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LEARNING AREA LANGUAGES FOCUS ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE GRADE AND ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE GRADE AND ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE GRADE AND ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE GRADE TEACHER’S GUIDE OVERVIEW: ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE GRADE 4 - 7 English is an exciting and creative learning area and the modules are designed to make English meaningful to the learners in a way that is interesting and fun. The element of humour is built into most of the modules. The English educator must be interested and enthusiastic about the subject - so as to enthuse the learners – and is advised to familiarise him/herself with the modules as a whole beforehand, so as to obtain an idea of what is expected (of the educator and the learner) and the concepts being covered. With the exception of Grade 4, the modules have been written in a logical order for purposes of progression and the educator is advised to follow the order of the modules, but not necessarily the order within the modules, unless otherwise stipulated. Here and there notes have been addressed to the educator in the module, giving specific information with regard to the work. It is very important that the learner experiences and participates actively in the lessons, and the educator is encouraged to adapt the work / content / lesson to his/her particular style and to the needs of the learners, keeping in mind the given criteria. The educator is expected to be selective and flexible in his/her approach, where necessary. Peer evaluation is important and encourages learners to analyse their own work critically, and the work of their peers. Impress upon the learners to check and proofread their written work so as to eradicate unnecessary errors. Allow peer evaluation with orals and reading exercises – even though it is not stipulated specifically in the modules. Checklists, rubrics and assessment scales indicate to both the learner and the educator what is expected and what is being evaluated. Instructions to the learners need to be specific. Rather state the obvious; this will prevent confusion. Sufficient time needs to be given to the learners when preparation is required for certain tasks. With regard to group work, the educator needs to set a limit to time given. Groupwork and brainstorming/mindmapping is an integral aspect of learning. Educators may allocate members to a group and learners may be assigned different roles within the group: e.g. Leader, Encourager, Recorder or Scribe, Reporter. The educator is advised to stipulate the size of groups, e.g. an oral presentation may only require two participants, in relation to a different oral exercise, requiring four participants. Educators are requested to encourage learners to read regularly. A good idea is to allow the learners to read once an activity or task has been completed and there is time to „spare‟ before the next activity or subject. Reading aloud, silent reading and listening skills, use of the dictionary and developing of an own vocabulary should be encouraged. Short book reviews may be presented orally in small groups once a week. Each learner should be encouraged to acquire a dictionary and should be encouraged to use it. Vocabulary and spelling words can be tested formally. Educators should feel free to add to the spelling and vocabulary exercises already in the modules. The following modules have been written in accordance with Curriculum 2005: Thanks, Grade 4 Grade 5 1. How do you do! 1. Wings 2. Please come inside 2. Full of Fun 3. Shopping and spending 3. Fuss about Food 4. The world of music 4. People with passion Grade 6 Grade 7 1. Cycle logic 1. Coats and codes 2. A zoo in the classroom 2. Cuddly kittens and crafty cats 3. What makes me me 3. Mean machines 4. Great balls of fire 4. Dreams 5. You‟re a spaceman 6. Idols and icons It is the wish of the authors that English Home Language is experienced as exciting, fun and well worth exploring! Regards, Benita Faiers and the EHL authors MEMORANDUM: GRADE 4 MODULE 1 HOW DO YOU DO INTRODUCTION: During the years that I have used modules in the classroom, I have learned a few tricks to avoid the pitfalls, often incurred when dealing with Grade Four learners. Use a file as your portfolio to store all complete as well as future work of a particular module. Punch the sheets for your learners. Hand out sheets from the last page to the first page so that learners can “pack” them on top of one another in the file. Ask learners to write their name on each page as they receive them to avoid nameless sheets when assessing. Do not staple the module together until it is complete. This way, learners can remove a particular