Physical Science Paper 1 Memorandum 2006 Sa - DOC

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3728   Chapter 4: Community Involvement and Collaboration
3729   Local stakeholders play important roles in the creation and maintenance of a
3730   rigorous, thriving CTE program. They are represented and involved in decision
3731   making through advisory groups, councils, curriculum and articulation committees,
3732   and other boards; participate in career technical student organizations (CTSOs)
3733   and CTE ―booster clubs‖; receive invitations to CTE-related events; and generally
3734   participate across the spectrum of CTE activities. This chapter addresses some
3735   ways that educational and community partners can be directly involved in the
3736   decision making, operation, and evaluation/improvement of CTE programs.

3737   The Role of Educational Partners

3738   Partnerships are essential to CTE. They speak to the very core of learning by doing
3739   and work-based learning. CTE thrives when educational, community, and
3740   business/industry partnerships help districts, and sites provide comprehensive
3741   professional development, work-based learning, and career guidance activities.

3742   County offices of education, districts, administrators, counselors, teachers, and
3743   technical support personnel are essential to CTE program success, as are families
3744   and students. Partnerships with postsecondary education, workforce investment
3745   boards, youth councils, apprenticeship programs, ROCPs, local businesses and
3746   industry, adult education programs, WorkAbility programs, and military programs
3747   can also enrich, enhance, and provide relevant context and content for vibrant CTE
3748   instruction.

3749   School districts. Districts hold responsibility for coordination and administration of
3750   CTE by creating policies that support the statewide goals and standards, national
3751   laws and directives, and local business and industry needs. They also provide
3752   information, resources, and assistance to individual schools.

3753   In medium and large school districts, school boards and administrators view CTE
3754   from the ―big picture,‖ using the various high school sites to provide a
3755   comprehensive CTE program for the district as a whole. Thus districts may choose
3756   to establish industry sector magnet schools, place career academies at specific
3757   sites, or locate CTE concentration areas at different schools.

3758   Working with the schools, districts set program goals and outcomes, coordinate
3759   and monitor school compliance, and evaluate and analyze the results of CTE
3760   programs. They report these results to schools, parents, the state government, and
3761   other involved or interested parties. Exercising their comprehensive oversight,
3762   districts also resolve disagreements between sites about CTE policies,
3763   requirements, course distribution, and other issues.
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3764   Another key role of districts is resource allocation and generation, as discussed in
3765   Chapter 3. Some districts have also developed excellent relationships with local
3766   business/industry, providing multiple valuable resources. These resources must be
3767   carefully allocated to the sites to generate a comprehensive districtwide CTE
3768   program and equitable opportunity for students at each site.

3769   Schools and site administrators. As direct providers of CTE, schools are
3770   responsible for implementation, administration, and monitoring. They implement
3771   district policies and transform them into local programs through the Single Site Plan
3772   and/or other planning documents. Schools are responsible for providing structure
3773   and support for CTE programs/classes and staff.

3774   At the local level, schools monitor teacher and department compliance and
3775   evaluate outcomes; they then report this information to a wide audience through the
3776   annual School Accountability Report Card (SARC) required by California Education
3777   Code Section 33126(b)(14). The SARC provides enrollment, concentration, and
3778   completion data on all CTE programs and classes, including academic and skills
3779   achievement and the following information:

3780    1. Programs and classes offered by the school that are specifically focused on
3781       career preparation and/or preparation for work
3782    2. How these programs and classes are integrated with academic courses and
3783       how they support academic achievement (e.g., courses that have been revised
3784       to incorporate CTE foundation standards, courses that satisfy the district’s
3785       graduation requirements, courses that satisfy the ―a–g‖ entrance requirements
3786       for UC/CSU)
3787    3. How the school addresses the needs of all students in career preparation
3788       and/or preparation for work, including needs unique to defined special
3789       populations of students (e.g., steps to ensure equitable access, counseling and
3790       guidance, professional development, additional support services, coordination
3791       with youth development and economic development organizations)
3792    4. Measurable outcomes for these programs and classes, and how they are
3793       evaluated for effectiveness in attaining those outcomes (e.g., mastery of
3794       ―employment readiness standards; results of career technical skills
3795       assessments; business, labor, and other community stakeholder support;
3796       participation in CTSOs; and placement of program completers in employment,
3797       postsecondary education, or the military‖).1

3798   Adequate financing for CTE is also controlled to a considerable extent at the site
3799   level. Frequently local business/industry generates resources for specific school’s
3800   CTE programs. For example, in the agriculture sector, the Kingsburg Ag Booster
3801   Club provided funding and labor to rebuild the school farm. At Santa Ynez Valley
3802   High, a local auto dealer split a three-year lease on a pickup truck with the
3803   agriculture department. West Valley and Anderson High Schools have grant
3804   resources from the McConnell Foundation in the northern Sacramento Valley to
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3805   provide school farms and equipment. In addition, agriculture booster clubs
3806   throughout the state raise funds for student leadership activities, equipment, and
3807   labor.

3808   Depending on the district, site administrators and faculty often also have a great
3809   deal of flexibility in creating a CTE structure that works best for their population.
3810   This might include instituting career pathways, career academies, Tech-Prep
3811   programs, or similar structural elements. Schools may, with the permission of the
3812   district, apply for funding to support their design, such as state grants for California
3813   Partnership Academies or federal funding for Smaller Learning Communities, which
3814   includes a career pathway and academy program.

3815   Counselors. The role of guidance counselors is key to the success of CTE
3816   programs. Chapter 3 addresses this role and ways in which CTE faculty can assist
3817   counselors to encourage all students to participate in CTE for successful transition
3818   into the workforce and postsecondary training and education.

3819   Teachers. Teachers provide CTE classroom and lab instruction and work-based
3820   learning oversight based on the policies and curriculum of the school and district.
3821   As the direct providers of front-line instruction, teachers master subject-area
3822   content, educational theory and practice, and CTE standards. Through pre-service
3823   and ongoing professional development, they also build skills to effectively
3824   communicate that knowledge to students.

3825   Teachers plan and organize instruction to ensure that all students master the
3826   material and meet the chosen CTE pathway and foundation standards for each
3827   course. They set clear, challenging goals for their students and create short-, mid-,
3828   and long-range plans that address student needs. These goals and plans reflect
3829   school and district CTE policies, goals, and targets, and align with California CTE
3830   pathway and foundation standards. Teachers regularly communicate their
3831   instructional goals and plans to their students, including an evaluation of what the
3832   students are achieving compared to these targets.

3833   This evaluation of achievement compared to target is inherent in standards-based
3834   instruction. Teachers provide their students with frequent, regular one-on-one and
3835   classroom-level assessment and feedback of their progress in mastering the key
3836   CTE foundation and pathway standards. They communicate the results of these
3837   evaluations to students, their families, and the school. These assessments also
3838   provide feedback for the teacher, becoming the basis for modification of the
3839   instructional plan and an ongoing source of professional feedback on instructional
3840   methodology. Using the results of these standards-based assessments, teachers
3841   pinpoint students in need of learning support and offer the necessary resources, as
3842   discussed in Chapter 2.
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3843   To enhance and reinforce learning and motivation, teachers should make use of all
3844   available resources; in particular, instructional plans should incorporate technology
3845   and multimedia, libraries and library science, and local business and industry
3846   resources wherever possible. CTE teachers also have a particular role in the
3847   interface between local business and industry resources and the student’s school
3848   experience through the various forms of work experience (e.g., internship,
3849   community classroom, extended job shadowing, formal work experience, etc.) and
3850   through Career-Technical Student Organizations such as FFA, FHA-HERO, DECA,
3851   SkillsUSA, HOSA, FBLA, and TSA (as discussed in Chapter 1).

3852   Teachers are responsible for the education of all students and the creation of an
3853   effective environment for learning. To achieve this, they respect and foster diversity
3854   and actively create equity in their classrooms, taking a primary role in encouraging
3855   all students to maximize their potential.

3856   Perhaps most important, teachers are responsible for improving the education of
3857   today’s youth and the future of CTE for tomorrow. CTE teachers work with the high
3858   school faculty as a whole, often leading school improvement efforts such as
3859   Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) accreditation activities and
3860   the development of teaching partnerships and assessment models to improve
3861   education and student outcomes at the school, district, and state level.

3862   Technical support personnel. Technical support personnel provide valuable
3863   services to CTE programs and personnel. Career center technicians operate career
3864   centers in many high schools, providing a focal point for career awareness and
3865   exploration activities and may also support tenth grade counseling activities (see
3866   Chapter 5).

3867   Internship coordinators are most often found at magnet or charter schools that have
3868   a CTE focus or at high schools which offer internships through various academies
3869   or career pathways. Internship coordinators help students find potential internship
3870   placements and prep them for interviews, network with local businesses, make
3871   appropriate matches, train business supervisors, train students in job basics, and
3872   monitor and troubleshoot the internship. They also serve as very visible
3873   ambassadors for CTE programs in the community. CTE teachers frequently serve
3874   as internship coordinators for their course students when there is no formal support
3875   person.

3876   Computer technology and network administrators maintain the infrastructure for
3877   those CTE courses dependent on computer technology. In many schools, this is a
3878   full-time job, and in CTE-focused magnet or charter schools, it is not unusual to find
3879   a ratio of one computer technician to every two hundred students when each
3880   student has a computer and the entire school is networked. For other schools, this
3881   ratio is simply a dream, and the CTE teacher may be the sole technology support
3882   for the school.
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3883   Work experience coordinators provide technical support for students in general
3884   work experience education and may assist teachers or other staff in supporting
3885   other work experience students. Coordinators are usually teachers, as the law
3886   requires instructional support for work experience students. However, some larger
3887   districts maintain both coordinators (who are often classified staff) and supervising
3888   teachers in their work experience programs. Coordinators are charged with
3889   ensuring that appropriate contracts and learning plans are executed, workers’
3890   compensation is in place as required by the program, permits are legally applied for
3891   and maintained, and student attendance at the instructional workshops/seminars is
3892   consistent.

3893   Parents, guardians, and families. Parents, guardians, and families provide
3894   educational support to and advocacy for their youth enrolled in CTE coursework.
3895   They evaluate the needs of their students, communicate this information to
3896   teachers and the school, and work with teachers to ensure individual’s needs are
3897   met. They also monitor the progress and process of their young adult’s work,
3898   supporting, motivating, and encouraging them.

3899   To perform these critical functions, families must have the contact information on
3900   CTE teachers and school administrators. This information can easily be provided in
3901   an introductory letter that explains the course content, the standards-based
3902   approach, the type of assessments students will complete, what families can do to
3903   help their students be successful, and how to contact the instructor, the department
3904   chair, the appropriate counselor, the Career Center, and the principal. Schools
3905   sometimes mail the letter home, with translations for non-English-speaking parents.
3906   Parents and families respond productively and appropriately to the information they
3907   receive and work with teachers and the school to provide positive support.

3908   Finally, parents, guardians, and families show their commitment to and investment
3909   in education by working to improve and support the CTE classroom and career-
3910   related student organizations through groups such as Booster Clubs and Parent-
3911   Teacher-Student Associations. It may be helpful in developing leadership to have
3912   students request that support directly. For example, parents may be directly
3913   contacted by the officers of a Career and Technical Student Organization (CTSO)
3914   to run food booths for an upcoming competition they are hosting in the region.

3915   Students. Students’ role in their CTE program consists of taking responsibility,
3916   making an effort, and demonstrating respect. With assistance from the CTE
3917   instructor, students can identify and develop short-range, mid-range, and long-
3918   range goals in their career pathway. They can then plan the courses they will take
3919   and the on-the-job training they will complete to reach those goals.
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3920   Students then work to complete the plan and meet their goals by:

3921    1. Contributing the effort, time, interest, and energy necessary to learn. This buy-
3922       in is required for success in any educational venture but particularly in CTE
3923       where hands-on work mandates understanding of and attention to detail (CTE
3924       Foundation Standard 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).
3925    2. Monitoring their progress toward their goals. Monitoring can take place in the
3926       CTE classroom, in an advisory structure, or in regular meetings with the
3927       counselor. Some schools have student-led conferences in which the students
3928       review their work with their parents and update them on their progress in
3929       relation to their plan (CTE Foundation Standard 5.0, Problem Solving and
3930       Critical Thinking).
3931    3. Soliciting and responding appropriately to feedback from teachers, mentors,
3932       peers, their families, and work supervisors. Again, this strategy works best if
3933       structured by the CTE teacher. Students must be taught how to solicit
3934       feedback on their work and progress and how to respond appropriately to both
3935       positive and negative feedback. This can be accomplished in the classroom
3936       through the peer review structure, in student organizations, through student-led
3937       conferences, and in training for internships, work experience, apprenticeships,
3938       or other work-based experiences (CTE Foundation Standard 5.0, Problem
3939       Solving and Critical Thinking).
3940    4. Modifying or improving their habits and learning behaviors for success.
3941       Students need structure to accomplish this goal, and this can be provided in
3942       the CTE classroom by focusing on learning behaviors and attitudes that are
3943       most successful (CTE Foundation Standards 5.0, Problem Solving and Critical
3944       Thinking; and 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).
3945    5. Improving their educational experience by seeking and mastering new
3946       challenges, expanding their abilities, and adding skills and knowledge to their
3947       learning portfolio. Creating short-, medium-, and long-range plans helps
3948       students see the value of taking on rigorous challenges that will expand their
3949       skills and knowledge. The CTE structure will help them be successful in their
3950       efforts (CTE Foundation Standards 3.0, Career Planning and Management;
3951       and 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).

3952   Students also need to develop leadership skills, and CTSOs provide an excellent
3953   venue for this purpose. CTSOs are designated as intra-curricular by the U.S.
3954   Department of Education due to their importance in delivering key skills for career
3955   success. They are often the only opportunity a student has to travel outside the
3956   local area, meet and make friends from all over the nation, visit colleges, make
3957   connections with business leaders throughout the state, hone and practice
3958   interpersonal skills, and participate in the legislative process.

3959   Advisory committees. Advisory committees are usually groups of employers and
3960   community representatives who advise the school on the design, development,
3961   operation, evaluation, and adjustment of CTE programs.2 This external influence
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3962   ensures that CTE courses meet current and future workforce needs. Advisory
3963   committees are indispensable to maintaining state-of-the-art, community-linked
3964   curricula, but only if they function optimally in reality and don’t just exist on paper.3
3965   When educators maximize the group’s potential, advisory committees are advisory
3966   in the best sense of the term: they offer their expertise and assistance but do not
3967   have administrative authority.

3968   Composition and meetings of advisory committees. In California, certain CTE
3969   advisory committees are required by law or institutionalized by practice. While
3970   these separate mandates sometimes specify all or part of the group’s composition,
3971   it is generally accepted as good practice to include members from business and
3972   industry, education, parents, students, state employment and workforce agencies,
3973   public and private agencies, and the community. The most common CTE advisory
3974   committees are those required by the Education Code, specifically:

3975    1. Regional Career Guidance Centers: A local advisory committee is composed
3976       of 11 members, at least seven of whom are from business, industry, labor, and
3977       the general public.
3978    2. ROCP: Subject area advisory committees determine courses appropriate for
3979       Regional Occupational Centers or Programs and provide advice.
3980    3. Unified school districts and union high school districts with a CTE Program: A
3981       career technical education advisory committee develops recommendations on
3982       the program and provides a liaison between the district and potential
3983       employers.
3984    4. Unified school districts and union high school districts with a Partnership
3985       Academy: An advisory committee consists of those involved in academy
3986       operations, including school district and school administrators, lead teachers,
3987       and private sector representatives.
3988    5. Unified school districts and union high school districts, ROCPs, or county
3989       offices of education receiving Carl D. Perkins funding: Advisory groups meet
3990       required involvement of parents, students, teachers, representatives of
3991       business/industry and labor, representatives of special populations, and others
3992       involved in Perkins-funded CTE programs.4

3993   Purpose of advisory committees. An effective advisory committee develops and
3994   implements an annual plan of action that reflects long-term and short-term
3995   objectives. The most effective groups provide a wide variety of support to CTE
3996   programs, including:

3997    1. Curriculum development, assisting programs to:
3998       • Analyze course content, materials, and sequence to establish performance
3999         benchmarks and align them to competencies and tasks.
4000       • Identify and expand the use of new technologies.
4001       • Assist in developing and validating performance tasks and other tests.
4002       • Advise on labor market trends.
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4003        • Recommend safety policies and procedures.
4004   2.   Program evaluation, helping programs by:
4005        • Reviewing goals and objectives in relation to outcomes
4006        • Comparing student performance standards to business and industry
4007          standards
4008        • Evaluating facilities, equipment, and technology to recommend upgrades
4009        • Recommending initiation of new programs or elimination of obsolete
4010          programs
4011   3.   Community/public relations, assisting programs by:
4012        • Cooperatively creating a marketing plan
4013        • Recognizing outstanding students, teachers, and community leaders
4014        • Generating effective media coverage
4015        • Presenting programs to community groups
4016   4.   Recruitment and job placement, helping CTE programs by:
4017        • Recruiting potential students
4018        • Identifying job openings
4019        • Placing students in cooperative work experience, internships, or other work-
4020          based learning opportunities
4021        • Hiring graduates
4022   5.   Student organizations, supporting programs by:
4023        • Sponsoring student organization activities and assisting in fund-raising
4024        • Assisting in developing and judging competitive skill events
4025        • Establishing scholarships and awards
4026        • Implementing leadership development activities
4027   6.   Professional development, augmenting school efforts by teacher recruitment
4028        and:
4029        • Reviewing teacher selection criteria and recruiting potential staff
4030        • Providing in-service activities for instructors
4031        • Offering teachers internships or externships and summer opportunities for
4032          skill upgrades
4033        • Encouraging personal initiatives
4034        • Reviewing professional development plans
4035        • Financially supporting teachers’ attendance at professional meetings and
4036          conferences
4037   7.   Resources, augmenting programs by:
4038        • Providing financial support, equipment and materials, tours and field trips,
4039          job shadowing opportunities, and classroom speakers
4040        • Assisting in budget development and review
4041        • Brokering cost-saving arrangements with other businesses and industry
4042          organizations
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4043    8. Legislation and advocacy, assisting specific programs and CTE in general by:
4044       • Staying current on state and federal legislation
4045       • Advocating for CTE programs
4046       • Arranging tours of programs
4047       • Involving policymakers in program events5

4048   County offices of education. California’s 58 county offices of education play a major
4049   role in supporting the delivery of CTE to the districts and schools in their areas.
4050   From coordination of ROCPs to provision of professional development and
4051   enrichment opportunities for teachers, county offices of education are important
4052   CTE resources for all schools and districts.

4053   The county link with ROCP allows for centralized development of a CTE program
4054   that is available to a large number of students and appropriate to the needs of the
4055   community. Particularly in areas with smaller schools, which might not be able to
4056   develop and maintain their own separate CTE programs, county-level ROCP
4057   programs are one of the driving influences in secondary CTE programs. For
4058   example, the Glenn County ROCP offers numerous popular CTE courses in
4059   agriculture, computer repair and maintenance, furniture and cabinet construction,
4060   health occupations, hospitality occupations, registered dental assisting, sports
4061   therapy and fitness technician, and virtual enterprise to over 1,400 high school and
4062   adult learners from five rural high school districts.

4063   Postsecondary education. Universities, colleges, community colleges, and technical
4064   training schools prepare CTE students for skill- and knowledge-intensive careers
4065   and offer credential preparation for CTE teachers. They also act as primary
4066   determinants of career advanced study prerequisites and qualifications by setting
4067   requirements for matriculation and graduation.

4068   Increasingly, community colleges are the public sector focal point for higher-level
4069   CTE. This role of the community college supports high schools that build a
4070   continuity of career pathways for students beginning with rigorous CTE courses in
4071   grades nine through twelve that deliver both foundation and pathway standards.
4072   These collaborative partnerships can result in highly articulated formal or informal
4073   programs leading to certification, an AA degree, and/or transfer to a four-year
4074   institution.

4075   High schools with limited CTE resources can augment their programs with
4076   community college classes. A number of discretionary grants for postsecondary
4077   institutions require articulation with high schools, creating both an opportunity for
4078   additional funding and an incentive for partnerships. This should be considered in
4079   the development of the comprehensive CTE Plan.

4080   Workforce investment boards. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), implemented
4081   through local, broad-based workforce investment boards (WIBs), is the primary
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4082   federal source of job training funding in California6 and includes youth programs
4083   through WIA’s Title I. These programs are targeted to disadvantaged youth ages
4084   fourteen and older and include work preparation, education, and work-based
4085   learning experiences. Local One-Stop Career Centers link youths to the programs.
4086   Schools can work with One-Stop youth providers to implement work-based learning
4087   opportunities for most students with disabilities and most who are economically
4088   disadvantaged. For example, the One-Stop might provide support and funding for
4089   paid internships for economically disadvantaged students.

4090   Each WIB has a youth council which works with local elected officials, business
4091   leaders, unions, community-based organizations, foundations, and local
4092   educational agencies to promote youth workforce preparation. Youth councils also
4093   build leadership skills for council members. Statewide, youth councils support an
4094   approach called ―All Youth, One System‖ to address the interrelated academic,
4095   career, and developmental needs of young people.

4096   Apprenticeship programs. In California, apprenticeship programs prepare an
4097   individual for a career in skilled crafts and trades. Currently, there are more than
4098   800 apprenticeship careers in the United States, and more than 200 in California. 7
4099   The apprenticeship training system is unique in that its basic foundation is a
4100   partnership between industry, labor, education, and government. Business-,
4101   industry-, and union-driven, the apprenticeship training system provides an
4102   effective balance between on-the-job training and theoretical instruction.

4103   The California Department of Education supports related and supplementary
4104   instruction (RSI), the classroom aspect of an apprenticeship, in local adult
4105   education and ROCP agencies for over 200 apprenticeship programs, enrolling
4106   more than 30,000 registered apprentices, 43 percent of the more than 69,000
4107   registered apprenticeships in California.8 Programs are developed and conducted
4108   by individual employers, employer committees, or a jointly sponsored labor and
4109   management associations. Apprenticeship programs guarantee fair selection,
4110   employment, and training of apprentices. Sponsor employers evaluate work site
4111   conditions, identify skilled workers to serve as trainers, and schedule a rotation of
4112   training. Local ROCPs and adult schools provide the RSI and contract with program
4113   sponsors.

4114   Apprenticeship programs typically span a period of three to five years. Registered
4115   apprentices attend a minimum of 144 hours of RSI directly related to on-the-job
4116   experiences. When an apprentice has completed an entire program of on-the-job
4117   training and RSI, the sponsor recommends that the State Division of
4118   Apprenticeship Standards issue a Certificate of Completion of Apprenticeship. With
4119   a Certificate of Completion, an apprentice is granted journeyman status.9

4120   Adult education. Adult education programs offered through school districts can
4121   provide high school students who are short of meeting graduation requirements
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4122   with additional opportunities to earn course credit in academics and CTE and
4123   prepare for the CAHSEE or GED. Some adult schools also offer college credit
4124   options in completion of diploma requirements. Typically, adult education classes
4125   are held during the normal school day, in the late afternoon or evening, and often
4126   on Saturdays; some courses may be available online.

4127   The Role of Community Partners

4128   Community partners are a great source of help for CTE programs.

4129   Business and industry. As the current and future employers of CTE graduates,
4130   business and industry are substantial stakeholders in the CTE process. To ensure
4131   their future workforce, businesses collaborate with CTE instructors at the site or
4132   district level to create a formal or informal strategic plan, much like those developed
4133   for ROCP. They begin this process by evaluating and identifying:

4134    1. Actual numbers of CTE graduates and rates of graduation at both the high
4135       school and community college levels
4136    2. Current industry needs for trained employees, by industry sector area
4137    3. Projected future employment needs, including staffing levels and specific areas
4138       of knowledge and skills
4139    4. Methods to close the gap between projected needs and supply sources
4140    5. Resources needed to address the gap.

4141   This fundamental planning forms the basis for business-education partnerships. By
4142   partnering with individual schools or districts, businesses can influence the
4143   development of industry-appropriate CTE educational goals. The partnership plan
4144   includes work with teachers, schools, and districts to create innovative and effective
4145   strategies to ensure future business and industry needs are met. As a part of the
4146   partnership, local businesses may provide student benefits and incentives,
4147   educational and professional opportunities, and financial support.

4148   Business and industry also actively participate in CTE through involvement in many
4149   strategies discussed earlier, including work-based learning agreements, teacher
4150   externship programs, participation on various planning councils and panels related
4151   to CTE, and a variety of other involvements. While many business/industry leaders
4152   are eager to be involved, it is important that educators actively welcome them into
4153   the CTE community to forge strong and lasting relationships.

4154   Labor. Unions and other organized labor groups contribute significantly to the
4155   success of CTE in California. As discussed above, unions play a key role in the
4156   state’s apprenticeship system. Labor representatives are also among the members
4157   of the workforce investment board, as required by legislation, and frequently serve
4158   on the associated Youth Councils.
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4159   However, like business/industry, labor’s major contribution to CTE for K–12 is
4160   through assistance in the development and implementation of the site or district
4161   CTE plan. Labor representatives are in a unique position to provide ideas for
4162   assessments that mimic the actual workplace. Labor representatives also can
4163   provide valuable support to struggling students through mentor and/or tutor
4164   programs. And they can support CTSOs by providing advice, resources, and time.

4165   Labor representatives have a significant role to play in reference to foundation
4166   standards that are common to all industry clusters, such as the following:

4167     3.4 Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry
4168         associations, and organized labor in a productive society.
4169     6.1 Know policies, procedures, and regulations regarding health and safety in
4170         the workplace, including employer and employee responsibilities.
4171     7.3 Understand the need to adapt to varied roles and responsibilities.

4172   Community organizations. Community organizations have a history of supporting
4173   CTE, including:

4174    1. Libraries, nonprofit organizations, and city/county programs that provide
4175       education support, including access to specialty information and education-
4176       related services
4177    2. Professional and trade organizations, including associations and interest
4178       groups, that provide access to current professionals in the field, up-to-date
4179       content information, and feedback on the appropriateness and applicability of
4180       CTE course offerings
4181    3. Alumni organizations for school or CTSO members which provide learning
4182       support and networking for students, including access to professional and peer
4183       mentors
4184    4. Social and health services organizations that offer support to students
4185       struggling with problems that are affecting their academic and CTE
4186       performance (Because of the mentoring role taken on by many CTE
4187       instructors, it is helpful to build relationships with these organizations for
4188       referrals of students in need.)

4189   Youth development organizations. Other potential CTE partners are youth
4190   development organizations, such as the YMCA, YWCA, Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs, and
4191   4-H. For those industries that do not have established CTSOs, these organizations
4192   can provide the student venue for building leadership skills, honing CTE skills
4193   through competition, or sharing CTE skills with peers or younger children.

4194   Government. The role of government in CTE is one of policymaking and, in some
4195   cases, financial support. Federal and state governments create education policies
4196   and directives that guide education through legislation, funding initiatives, and
4197   programs such as the national Carl D. Perkins Act or statewide initiatives. In
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4198   addition, federal and state governments set general policies that affect employment
4199   and economic conditions, which in turn affect the entire workforce, including
4200   students.

4201   Local governments may highlight or emphasize certain aspects of CTE through
4202   directed funding programs and population- and locality-specific policies. In addition,
4203   these governments can act in response to expressed needs within their
4204   constituencies, including those of area businesses and industries. Local
4205   governments are particularly involved with job training initiatives that include a
4206   variety of training opportunities for high school students, such as those overseen by
4207   the workforce investment boards.

4208   Military. The military offers extensive postsecondary job training and education
4209   programs packaged with military service. Military branches have access to high
4210   school students’ personal contact information (unless parents request otherwise)
4211   through the No Child Left Behind Act. Thus most students will be contacted at
4212   home as well as at school, and recruiters will provide full information on offerings.

4213   The military’s free ASVAB Career Exploration Program is intended for students in
4214   the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades, as well as students in postsecondary
4215   programs. ASVAB provides tools, including the test battery and interest inventory,
4216   developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to help high school and
4217   postsecondary students learn more about career exploration and planning. Results
4218   of the aptitude test and the interest inventory enable students to evaluate their
4219   skills, estimate performance in academic and career endeavors, and identify
4220   potentially satisfying careers. These results are integrated with work values to help
4221   students identify and prioritize possible career choices. Students are encouraged to
4222   consider their own work-related values and other important personal preferences
4223   as they explore the world of work and learn career exploration skills that reap
4224   lifelong benefits.

4225   Junior Reserve Officers Training Centers (JROTC) programs representing the
4226   various military branches operate on many high school campuses in California.
4227   JROTC programs are usually elective courses that may be taken each year (e.g.,
4228   JROTC Leadership Training I–IV). Typically, student cadets are introduced to CTE
4229   foundation standards and essential skills such as leadership, ethics, citizenship,
4230   techniques of communication, physical fitness, military readiness, and other
4231   subjects through a combination of classroom instruction and extracurricular
4232   activities. JROTC student cadets are under no obligation to join the military.

4233   Articulation and Alignment of Courses

4234   Articulation and course alignment are the backbone of effective, coherent CTE
4235   pathways. All districts face articulation issues at the high school-to-postsecondary
4236   transition point. Many have difficulties with middle-to-high school alignment within a
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4237   single district, and these problems are exacerbated for high school districts. To
4238   effectively articulate CTE courses, both parties must be satisfied that all courses
4239   are rigorous, adequately prepare students for the next step, and fulfill the
4240   requirements for the type of credit desired. To reach this state of agreement,
4241   schools may find the steps outlined below helpful.

4242   Development of an articulation team. The first step in successful articulation
4243   involves the formation of an articulation team, including key individuals from both
4244   institutions (instructors/faculty, administrators, counselors, etc.) For efficiency, one
4245   person should be designated to coordinate and monitor the articulation process.
4246   Before beginning to examine course content, the articulation team will need to:

4247    1. Establish goals to be achieved through articulation.
4248    2. Ensure buy-in from relevant administrators, faculty, and staff who are not
4249       directly involved in the articulation process.
4250    3. Develop or clarify existing policies and procedures for articulation, including a
4251       guidebook or other materials for counselors and instructors.
4252    4. Decide which programs are to be articulated (preferably programs that already
4253       exist at both institutions and for which there are detailed, standards-based
4254       competencies already developed).
4255    5. Conduct staff development on articulation for involved faculty at all institutions,
4256       if necessary.

4257   Review of course content. Once a clear set of policies and procedures have been
4258   created and the key stakeholders are committed to the articulation goals, course
4259   content is reviewed. Middle and high schools now share common standards for
4260   CTE instruction, but community colleges and other postsecondary schools may be
4261   working from industry standards that will need to be cross-referenced with the
4262   California CTE Model Curriculum Standards. Some industry sectors have created
4263   these cross-references independently. The process, then, is to:

4264    1. Identify the specific courses within the programs to be articulated.
4265    2. Identify the standards taught in those courses. For courses that do not use
4266       California’s CTE standards, cross-references will need to be developed or
4267       identified between the standards being used by different instructors or
4268       institutions.

4269   Determination of advanced credit. Courses may be aligned to provide advanced
4270   placement or regular course credit. Advanced placement allows students who have
4271   completed a course at one level to have a similar course waived at the next level.
4272   For example, a student who has completed Introduction to Health Science at the
4273   middle school level would be allowed to skip the equivalent course at the high
4274   school and move directly into appropriate concentration courses; however, no high
4275   school credit would be awarded for completion of the introductory course. Dual
4276   credit provides students with credit both at the institution providing the course
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4277   instruction and at the second institution. For example, a student who completes
4278   Welding I or Equine Science at the community college might receive both college
4279   and high school credit for the course.

4280   Once the type of advanced credit is identified, the articulation team must:

4281    1. Identify the standards taught in the courses.
4282    2. Identify the means used to evaluate student mastery of the standards.
4283    3. Revise curricula so that both levels have identical, similar, or overlapping
4284       standards and requirements, depending on the type of credit desired.

4285   Formalizing the decision. Once the courses have been aligned to the satisfaction of
4286   the articulation team, a formal agreement should be written, including the criteria for
4287   articulation credit (e.g., post-graduation time limits, acceptable achievement levels).
4288   The agreement should then be reviewed, approved, and signed by the relevant
4289   personnel or governing boards at each of the participating institutions, with copies
4290   provided to all participants, such as site administrators, school-level CTE advisory
4291   councils, or ROCPs.

4292   Review and revision. Articulation agreements are ongoing and should be regularly
4293   reviewed. Because it can be difficult to sustain the regular collaboration and contact
4294   required to schedule and conduct such reviews, one person on the articulation
4295   team should be designated to manage this aspect of the process and carry out
4296   these responsibilities which may include:

4297    1. Public relations and communications. Let counselors, teachers, faculty,
4298       parents, students, and employers know about the articulation agreement
4299       through mailings, meetings, informational materials, advertising, and local
4300       press releases.
4301    2. Data collection. Develop and implement ways to track program success,
4302       specifically to determine how student performance, satisfaction, and enrollment
4303       patterns are changing for the articulated courses. If other, similar programs are
4304       not yet articulated, they may serve as a control group for this data; otherwise,
4305       historical performance or enrollment data can be used to show change over
4306       time.
4307    3. Review. The data on program success and the articulation agreement itself
4308       should be reviewed by the articulation team at least annually; this review
4309       should be initiated and managed by the designated coordinator.
4310    4. Revision. The articulation agreement should be revised as necessary based on
4311       the annual review by the articulation team and the revised document submitted
4312       for approval and information as appropriate.

4313   Where these steps are followed, course articulation will remain strong, relevant,
4314   accurate, and dynamic.
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4315   Articulation strategies by level. Strategies for effective articulation vary somewhat
4316   by educational level and by district configuration.

4317   Elementary and middle school alignment. CTE is, perhaps, the truest form of
4318   lifelong learning; from elementary school through formal training and multiple work
4319   sites, Americans are constantly developing and improving the knowledge and skills
4320   needed for success. Students have their first opportunities to explore careers in
4321   elementary school, through classroom speakers, projects, field trips, and other
4322   organized activities.

4323   Middle and high school articulation. In middle school, many students engage in
4324   career exploration through such activities as completing career interest and
4325   aptitude tests, participating in job shadowing, or writing ―I Search‖ papers about a
4326   career. They may also take exploratory or foundation courses to prepare for high
4327   school CTE. Where middle school CTE efforts have been articulated with high
4328   school programs, students can begin cohesive, age-appropriate career preparation
4329   programs as early as the sixth or seventh grade.

4330   CTE high school programs that are articulated with middle school programs are
4331   highly advantageous for three reasons. First, high schools have a built-in feeder
4332   system, so that recruitment is an easier task. If the middle school is using a
4333   ―sampler‖ or ―wheel‖ approach to CTE, arts, and foreign languages, then all
4334   students have been exposed to some level of CTE programming and are thus more
4335   aware of what they can continue with in high school.

4336   Second, high school programs that have the benefit of rigorous introductory
4337   courses offered at the middle school level can decrease the number of introductory
4338   sections and use their resources to expand concentration and capstone/advanced
4339   coursework. This is analogous to the math department finding the need for fewer
4340   Algebra I sections, as this course is increasingly being taught at the eighth grade
4341   level.

4342   Third, the educational theory behind the middle school exploration approach is to
4343   allow students to try out or sample work in a particular industry. Thus students
4344   might try several different pathways and choose the one they like best to pursue at
4345   the high school level—or they may use their middle school experience to determine
4346   that they are not interested in any of the sectors or pathways they tried. Either way,
4347   they will enter high school more focused than students who have had no middle
4348   school experience and therefore will have a better chance to complete an entire
4349   CTE program—and possibly even a college course or two in Tech-Prep—during
4350   their high school years.

4351   High school to postsecondary training/education alignment. The most common
4352   alignment of high school and postsecondary curricula is through Tech Prep 2+2
4353   programming. Tech-Prep programs with integrated and articulated curricular
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4354   pathways result in well prepared high school students earning advanced technical
4355   degrees and certification at the community college. These pathways are
4356   academically rigorous and provide students with not only the fundamental skills
4357   required for postsecondary admission, but also the technical skills that will enable
4358   them to have successful careers in California’s new, highly technical economy.

4359   California’s Tech-Prep delivery system has a state administration/leadership
4360   component as well as the Tech-Prep local consortia. Both focus on emerging and
4361   high-demand technical careers to ensure:

4362   • Linkage of programs with the local, state and regional economies
4363   • Collaboration and systematic articulation of programs among high schools and
4364     community colleges
4365   • Development of comprehensive strategies among multiple state and federal
4366     programs to encourage joint planning and avoid unnecessary duplication of
4367     service delivery
4368   • Funding and programmatic decisions directed toward industry priorities
4369   • Focus on accountability and an infrastructure for monitoring effectiveness
4370   • Capacity for researching and identifying effective programs and practices linked
4371     to CTE foundation and pathway standards

4372   P-16 councils. The California P-16 Council is being increasingly replicated at
4373   district and regional levels statewide. The tremendous advantage of the P-16
4374   Council is its ability to hold the ―big picture‖ of local educational needs and
4375   strengths. Using this advantage, a local P-16 Council can help muster backing for
4376   community-wide educational initiatives and the funding to support those initiatives.

4377   Industry/certification alignment. CTE coursework must also be aligned with
4378   industry or public certification required for entry into and promotion within a
4379   pathway. For most certification, students must be eighteen, but for some, such as
4380   Microsoft Office Systems certification, students can be any age. CTE instructors
4381   must know certification or industry requirements in their field, as well as the
4382   requirements for apprenticeships, where appropriate. The California Department of
4383   Education provides support for instructors in apprenticeship and pre-
4384   apprenticeships; see http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/ap.

4385   Strongly aligned programs ensure that students have a carefully constructed
4386   scaffold to use to reach greater heights, in which each course builds on and
4387   reinforces the ones before it. While the process of developing the alignment can be
4388   frustrating, the results are rewarding for administrators, teachers, and students
4389   alike as they combine the separate strengths of multiple schools, instructors, and
4390   courses to support student success.
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4391   Conclusion

4392   Partnerships have always been an important part of CTE, and they have never
4393   been more essential than now, as education strives to meet the needs of the
4394   twenty-first century workplace. Many partners continue to serve key traditional
4395   roles, such as sponsoring apprenticeship programs, serving on advisory
4396   committees, or providing professional development support. Some partners are
4397   placing new emphasis on traditional roles, such as the focus on articulation in CTE
4398   course work between middle and high schools. Still other partners are taking on
4399   relatively new roles, including workforce investment boards that are funding
4400   internships and community colleges that are providing dual credit CTE and CTE-
4401   related course work. These extensive and diverse partnerships are resulting in
4402   more rigorous CTE programs, course work that is better aligned to industry needs
4403   and better articulated with previous and future opportunities, and an invigorated
4404   CTE presence throughout the state.

       1
        California Department of Education, ―School Accountability Report Card (SARC)‖.
       http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/sa.
       2
        Clifton L. Smith, Edee G. Payne, and Grace M. Thornton, ―Standards and Guidelines for Work-
       Based Learning Programs in Georgia,‖ 2001.
       http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/_documents/curriculum/edtech/wbl_manual.pdf
       3
        Nancy M. Gonzenbach, B.A. Morgan, and J.L. Sheets, ―The Forgotten Resource for Education—
       Advisory Councils‖. ATEA Journal, Vol. 24 (April–May 1997), 9–12.
       4
        California Department of Education, ―Career and Technical Education Advisory Committees‖.
       http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/fa/sf/vocsources.asp.
       5
        Educational Services, Colorado Community College System, ―A Guide to the Operation of Career
       and Technical Education Advisory Committees‖. Revised. October 2003.
       http://www.cccs.edu/Docs/CTE/AdvisoryCommitteeGuide_10-03.pdf; Sandra Kerka, ―Effective
       Advisory Committees,‖ 2002. http://www.nccte.org/publications/infosynthesis/in-brief/in-
       brief17/index.asp.
       6
        Fact Book 2003: Handbook of Education Information. Sacramento: California Department of
       Education, 2003.
       7
        Fact Book 2006: Handbook of Education Information. Sacramento: California Department of
       Education, 2006.
       8
         California Department of Education, Report on Apprenticeship Related and Supplemental
       Instruction Programs. 2004–2005. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2006.
       9
        School-to-Career/Apprenticeship Ad Hoc Committee of the California Apprenticeship Council,
       ―Orientation to Apprenticeship: A Guide for Educators‖. January 2001.
       http://www.dir.ca.gov/DAS/apprenticeship.pdf.

				
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