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									KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0          1
                                                        Utilization of new facilities (new RAM types,
On chip sets                                           new buses, improved EIDE, etc.)
                                                       The vendors
Module 2d describes what chip sets are, and how        There are several suppliers of chip sets for the
they function on the motherboards. This module is      motherboard:
subdivided into the following pages:                                     Intel
                                                                         SIS
                                                                         Opti
I recommend that you read all the pages one by                           Via
one. Just follow the links "Next page" to get                            ALi
through the textbook. I hope you find the              Intel has hitherto been the leader in supplying
information useful!                                    chip sets to the Pentium motherboard. Therefore,
                                                       let us just mention their chip sets, which have
What is a chip set?                                    astronomical names.
                                                       The Neptune chip set (82434NX) was introduced
The chip set is very important to the modern PC
                                                       in June 1994. It replaced the Mercury set
and its performance. Many technologies meet on
                                                       (82434LX). In both chip sets, there were problems
the motherboard and are "glued" together via
                                                       with the PCI bus. In January 1995 Intel introduced
these controllers, which we call the "chip set".
                                                       the first Triton, where everything worked. This
                                                       chip set supports some new features: it supports
                                                       EDO RAM, and it offers bus master integrated
                                                       EIDE control and NSP (Native Signal Processing
                                                       - one of the many new creations, which was soon
When we speak about buses and motherboards,            forgotten).
we are also speaking about chip sets. The chip         However, the following chip sets were of much
sets are a bunch of intelligent controller chips,      higher quality, and within very few years they
which are on any motherboard.                          lead to several new generations of chip sets, each
The controllers are closely tied to the CPU, in that   of them more powerful and offering great new
they control the buses around the CPU. Without         features.
the chip sets, neither RAM nor I/O buses could         The first chip sets for the Pentium boards
function together with the CPU:
                                                       Triton first and second
                                                       The interest in chip sets and their performance
                                                       started in late 1995, when the Pentium processor
                                                       became more popular. The Triton controllers were
                                                       the first chip sets in this trend.
                                                       82430FX from late 1995 was Intel's next chip set
                                                       and the first Triton. In February 1996 the second
                                                       generation of Triton arrived. Two new chip sets
                                                       were introduced: The 82430VX and 82430HX.
                                                       The last (HX) was the fastest one.
                                                       VX and HX
New technologies - new chip set                        The two sets were similar, yet different. 430HX
                                                       consisted of two chips. It was designed for the more
Therefore, the chip sets are quite central             professional PCs. 430VX consisted of four chips, but
                                                       the cost was slightly lower than HX. It was aimed at
components on the motherboards. When new               the home use PC market. Let us look at the contents
technological features are introduced (and this        of each chip set:
happens     continuously)   they    are   often        Chip set    Contents
accompanied by new chip sets. The new chip sets
often enable:                                          82430HX     82439HX System Controller (TXC)
                                                                   + 82371SB PCI ISA IDE Accelerator
 Higher speed on one or more buses
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0              2
82430VX      82437VX System Controller (TVX)                described. But the VX set had two other facilities
             + two 82438VX Data Path Units (TDX)            to offer: Capability for SMBA (Shared Memory
             + 82371SB PCI ISA IDE Accelerator              Buffer Architecture). That means among other
Common to both chip sets is 82371SB, which is a             things, that you can integrate the video card on the
"PCI ISA IDE accelerator chip". It is also called           motherboard with 1 or 2 MB standard RAM, from
PIIX3, which some may recognize from the                    the working RAM. A technology, which is used
Windows 95 device driver, which comes with the              only in the lowest cost PCs, and which soon was
ASUS T2P4 board.                                            abandoned.
                                                            Also, the VX set also supported the fast RAM
A bridge to the I/O system                                  type SD-RAM. HX did not. The VX set could
The chip makes a bridge between the CPU, ISA and            control up to 128 MB RAM, but it could not
PCI bus. The news was, that it permitted concurrent         cache above 64 MB RAM.
activity in all three locations, thus a new form of         HX controlled 512 MB RAM and was the only
multitasking. This is significant for daily use. All data
                                                            Intel Pentium chip set to cache above 64 MB
exchange to and from I/O units cross this
intersection, which now has achieved greater width:         RAM.
                                                            The VX and HX chip sets are both out. They were
                                                            replaced by the TX chip set, which was the last
                                                            Intel chip set for Socket 7 mounted CPUs. Today
                                                            Ali and VIA produces chip sets for Socket 7
                                                            motherboards.
                                              .
                                                            Intel TX chip set
US2 and EIDE                                                The last chip set to Pentium processors were
New in the chip was also the host function for              named 82430TX, which supports two new hot
USB. It is the Universal Serial Bus, which was              technologies:
not much use at this time. Finally, the chip                 SD-RAM
included a EIDE Bus Master control. In short that            Ultra DMA
means, that EIDE components like hard disks, to             Ultra DMA was also called ATA/33, and it is a
some extent can deliver their data directly to              standard for harddisk interface, which permits
RAM without taking up CPU time.                             EIDE hard disks to transfer at up to 33 MBps.
                                                            This improved EIDE standard is mostly marketed
                                                            under the name Ultra DMA. Tests show that Ultra
                                                            DMA results in a speed increase of 25-75 percent
                                                            over the traditional EIDE PIO mode 4. Ultra
Above, you see the 82371SB chip and below,                  DMA is the new EIDE standard and has been
again, its placement relative to CPU and buses:             vastly enhanced since this chip set.
                                                            The controllers in the TX chip set
                                                            Chip set         Chips included

                                                            82430TX          82439TX System Controller (TXC)
                                                                             82371AB PCI ISA IDE Accelerator

                                                            The TX set is an update and improvement of the
                                                            VX set. Relative to this, the TX firstly supports
                                                            SD RAM and Ultra DMA hard disks. Two
                                                            important technologies. But the TX-set cannot
                                                            cache above 64 MB RAM, and that was a
                                                            problem. Please see this article on this subject.
The differences between HX and VX
It was generally accepted, that the HX set yielded
the best performance of the two chip sets
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0          3




Photos taken with Canon Powershot 600
The TX chip set was Intel's last and final set for
Socket 7 motherboards. After that VIA and ALi
took over and continued this work.

KarbosGuide.com.Module 2d.03a
Non-Intel chip sets (mostly for for
Super 7 motherboards)

What is Super 7?
After Intel aborted the Socket 7 motherboards, other   This figure is pretty close to the Super 7 chip set
vendors took over. AMD supplied us with new            described here below as well as to Intel chip sets
powerfull CPUs, and new chip sets were required.
Since Intel no longer develops CPUs or chip sets       like LX and BX.
for Socket 7 motherboards, AMD and others have         To implement the 100 MHz the design has to be
done a lot to continue the life of the Socket 7.       well laid out. A cooling element on the north
Companies like VIA, ALi and SIS are all                bridge of the chip set is sometimes used when the
producing inexpensive and high performing chip         system bus reaches 100 MHz.
sets. These vendors are giving Intel a hard time       The Super 7 motherboards come from several
since their chip sets offer Pentium II performance     vendors. FIC supplies boards with 2 MB L2
from the simpler, low-cost Socket 7 motherboards       cache.
including AGP and 100 MHz bus.
                                                       VIA Apollo MVP3
Two bridges                                            It is interesting to follow companies like Via. This
Here you see the architecture of a modern chip set     chip set for Socket 7 motherboards promises very
consisting of two chips: a north and a south           good performance with its 100 MHz bus
bridge. Both bridges are essentially routers. This     connecting the CPU with the L2 cache and
means that they route data traffic from one bus        possible PC100 SDRAM. Other features include:
(network) to another. The north bridge takes all        AGP graphics
the heavy traffic, and the south bridge routes in to    Supports up to 1 GB RAM in 64 Mbit
a lot of different narrow routes:                      FPM/EDO/SDRAM/PC100 modules
                                                        2 MB L2 cache support
                                                        Virtual Clock Synchronization (VCS) for
                                                       optimal timing.
                                                       The Apollo MVP3 chip set consists of a
                                                       VT82C598AT system controller (476 pin BGA,
                                                       the "north bridge") and a VT82C586B PCI to ISA
                                                       bridge (208 pin PQFP, the "south bridge"):
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0         4
                                                      KarbosGuide.com.Module 2d.03b
                                                      ALi Aladdin 5
                                                      Acer Laboratories Inc in Taiwan produces chip
                                                      sets as well as other products. This Aladdin V
The VIA Apollo MVP3 is a good chip set to be          chip set is for modern Socket 7 CPUs like AMD
used with modern high-end Socket 7 compatible         K6-2 running up to 350 MHz with a 100 MHz
CPUs like the AMD K6-2.                               system bus.
Tests show that also K6 and even Pentium MMX          It consists of two chips, a north and a south
CPUs can work with this chip set using a 100          bridge. There features are:
MHz bus.                                               M1541(AGP, CPU-to-PCI Bridge, Memory
VIA Apollo MVP4                                       Cache & Buffer Controller)
This chip set was introduced in late 1998. It gives    Interface for all socket 7 compatible processors
new life to the Socket 7, including an in-chip
graphics controller. Most important is the new ATA-    PBSRAM and Memory Cache L2 controller,
66 interface for improved hard disk performance.      internal MESI tag bits (16K*2) and Tag RAM
The chip set also consists of two chips, a north      (16K*10)
and a south bridge:                                    High performance FPM/EDO/SDRAM DRAM
                                                      controller
                                                       PCI 2.1 compliant bus interface
                                                       Smart deep buffer design for CPU-to-DRAM,
                                                      CPU-to-PCI, and PCI-to-DRAM
                                                       Flexible 64-bit memory bus interface for the
                                                      best DRAM upgradeability and ECC/Parity
                                                      design
From VIA's own material:                               456-pin BGA
VT82C501 SMA North Bridge                              M1543 (PCI-to-ISA Bus Bridge with Super I/O)
 Integrated advanced 2D/3D AGP graphics with          ACPI support, green function
setup engine and DVD hardware acceleration             2-channel dedicated Ultra-33 IDE Master controller
 100 MHz CPU/memory bus                                 2-port USB controller, SMBus controller, PS/2
   66/75/83/95/100 MHz FSB (Front Side Bus)          Keyboard/Mouse controller
capabilities                                           Super I/O (Floppy Disk Controller, 2 serial port/1
 Advanced ECC memory controller supports up to       parallel port) support.
768 MB PC100 SDRAM, Virtual Channel SDRAM,             Two full function universal asynchronous receiver/
EDO, FPM RAM                                          transmitters (UARTs), a flexible high performance
 Compatible with all Socket 7 processors             internal data separator with send/receive 16 byte
    Synchronous/Asynchronous AGP/ PCI/memory         FIFOs.
operation                                              Serial Infra Red for wireless communications with
 492-pin BGA package VT82C686 Super South            other devices.
Bridge                                                 Swap drives A & B.
 Integrated AC-97 2.0 (meets PC98 Basic Audio         SPP, PS/2, EPP and ECP parallel port.
spec.)/SoundBlaster-compatible legacy audio                               328-pin BGA
 Integrated Super I/O: FDC, parallel port, serial
                                                                       See ALi's own homepage about
port, IR, Voltage, temperature, and fan speed
hardware monitoring                                                    this chip set.
 UDMA/33 / ATA-66
 Advanced mobile PC power management                                   SiS
 USB                                                                   Also SiS produces a chip set for
 ACPI
                                                                        Socket 7. It holds two chips and
 compatible with all VIA Socket 7 and Slot 1 north
bridges                                               is called Sis 530:
 352-pin BGA package
So much for these chip sets. See VIA's own site       This chip set is one of the first to implement the
for more information.                                 ATA/66 interface for EIDE units.

                                                      SiS630
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0         5
                                                      most people, since the Pentium Pro was aimed at
The SiS630 chip set (only one chip) is more           the server market. The situation changed in 1997
advanced and is compliant with the chip set trend     with the Pentium II.
earlier described here at KarbosGuide.com. It is      Let us review the chip sets in this family
PC99 and PCI 2.2 compatible. It supports Pentium      chronologically:
II/IIIs and Celerons.
On RAM it supports PC-133 SDRAM as well as            82450GX
VCRAM (?), and it holds three dual inline             This chip set came out in 1995, It is supporting quad
                                                      CPU configurations. That is PCs with 4 Pentium Pros.
memory modules (DIMMs) with up to 1.5Gb
main memory. SiS630 also supports Ultra ATA           82440FX - Natoma
66 IDE and five "OpenHCI" USB ports.                  This was for a long time Intel's most widely used
Something called ultra-AGPTM architecture is          chip set for 6th. generation CPUs.
also mentioned as well as digital flat panel          This chip set can handle 2 CPUs on the same
interfaces for LCD and TV output. Even 10/100M        motherboard. 440FX consists of four controllers.
Fast Ethernet is included on-chip.                    As for features, it is like the 82430HX set.
The 630 is consisting of the north bridge and the     Common for these chip sets is the 82371SB PCI-
SiS 960 (a south bridge I/O chip) as well as the      ISA    accelerator,  which     provides   good
real 128-bit 2D/3D graphics engine (SiS300) all                             performance on the I/O
into one single chip.                                                       buses.
For K6-II too..
For the K6-III SIS has introduced the SiS540 chip                          This chip set is good and
set, which has the exactly same features as SiS630.                        fast. However, it supports
The 630 set costs $35 while the AMD set is cheaper
($29).                                                                     neither SDRAM, Ultra
                                                                           DMA, or AGP. These
Soyo ETEQ                                             features are found in the following chip set
                                                      82440LX.
The world's biggest motherboard manufacture used a
ETEQ 8236638AT/6629 AGP chip set (ETEQ 6638 for       82440LX
short) which gave new performance using a bus
connecting the CPU with the L2 cache at 100 MHz.
                                                      440LX is from August 1997. The news were
The RAM worked at only 66 MHz.
No more information available - but tests shows       USB, SD-RAM and Ultra DMA. Thus, this chip
that their board SY 5EH5/M (When are                  set is equivalent to 430TX.
Taiwanese manufacturers going to start naming         Another new feature was the AGP, which is a
their products something easy to remember like        high speed graphics bus (Accelerated Graphics
s525?) performs very well with AMD K6-300 at 3        Port). The AGP-bus runs at 66 MHz - twice the
X 100 MHz. The Soyo chip set is produced by           speed of the PCI bus. This gives new power to the
VIA and is probably the MVP3 set in new               video system, and it frees the PCI bus from all the
packing.                                              heavy video work. The AGP adapters also extend
Chip sets for Intel's P6 processors                   their memory using parts of the motherboard
                                                      RAM as a bit map cache.
                                                      This model illustrates the architecture:

                        Chip sets for Pentium Pro

                        Intel's Pentium Pro was an
                        very early P6 processor,
                        but with Pentium II this
platform became very popular.
The 6th. generation CPUs, Pentium Pro and
Pentium II, have their own chip sets. Back in 1995
and 1996 this platform was not very interesting to
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0         6
                                                     under the green cooling element in the center of
                                                     the picture:

                                                     The chip set promised better bandwidth for PCI
                                                     and AGP using a Quad Port technology, which is
                                                     not explained anywhere. It was expected that the
                                                     BX chip set should support the IEEE1394 bus
                                                     (FireWire) but it does not.

                                                     The Multi I/O controller

                                                     On all modern P6 based motherboards you find a
                                                     so-called multi I/O controller. It is a chip which
                                                     traditionally connects to the ISA bus. It controls
                                                     ports like COM, LPT, KBD etc.
                                                     On many BX based motherboards you find the
82440BX                                              Winbond 83977 controller:

The 440BX chip set was released on April the
15th 1998. In time it became the most popular for                                82440EX
Pentium IIs as well as Celerons and Pentium IIIs.                              The EX chip set is a
The chip set contains the 82443BX Host Bridge                                  discount version of the
(north bridge) and the 82371EB PIIX4E (south         LX set. The chip set only supports DIMM sockets
bridge):                                             with up to only 256 MB RAM and just three PCI
                                                     slots. To be used with the inexpensive Celeron
                           The system bus speed      cartridges.
                           was increased to 100
                           MHz. This chip was                                    82443EX PCI AGP
                           designed     for    the                           Controller (PAC)
                           Pentium II and III
                                                                                  82371AB PCI-TO-
chips, which ran at 350, 400, 450, 500, etc. MHz .
                                                                             ISA/IDE          Xcelerator
The 100 MHz system bus speed is multiplied with
                                                                             (PIIX4)
clock factors from 3.5 up to 8.
The BX chip set controls up to 512 MB of             VIA Apollo Pro
memory (100 MHz SDRAM).
A motherboard like Asus P2B can clock the 100        Via also produces chip sets for Intel's Slot 1
MHz system bus from 2 to 8 times - theoretically     cartridges (Celeron, Pentium II, and Pentium III)
allowing the CPU to work with a clock frequency      and for socket 370. They have become the second
of up to 800 MHz!                                    largest producer of chip sets, and their products
Other motherboards (i.e. EPoX P2-133A) allow         are used by major vendors like Compaq and Dell.
the system bus to reach 133 MHz. Abit's BX6 ver.     The Apollo+ set is much similar to Intel's BX chip
                       2.0 even goes up to 153       set. It consists of two chips of similar size. It takes
                       MHz using the BX chip set.    up to 1 GB RAM where BX only handles 512
                       In that case the you need     MB.
                       cooling of the north bridge   Newer versions of the chip set support PC133
                       controller unit.              SDRAM and later in 2001 support for PC266
                       Here you see the north        DDR RAM is expected.
                       bridge controller situated    The following is taken from VIA's own material.
very close to the slot 1 connection. It is hiding    Apollo Pro+
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0          7
The VIA Apollo Pro Plus consists of two devices.
You see the north bridge to the left:                  Intel has developed some high-powered chip sets for
                                                       its Pentium II, Pentium III and Xeon processors

                     The VT82C693 combines             The GX chip set is the high power chip set for
                     with        the       new         workstations using Pentium II's - Slot 1 or Slot 2.
                     VT82C596A, a BGA-                 An upgraded version of BX you might say, with
                     packaged       southbridge        improved memory management (support for up to
                     with a full set of mobile         2 GB SDRAM) and four USB ports.
power    management     features    for    high
performance, power-conscious desktop and                                     82450NX
mobile designs. VT82C693 North Bridge
 Supports all Slot 1 (Intel Pentium ® II) and
                                                                              With Intel introduction of the
Socket 370 (Intel Celeron ®) processors
                                                                              Pentium II Xeon, 450NX was
 AGP / PCI / ISA Mobile and Deep Green PC Ready
                                                       the first chip set for this platform. It allows 4 or 8
 66 / 100 MHz CPU external bus speed (internal
                                                       CPUs on the motherboard, using up to 8 GB RAM.
450MHz and above)
                                                       Another new feature is the 66 MHz PCI bus. This chip
    AGP v1.0 and PCI 2.1 compliant. Supports
                                                       set is for servers.
SideBand Addressing (SBA) mode. Concurrent CPU
and AGP access
 Supports FP, EDO, and SDRAM
 Different DRAM types may be used in mixed                                      The 450NX PCI set
combinations                                                                     consists in its basic
 Supports 8 banks up to 1GB DRAM
 5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2 back-to-back accesses for EDO                                  version     of   four
DRAM                                                                             components:
 6-1-1-1-2-1-1-1 back-to-back accesses for SDRAM                                 82451NX Memory and
 Pipelined transfers up to 533 MB/sec
 Supports up to five PCI masters
                                                                                 I/O Bridge Controller
    Windows TM 95 OSR-2 VXD and integrated            (MIOC)
Windows TM 98 / NT5 miniport driver support             82454NX PCI Expander Bridge (PXB)
VT82C596A South Bridge                                  82452NX RAS/CAS Generator (RCG)
    PC98-Compatible Mobile Power Management:
Supports both ACPI (Advanced Configuration and          82453NX Data Path Multiplexor (MUX).
Power     Interface)   and   legacy   (APM)    power   This PCI set does not include AGP, being
management                                             intended for use in servers only. If AGP is
 Sideband signal support for PC/PCI and serial
interrupt for docking and non-docking applications
                                                       required you should go for the 440GX chip set.
 Supports external APIC interface for symmetrical     The 450NX Basic is made for servers using up to
multiprocessor configurations                          4 Xeons, where the full version supports up to 8.
     USB v.1.0 and Intel Universal HCI v.1.1
compatible Microsoft Windows TM 95 and plug and        82440ZX
play BIOS compliant
 Supports ATAPI compliant devices including DVD
devices
                                                       This new discount chip set comes in two versions,
 Integrated USB Controller, UltraDMA-33 master        one for 66 MHz and one for 100 MHz bus. From
mode and EIDE controller                                                      what I know, it only
VIA and S3                                                                    allows      two     RAM
A product produced by S3 VIA, code named                                      modules.
SavageNB, will combine the best of S3's Savage4
graphics engine with VIA's Apollo Pro core logic
design.
By integrating the two key technologies, S3 and
VIA effectively combine three components (North
Bridge, the graphics controller and frame buffer)
into a single chip configuration.
More chip sets for Intel's P6 processors
                                                       Five Intel chip sets for 100 MHz RAM
82440GX
 KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0     8
 Here you see a comparison of Intel's 100 MHz                    chip sets:
Name of    82440BX 82440GX 82450NX 82450NX 82440ZX
chip set                   Basic   Full

Number     2         2           5          9          2          A new type of memory controller with built-in
of chips
                                                                 graphics technology.
Cartridge Slot One   Slot One    Slot Two   Slot Two   Slot 1     Support for up to 512 MB SDRAM.
                     Slot Two                          Socket
                                                       370        Built-in audio-codec controller.
                                                                  No ISA bus!
Max.       1 GB      2 GB        4 GB       8 GB       512 MB?
RAM                                                              810 is an inexpensive chip set built on the BX
                                                                 technology. However, the new memory bus will
PCI Bus    One 32    One 32      Two 32     Four 32    One 32
           bit       bit         bit        bit        bit
                                                                 come in other chip sets as well. The built-in
                                 One 64     Two 64               audio-codec controller enables software audio and
                                 bit        bit                  modem implementations. This meens that no
AGP Bus    1         1           n/a        n/a        1         sound card or modem is required. And finally we
                                                                 see the first attempt to produce modern PC's
USB        2         4           2          2          2
Ports                                                            without the old ISA bus.
                                                                 Chips in 810
                                                                 The chip set consists of three chips:
 KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.06
 Intel's i810
                                                                      82810    Graphics         421 Ball Grid Array
                                                                               Memory           (BGA)
                                                                               Controller Hub

                                Intro to Intel 810                    82801    Integrated       241 Ball Grid Array
                                                                               Controller Hub   (BGA)
                          With i810, Intel has                        82802    Firmware Hub     32-pin PLCC or 40-
                          launched the first chip set                                           pin TSOP
                          of a new generation.
 In late April 1999 the 810 "Whitney" chip set was
 introduced. This set is new in several aspects.
 The Accelerated Hub Architecture                                133.000.000 X 8 byte).
 Usually we talk about north and south bridges in chip
 sets. These refer to the two controllers a chip set
 usually consists of. Intel replaces these terms with
 "hubs".
 The new thing in this hub architecture is, that the
 two controllers not are connected by the PCI bus.
 Instead they connect via a new Interlink dedicated
 bus. This is a high speed bus, currently with twice
 the bandwidth of the PCI bus. This architecture
 resembles the new K7 Athlon point to point
 channel.
                                                                 Also see the MCH below.
 266 MB/sec
                                                                 Graphics Memory Controller Hub
                                 The     interlink  bus          The 82810 Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH)
                                 operates at 133 MHz in          is a MCH "north bridge" including a graphics
                                                                 controller and using Direct AGP (integrated AGP,
                                 2X mode. Being 64 bit           where the graphics controller is directly connected to
                                 wide this gives a               the system RAM) operating at 100 MHz.
                                 bandwidth       of 266          The 82810 chip features a "Hardware Motion
                                 MB/sec         (2    X          Compensation" to improve soft DVD video and
KarbosGuide.com. Module 2d.0           9
digital video out port for digital flat panel          Here you see a dump from the Windows -driver
monitors. The graphics controller is a version of      that goes with the chip set:
Intel's new model 752. Optional, the chip set can
be equipped with a display cache of 4MB RAM to
be used for "Z-buffering".
Dynamic Video Memory Technology (D.V.M.T.)
is an architecture that offers good performance for
the Value PC segment through efficient memory
utilization and "Direct AGP". A new improved
version of the SMBA (Shared Memory Buffer
Architecture)used in earlier chip sets as VX. In
the 810 chip set 11 MB system RAM is allocated         Many users will not like that you cannot disable
to be used by the 3D-graphics controller as frame      the graphics controller. So for gamers this chip set
buffer, command buffer and Z-buffer.                   is no good. It was never really accepted by the
82801 I/O Controller Hub                               motherboard manufactures, nor by the press.
This "south bridge", the 82801 (ICH), employs an       However, I liked it ...
accelerated hub to give a direct connection from the
graphics and memory to the integrated AC97 (Audio-
                                                       The new support for software-based sound and
Codec) controller, the IDE controllers, the dual USB   modem
ports, and the PCI bus. This promises increased I/O    Will this work, and what are the consequences going
performance.                                           to be?
82802 Firmware Hub (FWH)                               No ISA bus. This is good.we shall soon see a lot
The 82802 Firmware Hub (FWH) stores system BIOS        more USB-based devices. And it will become
and video BIOS in a 4 Mbit EEPROM. In addition, the    very easy to built small, inexpensive, and elegant
82802 contains a hardware Random Number
Generator (RNG), which (perhaps and in time) will
                                                       PCs using all the integrated hardware and only
enable better security, stronger encryption, and       connecting external units using the very handy
digital signing in the Internet.                       USB cabling.
AC97                                                   100 MHz support
The Integrated Audio-Codec 97 controller enables       The 810 chip set is made for Intel Celeron
software audio and modem by using the processor to     processors. But so far these processors only work
run sound and modem software. It will require          with a system bus frequency of 66 MHz. Why does
software, but using this you need no modem or          the chip set then support 100 MHz? The obvious
soundcard.                                             reason is that Intel planed to move the Pentium III
This feature is smart if you do not use audio or       processors to a Socket 370 platform. And the
modem on a regular basis. It adds a heavy work to      Celerons comes operating at a 100 MHz bus
                                                       frequency. This is good news, and it all happened in
the CPU, which has to act as a modem and as a          2000 and 2001.
sound card beside its regular tasks.                   Go for i815E
                                                       After the arrival of i815E in June 2000, that is the
Karbo's conclusion                                     chip set to go for. It holds all the nice features from
                                                       i810 plus a lot of great news.
The 82810 controller represent a new generation
of low-priced chip sets. I find these aspects
interesting:
Integration of a powerful graphics accelerator
The RAMDAC is of 230 MHz giving a max. 2D-
resolution of 1280 X 1024 pixels with 24 bit color
depth and a refresh rate of 85 Hz. The graphics
controller offers 3D acceleration with both DirextX
and OpenGL support.
I found the performance to be quite OK for non-
game use. The visual quality of the screen images
seemed to match the out put from mid-range
graphics adapters from ATI and Matrox. I could
live with this graphics without any problems.

								
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