page from the portfolio (file), work on it on class, transport it home in a plastic sleeve or flip-file to complete, hand it in for assessment and re-file it in the portfolio (file) complete and assessed. Routine is very important for the Grade Four learner so try to follow this pattern on a daily basis. As learners will only recently have been introduced to cursive writing, it is important to emphasize neatness, correct sizing and correct letter formation continuously. Grade Four Learners are expected to write cursive in 5mm Irish Lines. These lines have been provided wherever necessary in the module to aid the learners. ALLOW ME TO INTRODUCE MYSELF This exercise forms an introduction to the module and is not assessed by the educator. Learners prepare information to share with one another in small groups. This is to help them gain confidence in speaking in their additional language. Before allowing learners to start working, discuss the CHECKLIST at the end of the exercise. The checklist is a guide for the learner to ensure that they are aware of what the expectations are. Activity 1 A birthday calendar In this activity, learners will have to communicate in order to plan and present a birthday calendar for the class. They will also have a calendar in their portfolio for assessment purposes. Create workstations in the class by making labels with the different months of the year written on them. A workstation is an area of floor-space or ideally a table where learners can work in a group. Ask learners to group themselves according to the month in which they were born. Provide a sheet of paper (manila cardboard if you prefer) for the class poster. Discuss the checklist before learners begin the task. Discuss the criteria in the assessment rubric before learners begin their calendar for their portfolio. Activity 2 Writing an address Learners begin this exercise by discussing the importance of having an address and knowing their own address. Possible answers to questions: We need to know our address in case someone must take us home; we are lost; we want to invite a friend to our house; to put on the back of mail in case it gets lost in the post. Others that need to know our address: our school; friends; post office; municipality; any shop where we have accounts. If lost go to someone you can trust; policeman; traffic officer; teacher. It is important to have an address so that people can find us via letters, transport. Demonstrate to the learners the correct format for addressing an envelope. See the example. Discuss the criteria in the assessment rubric before learners address their envelopes. stamp Mr C. Dippenaar 26 Hopley Road Milnerton Cape Town 7441 Activity 3 Something about myself In this exercise learners present information by labelling a diagram. Emphasis is thus placed on learning new vocabulary. Encourage the learners to use a dictionary to find new words as well as to check spelling. Tell learners that when labelling a drawing they write in 5 mm capital print. The correct vocabulary and spelling will be the criteria used to assess LO 6.5, while the neatness, layout and correct sizing of letters will be used to assess LO 4.1 Activity 4 Formal oral- interviewing a friend Teach learners how to plan their responses and to use key words to help them. Explain that in interviews we never ask yes/no questions or questions that lead to the conversation dying. Although learners are being interviewed, they must attempt to include the wider audience – the other learners in the class by using good eye contact and volume and by speaking clearly. Discuss the criteria in the checklist and assessment rubric in detail, before they start. Give the learners the opportunity to prepare answers to the questions at home. Back at school they can form groups of two and interview each other by asking each other the questions. Activity 5 Parts of my face The 10 parts are: 1. Eyebrows; eyes; eyelashes; eyelids 2. Nose; nostrils; freckles 3. Ears 4. Lips; teeth Activity 6 Listening skill Read the passage, twice (Not too fast) I am a ten-year-old boy. My name is Mika. I have two big, blue eyes and short, brown hair. I have two sturdy legs and two, strong-arms which I use when I play rugby. When I smile you can see my lovely white teeth. My nose is pointy and I have two big ears with which I hear. I am a happy child and I love going to school. Sometimes I also become angry or sad. I do not like myself very much when I am unhappy. Sometimes I wish that I was as clever as my friend, Massing or as beautiful as Chula, but I know that I shall always just be me! Answers: F; F; T; T; F; F; F; F; T; T; T; T Literal Questions are questions that do not involve analysing, reading between the lines etc. They are questions with answers that are explicit in the text. Activity 7 Family photograph Learners may not alter their answers once they have discussed the photograph with the group. Answers: 2; 4; 8; 1; 6; 9; 3; 7; 5; 10; 11; 10 Activity 8 Poetry Teach learners to mark pauses as follows: / After a word: A short pause. // After a word: A longer pause. / Above a syllable: The syllable in the word should be stressed. Answers: silly names; while playing cricket; boys could be gentle and kind; feeds the dog and strokes the cat; street; cat; be; games; (; -) semi-colon, comma, dash Activity 9 Dominoes Cut out these cards. Glue them to cardboard. Make a few sets. Divide learners into groups of 4 or 5 to play the game. girl wife mother brother man daughter husband father uncle boy son niece nephew husband grandmother woman grandfather girl wife mother sister aunt brother man daughter uncle father son boy nephew niece grandmother husband nephew woman grandmother grandfather sister aunt wife CREATE SOME MORE OF YOUR OWN Not assessed, but learners are exposed to LO 6.5 To develop own vocabulary: Understand common spoken words. MALE AND FEMALE CROSSWORD Teach learners that the crossword gives spelling clues (words going down help spell words going across them and visa-versa) Teach learners that crosswords are filled in capital print. It is important for the learners to re-write the words in the sentences below in order for them to check them in context. Answers: girl; niece; daughter; brother; uncle; husband Encourage them to do simple crosswords in newspapers and magazines. Activity 10 Plurals Answers: aunts; uncles; cousins; grandparents; outfits; chairs; tables; guests; potatoes; tomatoes; meats; vegetables; nieces; nephews; banjos; wives; dishes; men; lorries; puppies Answers: add –es to a word e.g. tomatoes change v to f and add –es e.g. wives change the word completely e.g. men -y changes to I and add –es e.g. lorries Activity 11 Simon says… Although it is difficult to assess group activities, the educator will quickly pick up on the learners who are not co-operating. This task does not have to be assessed or can be assessed as a whole group effort if “performed” in front of the class. You, the educator, can decide. Activity 12 Word search Although you will only be assessing LO 5.3, learners will also be busy with: LO 3.5 To read for pleasure and information: read and solve puzzles LO 6.5 To develop own vocabulary: Learn common spoken words Activity 13 Poetry Before beginning with writing, learners will have group discussions which will expose them to LO 1.5 To respect other learners: give them a chance to speak; listen to them; encourage their attempt to speak their additional language. LO 2.1 To interact in additional language: take part in a short conversation on a familiar topic. Assessment: LO 4.5 Activity 14 Saying thanks It is an important study skill for learners to be able to extract certain information from a text. Depending on the area where you live, the standard of English will vary. When learners have to write in their additional language the need much structure in the form of vocabulary. Discuss general vocabulary as a class and encourage the use of a dictionary. Thanks: God‟s love; making me; all I can do; the ability to run, jump and play games; the chance to listen to You. Activity 15 Reading Take small groups onto the mat and listen to them read individually. Other learners can complete colouring in the corresponding drawings at their tables or read simple English books from the library while waiting their turn. Try to work out with the class what clues led them to the correct order. Sentence Order: 2; 12; 4; 11; 1; 3; 6; 7; 10; 5; 8; 9 Activity 16 Vocabulary In this exercise emphasise the importance of the vowel sound. This improves pronunciation and spelling. Handwriting and spelling are an important part of communication. can; bag; fat begs; wet; ten thin; skin; fit jog; doll; mop run; sun; pup Activity 17 Spelling Emphasise the subtle differences in sound – even if the word has the required vowel – it may not make the sound that is being requested. ten; wet; set; let; hen; met; get; web; red; men pin; limp; skin; spin; rim; hill; tin; fit; thin; pit dog; spot; got; log; not; doll; pot; top; rob; hot Activity 18 Summative assessment Question 1- eyebrow; nose; mouth; ear Question 2- Mr D………… 63 Circle Road Panorama 7441 Question 3- uncle; brother; father; daughters Question 4- Changes: Mary; Saturday; October: I Question 5- Tuesday; October Question 6- dishes; tomatoes MEMORANDUM: GRADE 4 MODULE 2 PLEASE COME INSIDE Once again we are using a theme that is familiar to the learners. The emphasis is placed on new vocabulary. As the learner becomes familiar with the vocabulary, they are better able to communicate in their additional language. To develop own vocabulary: to Activity 1 LO 6.6 understand words in context ROOMS IN THE HOUSE The learner is afforded the opportunity to learn vocabulary the names of the rooms in the house in a fun and “hands on” way – cutting and pasting. Discuss the criteria in the “Rooms in our House” checklist prior to learners beginning this activity. Check the learners understanding of the new vocabulary by letting them complete the sentences. Answers: garage; kitchen; lounge; bedroom; dining room; bathroom; study; cellar; playroom; garden; shed; spare room To write creatively – to repeat the Activity 2 same structure to create a poetic LO 4.3 rhythm SONG TO SING Revise the concept of syllables by letting each learner say their first and last name in “syllable rhythm” E.g. Ma-ry-Mc-Do-nald = 5 syllables They love this! Show them how to clap out a rhythm by clapping out a simple song that is familiar to them. e.g. Ma-ry-had-a-li-ttle-lamb… Now that you have empowered them with knowledge about syllables, they can work in their groups. To use reference books and develop Activity 3 LO 3.6 vocabulary: to use a dictionary THE OUTSIDE OF MY HOUSE Answers: smoke; chimney; swimming pool; window; fence; front door; driveway; letter box; wall; garden; roof; antenna To write to communicate information: LO 4.1 to label diagrams Activity 4 To understand and use some LO 6.1 question forms: Do you . . .? etc THE LOUNGE Discuss the criteria in the rubric before the learners begin the exercise. Explain that when we label, all lines connecting the word to the drawing must be horizontal or vertical – never diagonal. See e.g. 1. CLOCK 6. CURTAINS 2. LAMP 7. DOOR 3. DISPLAY CABINET 8. COUCH 4. CUSHIONS 9. VASE 5. ARMCHAIR 10. TABLE To write to communicate information: Activity 5 LO 4.1 to label diagrams THE BEDROOM The learners are continuing to develop their vocabulary around the theme of their home. Encourage the use of the dictionary. Remind them about their labelling rules. Answers: dressing table; cupboard; rug; pillow; curtains; duvet; blanket; brush; picture; hanger; chair; mirror To write to communicate information: Activity 6 LO 4.1 to label diagrams THE BATHROOM Answers: shower; bath; mirror; basin; taps; toilet; soap; towel; cupboard; shower curtain To understand simple sentence Activity 7 structure: to construct simple LO 6.5 sentences FORMING SENTENCES Answers: (a) I love my home. (b) We swim in our swimming pool. (c) There is a fence in front of our house. (d) The garden is full of beautiful flowers. (e) The car is in the driveway. (f) Our house has a tile roof. (g) The post is in the red letter box. (h) Please knock on the front door. (i) Smoke is coming out of the chimney. (j) There are white blinds on the windows. (k) We play outside in the garden. (l) The antenna is on the roof. To understand oral descriptions: to LO 4.1 label a diagram Activity 8 To develop own vocabulary: to use LO 6.6 personal dictionaries COLOURS Revise the different colours, furniture and parts of the house with the learners. Read the following sentences. Give the learners enough time to mark each part of the picture with the correct colour. They can complete the colouring in neatly at the end. Sentences: 1. The tablecloth is orange. 2. The floor is yellow. 3. The cupboards in the kitchen are pink. 4. The duvet is grey. 5. The couch is red. 6. The chair is black. 7. The carpet is maroon. 8. The walls are painted brown. 9. The curtains are green. 10. Boris‟ waistcoat is blue. 11. The stove is white. 12. The front door is purple. Answers to the crossword: ACROSS DOWN 2. Orange 1. Brown 5. Yellow 3. Green 7. Pink 4. Blue 8. Grey 6. White 9. Red 7. Purple 10. Black 11. Maroon To write to communicate information: Activity 9 LO 4.1 to express an opinion in writing DIFFERENT HOMES The learners will require much new vocabulary. Encourage them to use a dictionary before asking the educator for help. To understand and use some LO 6.1 question forms: Where is . . . Activity 10 To use developing knowledge of language structure and use: to begin LO 4.5 to use a wider range of punctuation ASKING QUESTIONS Prepare 4 different lounges per group. (stick on cardboard, laminate etc) Answers to vocabulary exercise: skate; newspaper; cup & saucer; sandals; bottle; pair of scissors; basket; glass; teddy; cap; bucket; tie; painting; popcorn; jug; glove; mayonnaise jar; suitcase; sunglasses; hat; book; wool; shoes; milk. You live in a very untidy house. This is your living room. Dad You have lost these things: Ask the others where they are! You live in a very untidy house. This is your living room. Anja You have lost these things: Ask the others where they are! You live in a very untidy house. This is your living room. Mum You have lost these things: Ask the others where they are! You live in a very untidy house. This is your living room. Ferdie You have lost these things: Ask the others where they are! 4. a) Are there four plates on the table? b) Are they drinking milk? c) Is there a cloth over the table? d) Is there a vase with flowers on the table? e) Are they eating with knives and forks? We use is when we are talking of one person or object and are when we are talking about more than one person or object. To transfer information from one Activity 11 mode to another: to use information LO 5.4 from a diagram to answer questions VISUAL READING STATEMENTS TRUE FALSE NEE a) There are three cups on the table. X b) The knife is between the vase and the loaf of bread. X c) There are two glasses in the cupboard. X d) There are three potplants. X e) The cat is lying behind the stove. X f) The kitchen door has a broken lock. X g) The bucket is full of soapy water. X h) The candle is standing on top of the refrigerator. X i) There are curtains in front of the windows. X j) There is a teapot on the shelf against the wall. X k) It is late afternoon. X l) The cupboard is open. X To understand simple sentence Activity 12 structure: to construct simple LO 6.5 sentences WRITING SENTENCES Answers: a) I watch television in the lounge. b) She baths in the bathroom. c) We eat lunch in the kitchen. d) She writes letters in the lounge. e) We make tea in the kitchen. f) He reads a book in the lounge. g) They brush their teeth in the bathroom. h) I listen to music in the lounge. i) They put on clothes in the bedroom. j) He washes the dishes in the kitchen. To use additional language to Activity 13 communicate information: to LO 2.3 describe people THE HOUSEBOAT OWNER Discuss the criteria for the oral activity in detail before the learners begin this task. To understand and use singular and Activity 14 LO 6.4 plural forms of nouns IS, ARE, HAS AND HAVE Discuss thoroughly how / when these verbs are used. e.g. when the nouns are singular or plural. Answers: a) There is a table in the kitchen. b) Deon is reading in the study. c) He is showering in the bathroom. d) Maqisha and Pearl are relaxing in the living room. e) We are eating in the dining room. f) There are two chairs in the television room. g) Mary has a dressing table in the bedroom. h) There are many books in the library. i) My parents have two cars in the garage. j) My brother and sister have many toys in the toy box. k) My pets are sleeping in the back yard. l) The visitors are staying in the guestroom. To use developing knowledge of Activity 15 language structure and use: to use a LO 4.5 wider range of punctuation CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION Answers: a) In the bathroom is a toilet, a shower and a wash-basin. (3) b) Mandy, stop playing with the cat‟s bowl. (4) c) Did you brush your teeth this morning? (2) d) Clean up this mess! (2) e) After she has a bath, she dries herself with a towel. (3) f) Mother irons my father‟s shirts on Wednesdays. (4) g) Do you have a facecloth and a nailbrush? (2) h) Ouch! The water is too hot. (4) To read for pleasure and information: Activity 16 LO3.5 to read and solve puzzles FURNITURE IN THE HOUSE Answers: a) Cupboards b) Bookcase c) Chair d) Curtains e) Wardrobe f) Carpet g) Mirror h) Tray To write to creatively: to repeat the Activity 17 same structure to create poetic LO 4.3 rhythm and pattern ANOTHER SONG TO SING Revise syllables with the learners before they begin this exercise. To write to communicate information: LO 4.1 to write lists Activity 18 To design media texts: to design a LO 4.4 simple poster READING PASSAGE Divide the learners into eight groups. Let each group read a section related a particular room. They must then make a list of all the things that are found in that room. Each group member can write the list on a sheet of paper. Redivide the learners into groups of eight. In each group there should be one learner from each room (group in the previous round). Each member of the new group reads his list of the things found in his particular room. The group now makes a chart with pictures from magazines or drawn. It is important that they label the items found in the rooms. To understand recounted events: to answer questions about what LO 1.4 happened first, second, etc Activity 19 To use additional language to communicate information: to give LO 2.3 simple instructions MAKING MY BED Read and acts the passage while the learners listen. Then the learners act while you read the passage again. Reads again and let the learners act, but now you leave out the parts between brackets, and the learners have to fill them in orally. Making my Bed After I have finished (washing and dressing myself) in (the morning), I make (my bed). I open (the curtains) and (the windows wide) to allow (fresh air) into my (bedroom). I take off (duvet, pillows and sheets). I spread the (sheets) over the (bed) I (smooth) the (sheets) and tuck them in under (the mattress) on both (sides) as well as at (the foot) of the bed. I shake the (pillows well) and arrange them (neatly) at the (head) of the (bed). The pillow-cases must be (neat and smooth). Then I fetch (the duvet) and (cover the bed). I (smooth out) the (duvet), so that there are no (wrinkles) and (folds). My duvet‟s (colour) matches the colour of (the curtains). Now I fold my (pyjamas/nighty) and put them (away) in the (wardrobe). My bed looks (neat and tidy). I quickly (arrange everything) on my (dressing table). Then I go in to have (breakfast) before I go to (school). Answers: ACTIVITIES NUMBER I take off the duvet, pillows and sheets. 5 I shake the pillows well. 7 I make my bed. 2 I arrange everything on my dressing table. 11 I fold my pyjamas. 9 I wash and dress myself. 1 I open the windows. 4 I cover the bed with the duvet. 8 I eat my breakfast. 12 I open the curtains. 3 I pack my pyjamas in the wardrobe. 10 I spread the sheet over the bed. 6 To use developing knowledge of Activity 20 language structure and use: to spell LO 4.5 familiar words correctly SPELLING Answers: where; which; when; what chair; chat; rich; lunch ; much shut; shall; shop; wash; flush; fresh thank; think; then; these; cloth SUMMATIVE TEST: SPELLING Answers: which; chat; these where; rich chair; lunch much; wash; shut MEMORANDUM: GRADE 4 MODULE 3 SHOPPING AND SPENDING To understand stories to summarise the story with the educator’s Activity 1 support, to predict what will happen LO 1.1 next and to discuss ethical and social issues The shoplifter Read the following incomplete story to the learners. Gail and David are twins. They are nine years old and their birthday is May 18. It is Saturday morning, a week before their birthday, and they are sitting at the breakfast table. Suddenly their mother says, “You know, next Saturday is your birthday. Would you two like to go shopping with us? Perhaps we can try to find your birthday presents.” “Oh yes!” they both exclaim. “That‟ll be great! May we go immediately, Mum?” The twins are very excited now. The shopping centre is huge, with many different types of shops. Many of these shops sell a variety of things that they would like for their birthday. Their father smiles when he sees how excited they are. On their way to the shopping centre they only talk about what they would like to buy. Inside the shopping centre they go straight to the toyshop, Toys for Me. Gail goes one way and David the other. Mum follows Gail, while his father follows David. After twenty minutes they still cannot make up their minds and they go to the big department store. Together they go to the music section, where their parents leave them for a few minutes while they do other shopping. At first they do not notice the stranger dressed in blue jeans and a white shirt, standing at the CD shelf. Suddenly Gail notices something strange … he puts a CD into his pocket! That‟s strange! And she nudges David with her elbow. He sees it too. They are stunned and not sure what to do. David whispers, “Let‟s pretend not to have seen anything, but let‟s keep an eye on him”. They watch him and when he leaves the music section and heads for the door, they decide that it is time to act! With their hearts in their throats they …………………………… Answers: a) It was 11 May. b) They were looking for birthday presents. c) Toys for Me. d) Twenty minutes. e) A shop with many sections, e.g. toys, baby, meat, music etc. f) The music section. g) They are shopping elsewhere. h) He was wearing blue jeans and a white shirt. i) He put a CD in his pocket. j) Pretend not to have seen anything, but keep an eye on him. k) Educator‟s discretion. l) Educator‟s discretion. To understand in a simple way some elements of stories: to choose a title, to notice how characters and plots are LO 3.1 constructed and to notice the role that Activity 2 pictures play To use additional language to communicate information: to recall LO 2.3 and describe a sequence of actions At the shops As most answers in exercise one are opinion orientated, it is important for the learner to realise that there is no ONE right answer. Learners must feel free to express their opinion. Discuss the criteria of the oral thoroughly with the learners before they begin preparing. To use the tenses to communicate in writing: simple present, present Activity 3 LO 6.2 progressive, present perfect, simple past, future, etc. Plurals Answers: a) I shall be too busy to go to the shops. b) She will not want to take me with her. c) She says I shall waste too much time. d) There will be many other customers in the shop. a) She is loading the groceries into the boot of the car. b) She likes to go shopping. c) I have finished my shopping at last. d) He is unpacking the car. a) I went out to the café b) I saw you at the shops. c) We went to the till. d) I liked the sweets best. To read for pleasure and information: Activity 4 LO 3.5 to read and solve puzzles Let‟s go shopping Answers: top; marbles; teddybear; doll; games; yo-yo apple; potato; peas; grapes; pear; orange To understand and use singular and plural forms of nouns: ordinary Activity 5 nouns, nouns which do not have LO 6.4 plurals, nouns which only have plurals More than one Answers: soap; tomatoes; milk; apples; toilet paper; potatoes; carrots; toothpaste; cloths; scissors; pencils; eggs To read for information: to fill in Activity 6 LO 3.3 missing words in a written summary Close exercise Answers: see; is; stands; sells; come; buy; pay; want; give; are; are; packs To design media texts: to design a LO 4.4 simple poster Activity 7 To use additional language creatively; to create and perform LO 2.4 simple play scripts Let‟s Play Shop To write to communicate Activity 8 information: to write lists with LO 4.1 headings. Shopping centre Answers: HARDWARE TOYSHOP NEWS AGENT SCREWS AND NAILS PUZZLE MAGAZINE ELECTRIC PLUG KITE NEWSPAPER CHEMIST STATIONER GROCER COUGH MIXTURE ENVELOPES MARMITE PLASTERS PENCIL RICE FLORIST BUTCHER RECORD SHOP BUNCH OF ROSES MINCE CD SAUSAGES BAKERY TRAVEL AGENT GREEN GROCER BREAD AIR TICKET ORANGES CARROT CAKE BANANAS SHOP NUMBER Record Shop 10 Green Grocer 9 Hardware 3 Chemist 2 News Agent 5 Florist 8 Toy Shop 4 Grocer 6 Bakery 12 Stationer 1 Butchery 7 Travel Agent 11 To understand in a simple way some LO 3.1 elements of stories: title; characters Activity 9 To act in culturally appropriate ways: LO 4.5 to role play a familiar situation Poetry Answers: I BUY Trolley LOLLY Box SOCKS Health SHELF Sweets FEAST Going Shopping with Mum To use language for thinking: to Activity 10 LO 5.2 classify things according to criteria Who is who and where do I go Answers: buy bread BAKERY buy tomatoes GREEN GROCER buy medicine CHEMIST buy meat BUTCHERY watch a film CINEMA buy flowers FLORIST catch a train STATION WAITRESS; WINDOW CLEANER; TRAFFIC WARDEN; NURSE; CHEF VET; POLICE; AMBULANCE; FIRE BRIGADE; GARAGE; ELECTRICIAN To understand and use modals to Activity 11 express possibility, probability and LO 6.3 necessity In The Park To understand oral instructions, Activity 12 directions and descriptions: to LO 1.2 follow a route Following directions You are at the Station. Turn left into Main Road. Pass the Café, Supermarket and Police Station. Turn Right into Market Street. Pass the Chemist and Restaurant. Continue past the Park and General Store. Cross Long Street. Pass the Green Grocer, Florist and Doctor. Turn Right into Hospital Street. Pass the Butcher. The next building is your destination. Answers: DESTINATION: Library BUILDINGS EN ROUTE: Supermarket; Police Station; Station; Café; Hotel; Chemist; Restaurant; General Store; Florist; Doctor; Butchery; Green Grocer To use tenses to communicate in Activity 13 LO 6.2 writing: Past Tense Was and Were Answers: I was buying some sweets. You were visiting the doctor. The boys were visiting the library. Salomé was buying some meat. We were going to school. Thembi and Thandi were at the shops. To use developing knowledge of Activity 14 language structure and use: to LO 4.5 write paragraphs A Visit To The Restaurant To understand and use some Activity 15 LO 6.1 question forms What‟s The Question To use developing knowledge of Activity 16 language structure and use: to spell LO 4.5 familiar words correctly Spelling Answers: 1. went; fond; send 2. grey; great; groceries; group 3. clean; client; closed; clever 4. send; grey; clean 5. groceries; closed; send; group; grey; fond; went MEMORANDUM: GRADE 4 MODULE 4 THE WORLD OF MUSIC A PHASE OVERVIEW In a country like South Africa, it is important that learners should be able to listen, speak, write, reason and use language in more than one language and to feel comfortable using an additional language. Learners should gain confidence by being in a safe situation for using language orally and in writing and should be respected while (s)he is developing a new language. As language is central to life, learners should be encouraged to explore it widely and as interestingly as possible – learning to do research and to ask questions correctly. This will round off any learner as a valuable citizen in any society. B. LEARNING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW This module focuses on music but encourages reading of passages and viewing of illustrations to pick up details to report on. It encourages language use and the learning of language tools for improving language skills. Learners are shown how to ask and answer questions; to become involved in social issues (like not name-calling); helped with rhyming and writing poetry; encouraged to increase their vocabulary and asked to do some media texts research. They are shown how a symphony orchestra