, Post-Doc
                Dr. Wang, Communications Assistance
                Dr. Noneaker, SURE Program Director
                Josh Lawrence, SURE Graduate Assistant
                SURE Participants



Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Lastly…




               Go Irish!                              Go Tigers!

                       BEAT USC!
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Future of this Project: User Interface
     4x20 Serial LCD by Parallax
     Features
            80mm x 36mm; 0.157 lb
            5V supply voltage
            2400, 9600, and 19,200 baud

      MICAz Wireless Mote by Crossbow
      Features
             2.4 GHz 802.15.4 communication radio
             51 pin connector with analog input, digital I/O
             I2C, SPI and UART
             58 x 32 x 7, 0.7 oz. (without batteries)
             Sample software for interfacing to LCD
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Comparison of V2V and V2I
                Vehicle-to-Vehicle                   Vehicle-to-Infrastructure

               Pros               Cons                  Pros                Cons

        1) Lower cost for   1) Requires a        1) Provides better   1) Expensive
        deployment          high market          benefits even at     system to build
                            penetration          lower deployment
                                                 levels
        2) Provides         2) Only can          2) Information       2) Must settle
        information with    collect              collected from       issue of who will
        little lag time     information from     many vehicles in     pay for system
                            vehicles in range    different areas      upkeep
        3) Works in rural                        3) Information can 3) Not practical
        areas                                    be processed by a in areas with low
                                                 third party        traffic volume
Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
        Sensing Changes in Speed
            • Circuit is designed to be active low
            • Code is written to be triggered by
            a transition from 5V to ground,
            which occurs when the switch first
            closes
            • Internal timer keeps track of time
            between target hits, and uses this to             2 kΩ

            calculate speed knowing sensor
            distance from the center of the
            wheel
            •Total distance travel increments
            with each target hit


Clemson University ● Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering