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3728 Chapter 4: Community Involvement and Collaboration
3729 Local stakeholders play important roles in the creation and maintenance of a
3730 rigorous, thriving CTE program. They are represented and involved in decision
3731 making through advisory groups, councils, curriculum and articulation committees,
3732 and other boards; participate in career technical student organizations (CTSOs)
3733 and CTE ―booster clubs‖; receive invitations to CTE-related events; and generally
3734 participate across the spectrum of CTE activities. This chapter addresses some
3735 ways that educational and community partners can be directly involved in the
3736 decision making, operation, and evaluation/improvement of CTE programs.
3737 The Role of Educational Partners
3738 Partnerships are essential to CTE. They speak to the very core of learning by doing
3739 and work-based learning. CTE thrives when educational, community, and
3740 business/industry partnerships help districts, and sites provide comprehensive
3741 professional development, work-based learning, and career guidance activities.
3742 County offices of education, districts, administrators, counselors, teachers, and
3743 technical support personnel are essential to CTE program success, as are families
3744 and students. Partnerships with postsecondary education, workforce investment
3745 boards, youth councils, apprenticeship programs, ROCPs, local businesses and
3746 industry, adult education programs, WorkAbility programs, and military programs
3747 can also enrich, enhance, and provide relevant context and content for vibrant CTE
3749 School districts. Districts hold responsibility for coordination and administration of
3750 CTE by creating policies that support the statewide goals and standards, national
3751 laws and directives, and local business and industry needs. They also provide
3752 information, resources, and assistance to individual schools.
3753 In medium and large school districts, school boards and administrators view CTE
3754 from the ―big picture,‖ using the various high school sites to provide a
3755 comprehensive CTE program for the district as a whole. Thus districts may choose
3756 to establish industry sector magnet schools, place career academies at specific
3757 sites, or locate CTE concentration areas at different schools.
3758 Working with the schools, districts set program goals and outcomes, coordinate
3759 and monitor school compliance, and evaluate and analyze the results of CTE
3760 programs. They report these results to schools, parents, the state government, and
3761 other involved or interested parties. Exercising their comprehensive oversight,
3762 districts also resolve disagreements between sites about CTE policies,
3763 requirements, course distribution, and other issues.
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3764 Another key role of districts is resource allocation and generation, as discussed in
3765 Chapter 3. Some districts have also developed excellent relationships with local
3766 business/industry, providing multiple valuable resources. These resources must be
3767 carefully allocated to the sites to generate a comprehensive districtwide CTE
3768 program and equitable opportunity for students at each site.
3769 Schools and site administrators. As direct providers of CTE, schools are
3770 responsible for implementation, administration, and monitoring. They implement
3771 district policies and transform them into local programs through the Single Site Plan
3772 and/or other planning documents. Schools are responsible for providing structure
3773 and support for CTE programs/classes and staff.
3774 At the local level, schools monitor teacher and department compliance and
3775 evaluate outcomes; they then report this information to a wide audience through the
3776 annual School Accountability Report Card (SARC) required by California Education
3777 Code Section 33126(b)(14). The SARC provides enrollment, concentration, and
3778 completion data on all CTE programs and classes, including academic and skills
3779 achievement and the following information:
3780 1. Programs and classes offered by the school that are specifically focused on
3781 career preparation and/or preparation for work
3782 2. How these programs and classes are integrated with academic courses and
3783 how they support academic achievement (e.g., courses that have been revised
3784 to incorporate CTE foundation standards, courses that satisfy the district’s
3785 graduation requirements, courses that satisfy the ―a–g‖ entrance requirements
3786 for UC/CSU)
3787 3. How the school addresses the needs of all students in career preparation
3788 and/or preparation for work, including needs unique to defined special
3789 populations of students (e.g., steps to ensure equitable access, counseling and
3790 guidance, professional development, additional support services, coordination
3791 with youth development and economic development organizations)
3792 4. Measurable outcomes for these programs and classes, and how they are
3793 evaluated for effectiveness in attaining those outcomes (e.g., mastery of
3794 ―employment readiness standards; results of career technical skills
3795 assessments; business, labor, and other community stakeholder support;
3796 participation in CTSOs; and placement of program completers in employment,
3797 postsecondary education, or the military‖).1
3798 Adequate financing for CTE is also controlled to a considerable extent at the site
3799 level. Frequently local business/industry generates resources for specific school’s
3800 CTE programs. For example, in the agriculture sector, the Kingsburg Ag Booster
3801 Club provided funding and labor to rebuild the school farm. At Santa Ynez Valley
3802 High, a local auto dealer split a three-year lease on a pickup truck with the
3803 agriculture department. West Valley and Anderson High Schools have grant
3804 resources from the McConnell Foundation in the northern Sacramento Valley to
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3805 provide school farms and equipment. In addition, agriculture booster clubs
3806 throughout the state raise funds for student leadership activities, equipment, and
3808 Depending on the district, site administrators and faculty often also have a great
3809 deal of flexibility in creating a CTE structure that works best for their population.
3810 This might include instituting career pathways, career academies, Tech-Prep
3811 programs, or similar structural elements. Schools may, with the permission of the
3812 district, apply for funding to support their design, such as state grants for California
3813 Partnership Academies or federal funding for Smaller Learning Communities, which
3814 includes a career pathway and academy program.
3815 Counselors. The role of guidance counselors is key to the success of CTE
3816 programs. Chapter 3 addresses this role and ways in which CTE faculty can assist
3817 counselors to encourage all students to participate in CTE for successful transition
3818 into the workforce and postsecondary training and education.
3819 Teachers. Teachers provide CTE classroom and lab instruction and work-based
3820 learning oversight based on the policies and curriculum of the school and district.
3821 As the direct providers of front-line instruction, teachers master subject-area
3822 content, educational theory and practice, and CTE standards. Through pre-service
3823 and ongoing professional development, they also build skills to effectively
3824 communicate that knowledge to students.
3825 Teachers plan and organize instruction to ensure that all students master the
3826 material and meet the chosen CTE pathway and foundation standards for each
3827 course. They set clear, challenging goals for their students and create short-, mid-,
3828 and long-range plans that address student needs. These goals and plans reflect
3829 school and district CTE policies, goals, and targets, and align with California CTE
3830 pathway and foundation standards. Teachers regularly communicate their
3831 instructional goals and plans to their students, including an evaluation of what the
3832 students are achieving compared to these targets.
3833 This evaluation of achievement compared to target is inherent in standards-based
3834 instruction. Teachers provide their students with frequent, regular one-on-one and
3835 classroom-level assessment and feedback of their progress in mastering the key
3836 CTE foundation and pathway standards. They communicate the results of these
3837 evaluations to students, their families, and the school. These assessments also
3838 provide feedback for the teacher, becoming the basis for modification of the
3839 instructional plan and an ongoing source of professional feedback on instructional
3840 methodology. Using the results of these standards-based assessments, teachers
3841 pinpoint students in need of learning support and offer the necessary resources, as
3842 discussed in Chapter 2.
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3843 To enhance and reinforce learning and motivation, teachers should make use of all
3844 available resources; in particular, instructional plans should incorporate technology
3845 and multimedia, libraries and library science, and local business and industry
3846 resources wherever possible. CTE teachers also have a particular role in the
3847 interface between local business and industry resources and the student’s school
3848 experience through the various forms of work experience (e.g., internship,
3849 community classroom, extended job shadowing, formal work experience, etc.) and
3850 through Career-Technical Student Organizations such as FFA, FHA-HERO, DECA,
3851 SkillsUSA, HOSA, FBLA, and TSA (as discussed in Chapter 1).
3852 Teachers are responsible for the education of all students and the creation of an
3853 effective environment for learning. To achieve this, they respect and foster diversity
3854 and actively create equity in their classrooms, taking a primary role in encouraging
3855 all students to maximize their potential.
3856 Perhaps most important, teachers are responsible for improving the education of
3857 today’s youth and the future of CTE for tomorrow. CTE teachers work with the high
3858 school faculty as a whole, often leading school improvement efforts such as
3859 Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) accreditation activities and
3860 the development of teaching partnerships and assessment models to improve
3861 education and student outcomes at the school, district, and state level.
3862 Technical support personnel. Technical support personnel provide valuable
3863 services to CTE programs and personnel. Career center technicians operate career
3864 centers in many high schools, providing a focal point for career awareness and
3865 exploration activities and may also support tenth grade counseling activities (see
3866 Chapter 5).
3867 Internship coordinators are most often found at magnet or charter schools that have
3868 a CTE focus or at high schools which offer internships through various academies
3869 or career pathways. Internship coordinators help students find potential internship
3870 placements and prep them for interviews, network with local businesses, make
3871 appropriate matches, train business supervisors, train students in job basics, and
3872 monitor and troubleshoot the internship. They also serve as very visible
3873 ambassadors for CTE programs in the community. CTE teachers frequently serve
3874 as internship coordinators for their course students when there is no formal support
3876 Computer technology and network administrators maintain the infrastructure for
3877 those CTE courses dependent on computer technology. In many schools, this is a
3878 full-time job, and in CTE-focused magnet or charter schools, it is not unusual to find
3879 a ratio of one computer technician to every two hundred students when each
3880 student has a computer and the entire school is networked. For other schools, this
3881 ratio is simply a dream, and the CTE teacher may be the sole technology support
3882 for the school.
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3883 Work experience coordinators provide technical support for students in general
3884 work experience education and may assist teachers or other staff in supporting
3885 other work experience students. Coordinators are usually teachers, as the law
3886 requires instructional support for work experience students. However, some larger
3887 districts maintain both coordinators (who are often classified staff) and supervising
3888 teachers in their work experience programs. Coordinators are charged with
3889 ensuring that appropriate contracts and learning plans are executed, workers’
3890 compensation is in place as required by the program, permits are legally applied for
3891 and maintained, and student attendance at the instructional workshops/seminars is
3893 Parents, guardians, and families. Parents, guardians, and families provide
3894 educational support to and advocacy for their youth enrolled in CTE coursework.
3895 They evaluate the needs of their students, communicate this information to
3896 teachers and the school, and work with teachers to ensure individual’s needs are
3897 met. They also monitor the progress and process of their young adult’s work,
3898 supporting, motivating, and encouraging them.
3899 To perform these critical functions, families must have the contact information on
3900 CTE teachers and school administrators. This information can easily be provided in
3901 an introductory letter that explains the course content, the standards-based
3902 approach, the type of assessments students will complete, what families can do to
3903 help their students be successful, and how to contact the instructor, the department
3904 chair, the appropriate counselor, the Career Center, and the principal. Schools
3905 sometimes mail the letter home, with translations for non-English-speaking parents.
3906 Parents and families respond productively and appropriately to the information they
3907 receive and work with teachers and the school to provide positive support.
3908 Finally, parents, guardians, and families show their commitment to and investment
3909 in education by working to improve and support the CTE classroom and career-
3910 related student organizations through groups such as Booster Clubs and Parent-
3911 Teacher-Student Associations. It may be helpful in developing leadership to have
3912 students request that support directly. For example, parents may be directly
3913 contacted by the officers of a Career and Technical Student Organization (CTSO)
3914 to run food booths for an upcoming competition they are hosting in the region.
3915 Students. Students’ role in their CTE program consists of taking responsibility,
3916 making an effort, and demonstrating respect. With assistance from the CTE
3917 instructor, students can identify and develop short-range, mid-range, and long-
3918 range goals in their career pathway. They can then plan the courses they will take
3919 and the on-the-job training they will complete to reach those goals.
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3920 Students then work to complete the plan and meet their goals by:
3921 1. Contributing the effort, time, interest, and energy necessary to learn. This buy-
3922 in is required for success in any educational venture but particularly in CTE
3923 where hands-on work mandates understanding of and attention to detail (CTE
3924 Foundation Standard 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).
3925 2. Monitoring their progress toward their goals. Monitoring can take place in the
3926 CTE classroom, in an advisory structure, or in regular meetings with the
3927 counselor. Some schools have student-led conferences in which the students
3928 review their work with their parents and update them on their progress in
3929 relation to their plan (CTE Foundation Standard 5.0, Problem Solving and
3930 Critical Thinking).
3931 3. Soliciting and responding appropriately to feedback from teachers, mentors,
3932 peers, their families, and work supervisors. Again, this strategy works best if
3933 structured by the CTE teacher. Students must be taught how to solicit
3934 feedback on their work and progress and how to respond appropriately to both
3935 positive and negative feedback. This can be accomplished in the classroom
3936 through the peer review structure, in student organizations, through student-led
3937 conferences, and in training for internships, work experience, apprenticeships,
3938 or other work-based experiences (CTE Foundation Standard 5.0, Problem
3939 Solving and Critical Thinking).
3940 4. Modifying or improving their habits and learning behaviors for success.
3941 Students need structure to accomplish this goal, and this can be provided in
3942 the CTE classroom by focusing on learning behaviors and attitudes that are
3943 most successful (CTE Foundation Standards 5.0, Problem Solving and Critical
3944 Thinking; and 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).
3945 5. Improving their educational experience by seeking and mastering new
3946 challenges, expanding their abilities, and adding skills and knowledge to their
3947 learning portfolio. Creating short-, medium-, and long-range plans helps
3948 students see the value of taking on rigorous challenges that will expand their
3949 skills and knowledge. The CTE structure will help them be successful in their
3950 efforts (CTE Foundation Standards 3.0, Career Planning and Management;
3951 and 7.0, Responsibility and Flexibility).
3952 Students also need to develop leadership skills, and CTSOs provide an excellent
3953 venue for this purpose. CTSOs are designated as intra-curricular by the U.S.
3954 Department of Education due to their importance in delivering key skills for career
3955 success. They are often the only opportunity a student has to travel outside the
3956 local area, meet and make friends from all over the nation, visit colleges, make
3957 connections with business leaders throughout the state, hone and practice
3958 interpersonal skills, and participate in the legislative process.
3959 Advisory committees. Advisory committees are usually groups of employers and
3960 community representatives who advise the school on the design, development,
3961 operation, evaluation, and adjustment of CTE programs.2 This external influence
Page 119 of 489
3962 ensures that CTE courses meet current and future workforce needs. Advisory
3963 committees are indispensable to maintaining state-of-the-art, community-linked
3964 curricula, but only if they function optimally in reality and don’t just exist on paper.3
3965 When educators maximize the group’s potential, advisory committees are advisory
3966 in the best sense of the term: they offer their expertise and assistance but do not
3967 have administrative authority.
3968 Composition and meetings of advisory committees. In California, certain CTE
3969 advisory committees are required by law or institutionalized by practice. While
3970 these separate mandates sometimes specify all or part of the group’s composition,
3971 it is generally accepted as good practice to include members from business and
3972 industry, education, parents, students, state employment and workforce agencies,
3973 public and private agencies, and the community. The most common CTE advisory
3974 committees are those required by the Education Code, specifically:
3975 1. Regional Career Guidance Centers: A local advisory committee is composed
3976 of 11 members, at least seven of whom are from business, industry, labor, and
3977 the general public.
3978 2. ROCP: Subject area advisory committees determine courses appropriate for
3979 Regional Occupational Centers or Programs and provide advice.
3980 3. Unified school districts and union high school districts with a CTE Program: A
3981 career technical education advisory committee develops recommendations on
3982 the program and provides a liaison between the district and potential
3984 4. Unified school districts and union high school districts with a Partnership
3985 Academy: An advisory committee consists of those involved in academy
3986 operations, including school district and school administrators, lead teachers,
3987 and private sector representatives.
3988 5. Unified school districts and union high school districts, ROCPs, or county
3989 offices of education receiving Carl D. Perkins funding: Advisory groups meet
3990 required involvement of parents, students, teachers, representatives of
3991 business/industry and labor, representatives of special populations, and others
3992 involved in Perkins-funded CTE programs.4
3993 Purpose of advisory committees. An effective advisory committee develops and
3994 implements an annual plan of action that reflects long-term and short-term
3995 objectives. The most effective groups provide a wide variety of support to CTE
3996 programs, including:
3997 1. Curriculum development, assisting programs to:
3998 • Analyze course content, materials, and sequence to establish performance
3999 benchmarks and align them to competencies and tasks.
4000 • Identify and expand the use of new technologies.
4001 • Assist in developing and validating performance tasks and other tests.
4002 • Advise on labor market trends.
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4003 • Recommend safety policies and procedures.
4004 2. Program evaluation, helping programs by:
4005 • Reviewing goals and objectives in relation to outcomes
4006 • Comparing student performance standards to business and industry
4008 • Evaluating facilities, equipment, and technology to recommend upgrades
4009 • Recommending initiation of new programs or elimination of obsolete
4011 3. Community/public relations, assisting programs by:
4012 • Cooperatively creating a marketing plan
4013 • Recognizing outstanding students, teachers, and community leaders
4014 • Generating effective media coverage
4015 • Presenting programs to community groups
4016 4. Recruitment and job placement, helping CTE programs by:
4017 • Recruiting potential students
4018 • Identifying job openings
4019 • Placing students in cooperative work experience, internships, or other work-
4020 based learning opportunities
4021 • Hiring graduates
4022 5. Student organizations, supporting programs by:
4023 • Sponsoring student organization activities and assisting in fund-raising
4024 • Assisting in developing and judging competitive skill events
4025 • Establishing scholarships and awards
4026 • Implementing leadership development activities
4027 6. Professional development, augmenting school efforts by teacher recruitment
4029 • Reviewing teacher selection criteria and recruiting potential staff
4030 • Providing in-service activities for instructors
4031 • Offering teachers internships or externships and summer opportunities for
4032 skill upgrades
4033 • Encouraging personal initiatives
4034 • Reviewing professional development plans
4035 • Financially supporting teachers’ attendance at professional meetings and
4037 7. Resources, augmenting programs by:
4038 • Providing financial support, equipment and materials, tours and field trips,
4039 job shadowing opportunities, and classroom speakers
4040 • Assisting in budget development and review
4041 • Brokering cost-saving arrangements with other businesses and industry
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4043 8. Legislation and advocacy, assisting specific programs and CTE in general by:
4044 • Staying current on state and federal legislation
4045 • Advocating for CTE programs
4046 • Arranging tours of programs
4047 • Involving policymakers in program events5
4048 County offices of education. California’s 58 county offices of education play a major
4049 role in supporting the delivery of CTE to the districts and schools in their areas.
4050 From coordination of ROCPs to provision of professional development and
4051 enrichment opportunities for teachers, county offices of education are important
4052 CTE resources for all schools and districts.
4053 The county link with ROCP allows for centralized development of a CTE program
4054 that is available to a large number of students and appropriate to the needs of the
4055 community. Particularly in areas with smaller schools, which might not be able to
4056 develop and maintain their own separate CTE programs, county-level ROCP
4057 programs are one of the driving influences in secondary CTE programs. For
4058 example, the Glenn County ROCP offers numerous popular CTE courses in
4059 agriculture, computer repair and maintenance, furniture and cabinet construction,
4060 health occupations, hospitality occupations, registered dental assisting, sports
4061 therapy and fitness technician, and virtual enterprise to over 1,400 high school and
4062 adult learners from five rural high school districts.
4063 Postsecondary education. Universities, colleges, community colleges, and technical
4064 training schools prepare CTE students for skill- and knowledge-intensive careers
4065 and offer credential preparation for CTE teachers. They also act as primary
4066 determinants of career advanced study prerequisites and qualifications by setting
4067 requirements for matriculation and graduation.
4068 Increasingly, community colleges are the public sector focal point for higher-level
4069 CTE. This role of the community college supports high schools that build a
4070 continuity of career pathways for students beginning with rigorous CTE courses in
4071 grades nine through twelve that deliver both foundation and pathway standards.
4072 These collaborative partnerships can result in highly articulated formal or informal
4073 programs leading to certification, an AA degree, and/or transfer to a four-year
4075 High schools with limited CTE resources can augment their programs with
4076 community college classes. A number of discretionary grants for postsecondary
4077 institutions require articulation with high schools, creating both an opportunity for
4078 additional funding and an incentive for partnerships. This should be considered in
4079 the development of the comprehensive CTE Plan.
4080 Workforce investment boards. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), implemented
4081 through local, broad-based workforce investment boards (WIBs), is the primary
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4082 federal source of job training funding in California6 and includes youth programs
4083 through WIA’s Title I. These programs are targeted to disadvantaged youth ages
4084 fourteen and older and include work preparation, education, and work-based
4085 learning experiences. Local One-Stop Career Centers link youths to the programs.
4086 Schools can work with One-Stop youth providers to implement work-based learning
4087 opportunities for most students with disabilities and most who are economically
4088 disadvantaged. For example, the One-Stop might provide support and funding for
4089 paid internships for economically disadvantaged students.
4090 Each WIB has a youth council which works with local elected officials, business
4091 leaders, unions, community-based organizations, foundations, and local
4092 educational agencies to promote youth workforce preparation. Youth councils also
4093 build leadership skills for council members. Statewide, youth councils support an
4094 approach called ―All Youth, One System‖ to address the interrelated academic,
4095 career, and developmental needs of young people.
4096 Apprenticeship programs. In California, apprenticeship programs prepare an
4097 individual for a career in skilled crafts and trades. Currently, there are more than
4098 800 apprenticeship careers in the United States, and more than 200 in California. 7
4099 The apprenticeship training system is unique in that its basic foundation is a
4100 partnership between industry, labor, education, and government. Business-,
4101 industry-, and union-driven, the apprenticeship training system provides an
4102 effective balance between on-the-job training and theoretical instruction.
4103 The California Department of Education supports related and supplementary
4104 instruction (RSI), the classroom aspect of an apprenticeship, in local adult
4105 education and ROCP agencies for over 200 apprenticeship programs, enrolling
4106 more than 30,000 registered apprentices, 43 percent of the more than 69,000
4107 registered apprenticeships in California.8 Programs are developed and conducted
4108 by individual employers, employer committees, or a jointly sponsored labor and
4109 management associations. Apprenticeship programs guarantee fair selection,
4110 employment, and training of apprentices. Sponsor employers evaluate work site
4111 conditions, identify skilled workers to serve as trainers, and schedule a rotation of
4112 training. Local ROCPs and adult schools provide the RSI and contract with program
4114 Apprenticeship programs typically span a period of three to five years. Registered
4115 apprentices attend a minimum of 144 hours of RSI directly related to on-the-job
4116 experiences. When an apprentice has completed an entire program of on-the-job
4117 training and RSI, the sponsor recommends that the State Division of
4118 Apprenticeship Standards issue a Certificate of Completion of Apprenticeship. With
4119 a Certificate of Completion, an apprentice is granted journeyman status.9
4120 Adult education. Adult education programs offered through school districts can
4121 provide high school students who are short of meeting graduation requirements
Page 123 of 489
4122 with additional opportunities to earn course credit in academics and CTE and
4123 prepare for the CAHSEE or GED. Some adult schools also offer college credit
4124 options in completion of diploma requirements. Typically, adult education classes
4125 are held during the normal school day, in the late afternoon or evening, and often
4126 on Saturdays; some courses may be available online.
4127 The Role of Community Partners
4128 Community partners are a great source of help for CTE programs.
4129 Business and industry. As the current and future employers of CTE graduates,
4130 business and industry are substantial stakeholders in the CTE process. To ensure
4131 their future workforce, businesses collaborate with CTE instructors at the site or
4132 district level to create a formal or informal strategic plan, much like those developed
4133 for ROCP. They begin this process by evaluating and identifying:
4134 1. Actual numbers of CTE graduates and rates of graduation at both the high
4135 school and community college levels
4136 2. Current industry needs for trained employees, by industry sector area
4137 3. Projected future employment needs, including staffing levels and specific areas
4138 of knowledge and skills
4139 4. Methods to close the gap between projected needs and supply sources
4140 5. Resources needed to address the gap.
4141 This fundamental planning forms the basis for business-education partnerships. By
4142 partnering with individual schools or districts, businesses can influence the
4143 development of industry-appropriate CTE educational goals. The partnership plan
4144 includes work with teachers, schools, and districts to create innovative and effective
4145 strategies to ensure future business and industry needs are met. As a part of the
4146 partnership, local businesses may provide student benefits and incentives,
4147 educational and professional opportunities, and financial support.
4148 Business and industry also actively participate in CTE through involvement in many
4149 strategies discussed earlier, including work-based learning agreements, teacher
4150 externship programs, participation on various planning councils and panels related
4151 to CTE, and a variety of other involvements. While many business/industry leaders
4152 are eager to be involved, it is important that educators actively welcome them into
4153 the CTE community to forge strong and lasting relationships.
4154 Labor. Unions and other organized labor groups contribute significantly to the
4155 success of CTE in California. As discussed above, unions play a key role in the
4156 state’s apprenticeship system. Labor representatives are also among the members
4157 of the workforce investment board, as required by legislation, and frequently serve
4158 on the associated Youth Councils.
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4159 However, like business/industry, labor’s major contribution to CTE for K–12 is
4160 through assistance in the development and implementation of the site or district
4161 CTE plan. Labor representatives are in a unique position to provide ideas for
4162 assessments that mimic the actual workplace. Labor representatives also can
4163 provide valuable support to struggling students through mentor and/or tutor
4164 programs. And they can support CTSOs by providing advice, resources, and time.
4165 Labor representatives have a significant role to play in reference to foundation
4166 standards that are common to all industry clusters, such as the following:
4167 3.4 Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry
4168 associations, and organized labor in a productive society.
4169 6.1 Know policies, procedures, and regulations regarding health and safety in
4170 the workplace, including employer and employee responsibilities.
4171 7.3 Understand the need to adapt to varied roles and responsibilities.
4172 Community organizations. Community organizations have a history of supporting
4173 CTE, including:
4174 1. Libraries, nonprofit organizations, and city/county programs that provide
4175 education support, including access to specialty information and education-
4176 related services
4177 2. Professional and trade organizations, including associations and interest
4178 groups, that provide access to current professionals in the field, up-to-date
4179 content information, and feedback on the appropriateness and applicability of
4180 CTE course offerings
4181 3. Alumni organizations for school or CTSO members which provide learning
4182 support and networking for students, including access to professional and peer
4184 4. Social and health services organizations that offer support to students
4185 struggling with problems that are affecting their academic and CTE
4186 performance (Because of the mentoring role taken on by many CTE
4187 instructors, it is helpful to build relationships with these organizations for
4188 referrals of students in need.)
4189 Youth development organizations. Other potential CTE partners are youth
4190 development organizations, such as the YMCA, YWCA, Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs, and
4191 4-H. For those industries that do not have established CTSOs, these organizations
4192 can provide the student venue for building leadership skills, honing CTE skills
4193 through competition, or sharing CTE skills with peers or younger children.
4194 Government. The role of government in CTE is one of policymaking and, in some
4195 cases, financial support. Federal and state governments create education policies
4196 and directives that guide education through legislation, funding initiatives, and
4197 programs such as the national Carl D. Perkins Act or statewide initiatives. In
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4198 addition, federal and state governments set general policies that affect employment
4199 and economic conditions, which in turn affect the entire workforce, including
4201 Local governments may highlight or emphasize certain aspects of CTE through
4202 directed funding programs and population- and locality-specific policies. In addition,
4203 these governments can act in response to expressed needs within their
4204 constituencies, including those of area businesses and industries. Local
4205 governments are particularly involved with job training initiatives that include a
4206 variety of training opportunities for high school students, such as those overseen by
4207 the workforce investment boards.
4208 Military. The military offers extensive postsecondary job training and education
4209 programs packaged with military service. Military branches have access to high
4210 school students’ personal contact information (unless parents request otherwise)
4211 through the No Child Left Behind Act. Thus most students will be contacted at
4212 home as well as at school, and recruiters will provide full information on offerings.
4213 The military’s free ASVAB Career Exploration Program is intended for students in
4214 the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades, as well as students in postsecondary
4215 programs. ASVAB provides tools, including the test battery and interest inventory,
4216 developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to help high school and
4217 postsecondary students learn more about career exploration and planning. Results
4218 of the aptitude test and the interest inventory enable students to evaluate their
4219 skills, estimate performance in academic and career endeavors, and identify
4220 potentially satisfying careers. These results are integrated with work values to help
4221 students identify and prioritize possible career choices. Students are encouraged to
4222 consider their own work-related values and other important personal preferences
4223 as they explore the world of work and learn career exploration skills that reap
4224 lifelong benefits.
4225 Junior Reserve Officers Training Centers (JROTC) programs representing the
4226 various military branches operate on many high school campuses in California.
4227 JROTC programs are usually elective courses that may be taken each year (e.g.,
4228 JROTC Leadership Training I–IV). Typically, student cadets are introduced to CTE
4229 foundation standards and essential skills such as leadership, ethics, citizenship,
4230 techniques of communication, physical fitness, military readiness, and other
4231 subjects through a combination of classroom instruction and extracurricular
4232 activities. JROTC student cadets are under no obligation to join the military.
4233 Articulation and Alignment of Courses
4234 Articulation and course alignment are the backbone of effective, coherent CTE
4235 pathways. All districts face articulation issues at the high school-to-postsecondary
4236 transition point. Many have difficulties with middle-to-high school alignment within a
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4237 single district, and these problems are exacerbated for high school districts. To
4238 effectively articulate CTE courses, both parties must be satisfied that all courses
4239 are rigorous, adequately prepare students for the next step, and fulfill the
4240 requirements for the type of credit desired. To reach this state of agreement,
4241 schools may find the steps outlined below helpful.
4242 Development of an articulation team. The first step in successful articulation
4243 involves the formation of an articulation team, including key individuals from both
4244 institutions (instructors/faculty, administrators, counselors, etc.) For efficiency, one
4245 person should be designated to coordinate and monitor the articulation process.
4246 Before beginning to examine course content, the articulation team will need to:
4247 1. Establish goals to be achieved through articulation.
4248 2. Ensure buy-in from relevant administrators, faculty, and staff who are not
4249 directly involved in the articulation process.
4250 3. Develop or clarify existing policies and procedures for articulation, including a
4251 guidebook or other materials for counselors and instructors.
4252 4. Decide which programs are to be articulated (preferably programs that already
4253 exist at both institutions and for which there are detailed, standards-based
4254 competencies already developed).
4255 5. Conduct staff development on articulation for involved faculty at all institutions,
4256 if necessary.
4257 Review of course content. Once a clear set of policies and procedures have been
4258 created and the key stakeholders are committed to the articulation goals, course
4259 content is reviewed. Middle and high schools now share common standards for
4260 CTE instruction, but community colleges and other postsecondary schools may be
4261 working from industry standards that will need to be cross-referenced with the
4262 California CTE Model Curriculum Standards. Some industry sectors have created
4263 these cross-references independently. The process, then, is to:
4264 1. Identify the specific courses within the programs to be articulated.
4265 2. Identify the standards taught in those courses. For courses that do not use
4266 California’s CTE standards, cross-references will need to be developed or
4267 identified between the standards being used by different instructors or
4269 Determination of advanced credit. Courses may be aligned to provide advanced
4270 placement or regular course credit. Advanced placement allows students who have
4271 completed a course at one level to have a similar course waived at the next level.
4272 For example, a student who has completed Introduction to Health Science at the
4273 middle school level would be allowed to skip the equivalent course at the high
4274 school and move directly into appropriate concentration courses; however, no high
4275 school credit would be awarded for completion of the introductory course. Dual
4276 credit provides students with credit both at the institution providing the course
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4277 instruction and at the second institution. For example, a student who completes
4278 Welding I or Equine Science at the community college might receive both college
4279 and high school credit for the course.
4280 Once the type of advanced credit is identified, the articulation team must:
4281 1. Identify the standards taught in the courses.
4282 2. Identify the means used to evaluate student mastery of the standards.
4283 3. Revise curricula so that both levels have identical, similar, or overlapping
4284 standards and requirements, depending on the type of credit desired.
4285 Formalizing the decision. Once the courses have been aligned to the satisfaction of
4286 the articulation team, a formal agreement should be written, including the criteria for
4287 articulation credit (e.g., post-graduation time limits, acceptable achievement levels).
4288 The agreement should then be reviewed, approved, and signed by the relevant
4289 personnel or governing boards at each of the participating institutions, with copies
4290 provided to all participants, such as site administrators, school-level CTE advisory
4291 councils, or ROCPs.
4292 Review and revision. Articulation agreements are ongoing and should be regularly
4293 reviewed. Because it can be difficult to sustain the regular collaboration and contact
4294 required to schedule and conduct such reviews, one person on the articulation
4295 team should be designated to manage this aspect of the process and carry out
4296 these responsibilities which may include:
4297 1. Public relations and communications. Let counselors, teachers, faculty,
4298 parents, students, and employers know about the articulation agreement
4299 through mailings, meetings, informational materials, advertising, and local
4300 press releases.
4301 2. Data collection. Develop and implement ways to track program success,
4302 specifically to determine how student performance, satisfaction, and enrollment
4303 patterns are changing for the articulated courses. If other, similar programs are
4304 not yet articulated, they may serve as a control group for this data; otherwise,
4305 historical performance or enrollment data can be used to show change over
4307 3. Review. The data on program success and the articulation agreement itself
4308 should be reviewed by the articulation team at least annually; this review
4309 should be initiated and managed by the designated coordinator.
4310 4. Revision. The articulation agreement should be revised as necessary based on
4311 the annual review by the articulation team and the revised document submitted
4312 for approval and information as appropriate.
4313 Where these steps are followed, course articulation will remain strong, relevant,
4314 accurate, and dynamic.
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4315 Articulation strategies by level. Strategies for effective articulation vary somewhat
4316 by educational level and by district configuration.
4317 Elementary and middle school alignment. CTE is, perhaps, the truest form of
4318 lifelong learning; from elementary school through formal training and multiple work
4319 sites, Americans are constantly developing and improving the knowledge and skills
4320 needed for success. Students have their first opportunities to explore careers in
4321 elementary school, through classroom speakers, projects, field trips, and other
4322 organized activities.
4323 Middle and high school articulation. In middle school, many students engage in
4324 career exploration through such activities as completing career interest and
4325 aptitude tests, participating in job shadowing, or writing ―I Search‖ papers about a
4326 career. They may also take exploratory or foundation courses to prepare for high
4327 school CTE. Where middle school CTE efforts have been articulated with high
4328 school programs, students can begin cohesive, age-appropriate career preparation
4329 programs as early as the sixth or seventh grade.
4330 CTE high school programs that are articulated with middle school programs are
4331 highly advantageous for three reasons. First, high schools have a built-in feeder
4332 system, so that recruitment is an easier task. If the middle school is using a
4333 ―sampler‖ or ―wheel‖ approach to CTE, arts, and foreign languages, then all
4334 students have been exposed to some level of CTE programming and are thus more
4335 aware of what they can continue with in high school.
4336 Second, high school programs that have the benefit of rigorous introductory
4337 courses offered at the middle school level can decrease the number of introductory
4338 sections and use their resources to expand concentration and capstone/advanced
4339 coursework. This is analogous to the math department finding the need for fewer
4340 Algebra I sections, as this course is increasingly being taught at the eighth grade
4342 Third, the educational theory behind the middle school exploration approach is to
4343 allow students to try out or sample work in a particular industry. Thus students
4344 might try several different pathways and choose the one they like best to pursue at
4345 the high school level—or they may use their middle school experience to determine
4346 that they are not interested in any of the sectors or pathways they tried. Either way,
4347 they will enter high school more focused than students who have had no middle
4348 school experience and therefore will have a better chance to complete an entire
4349 CTE program—and possibly even a college course or two in Tech-Prep—during
4350 their high school years.
4351 High school to postsecondary training/education alignment. The most common
4352 alignment of high school and postsecondary curricula is through Tech Prep 2+2
4353 programming. Tech-Prep programs with integrated and articulated curricular
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4354 pathways result in well prepared high school students earning advanced technical
4355 degrees and certification at the community college. These pathways are
4356 academically rigorous and provide students with not only the fundamental skills
4357 required for postsecondary admission, but also the technical skills that will enable
4358 them to have successful careers in California’s new, highly technical economy.
4359 California’s Tech-Prep delivery system has a state administration/leadership
4360 component as well as the Tech-Prep local consortia. Both focus on emerging and
4361 high-demand technical careers to ensure:
4362 • Linkage of programs with the local, state and regional economies
4363 • Collaboration and systematic articulation of programs among high schools and
4364 community colleges
4365 • Development of comprehensive strategies among multiple state and federal
4366 programs to encourage joint planning and avoid unnecessary duplication of
4367 service delivery
4368 • Funding and programmatic decisions directed toward industry priorities
4369 • Focus on accountability and an infrastructure for monitoring effectiveness
4370 • Capacity for researching and identifying effective programs and practices linked
4371 to CTE foundation and pathway standards
4372 P-16 councils. The California P-16 Council is being increasingly replicated at
4373 district and regional levels statewide. The tremendous advantage of the P-16
4374 Council is its ability to hold the ―big picture‖ of local educational needs and
4375 strengths. Using this advantage, a local P-16 Council can help muster backing for
4376 community-wide educational initiatives and the funding to support those initiatives.
4377 Industry/certification alignment. CTE coursework must also be aligned with
4378 industry or public certification required for entry into and promotion within a
4379 pathway. For most certification, students must be eighteen, but for some, such as
4380 Microsoft Office Systems certification, students can be any age. CTE instructors
4381 must know certification or industry requirements in their field, as well as the
4382 requirements for apprenticeships, where appropriate. The California Department of
4383 Education provides support for instructors in apprenticeship and pre-
4384 apprenticeships; see http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/ap.
4385 Strongly aligned programs ensure that students have a carefully constructed
4386 scaffold to use to reach greater heights, in which each course builds on and
4387 reinforces the ones before it. While the process of developing the alignment can be
4388 frustrating, the results are rewarding for administrators, teachers, and students
4389 alike as they combine the separate strengths of multiple schools, instructors, and
4390 courses to support student success.
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4392 Partnerships have always been an important part of CTE, and they have never
4393 been more essential than now, as education strives to meet the needs of the
4394 twenty-first century workplace. Many partners continue to serve key traditional
4395 roles, such as sponsoring apprenticeship programs, serving on advisory
4396 committees, or providing professional development support. Some partners are
4397 placing new emphasis on traditional roles, such as the focus on articulation in CTE
4398 course work between middle and high schools. Still other partners are taking on
4399 relatively new roles, including workforce investment boards that are funding
4400 internships and community colleges that are providing dual credit CTE and CTE-
4401 related course work. These extensive and diverse partnerships are resulting in
4402 more rigorous CTE programs, course work that is better aligned to industry needs
4403 and better articulated with previous and future opportunities, and an invigorated
4404 CTE presence throughout the state.
California Department of Education, ―School Accountability Report Card (SARC)‖.
Clifton L. Smith, Edee G. Payne, and Grace M. Thornton, ―Standards and Guidelines for Work-
Based Learning Programs in Georgia,‖ 2001.
Nancy M. Gonzenbach, B.A. Morgan, and J.L. Sheets, ―The Forgotten Resource for Education—
Advisory Councils‖. ATEA Journal, Vol. 24 (April–May 1997), 9–12.
California Department of Education, ―Career and Technical Education Advisory Committees‖.
Educational Services, Colorado Community College System, ―A Guide to the Operation of Career
and Technical Education Advisory Committees‖. Revised. October 2003.
http://www.cccs.edu/Docs/CTE/AdvisoryCommitteeGuide_10-03.pdf; Sandra Kerka, ―Effective
Advisory Committees,‖ 2002. http://www.nccte.org/publications/infosynthesis/in-brief/in-
Fact Book 2003: Handbook of Education Information. Sacramento: California Department of
Fact Book 2006: Handbook of Education Information. Sacramento: California Department of
California Department of Education, Report on Apprenticeship Related and Supplemental
Instruction Programs. 2004–2005. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2006.
School-to-Career/Apprenticeship Ad Hoc Committee of the California Apprenticeship Council,
―Orientation to Apprenticeship: A Guide for Educators‖. January 2001.