works; about different kinds of music and then the focus rests on the apostrophe and labelling skills with identifying similarities and differences. Finally, they are asked to do some work on simple sentence structures. Each activity is assessed and the assessment always includes handwriting and neatness so that learners are encouraged in these fields, in order to build a good foundation for the future. This module should take 1 term but educators are encouraged to select the material most suitable for their class and to add to the material from their own experience. To understand stories: to answer literal questions; to discuss ethical Activity 1 LO 1.1 and social issues; to retell the story in the right sequence Read the following passage, twice to your learners. Explain words that they do not know and give special attention to metaphorical language e.g. “rules …set in stone” / brooding eyes/ fiery nature. Give some background information concerning composing and publishing music, and also what it was like to be a musician in Europe at that time (most were poor, needed a patron, etc.) Vocabulary: Use some of the words to expand their vocabulary. Explain the words and place/use them in context (in sentences). Find some of Beethoven‟s most well known music and play it in class. Encourage an interest in music other than the kind they listen to most. Answers: 1. T; F; T; T; F; F; T; F; F; T; F; T 2. Use your discretion to assess the learner‟s ability. Many years ago, there was a very talented young boy called Ludwig van Beethoven. He was born in the city of Bonn in Germany in 1770. His father, who was a musician, was a very violent man. He often came home drunk, and would pull Ludwig out of bed at all hours and beat music lessons into the sleepy boy‟s head, or force him to play music for his drunk friends. One would think that this would make Ludwig hate music, but it didn‟t. Instead, he loved it more each day. Because he was so good at music, he studied with other teachers besides his father and he soon became quite famous. He was only nine years old when one of his first pieces was published. It wasn‟t only his wonderful talent that made people notice him; he also looked quite unusual with his wild hair and brooding eyes. In Europe, at the time, there was no better pianist. Audiences loved his brilliant performances. Besides giving concerts in the great cities in Europe, he wrote music day and night. He made enough money to be his own boss, unlike many other musicians of his time. However, when he was 31 years old, he was faced by what seemed to be the greatest tragedy that could happen to a musician: he realised that he was becoming deaf! For a composer and pianist as great as Beethoven, this was almost a death sentence! However, true to his fiery and determined nature, he saw it as a challenge to be overcome, and he wrote to a friend: “It will not conquer me! Oh, how beautiful it is to live!” Beethoven wrote some of his most beautiful and famous works late in his life, when he was already quite deaf. He changed classical music by breaking many rules, which had been set in stone for centuries. To this day, he influences composers. His music is the most powerful and important body of work put together by one compo Activity 2 To use additional language to communicate information: to Activity 2 LO 2.3 describe people, objects and simple processes Make sure that learners understand what it is. Class participation must be optimised. Suggest that they bring music or pictures or anecdotes about the songs that they hear at home from older generation. Explain the concept “down the generations”. Listen to some folk music. The history of slavery could be incorporated here, and class should listen to blues and jazz for an understanding of how it originated. Try to bring instruments to school, or pictures, e.g. didgeridoo (Australian aborigine). Link up with other Learning Areas (e.g. History and Geography). Answers: Didgeridoo Australia Balalaika Russia Guitar Spain Sitar North India Marimba West Africa Concertina South Africa To show awareness of the way language constructs knowledge and Activity 3 LO 2.5 identity and positions people: to resist name calling of any kind This is a sensitive issue. Have a class discussion about different types of name calling and the cruelty thereof. To understand, in a very simple way, some elements of poetry: rhyme, Activity 4 words that begin with the same LO 3.2 sound, words which imitate their sound In the first little poem, emphasis should be placed on the repetition of patterns, some onomatopoeia and also a little vocabulary. Explain what gypsies are. This is a good time to introduce the idea of labelling (e.g. all gypsies steal and one must avoid them, etc.). Also some geography: where are gypsies found? Pupils could dress as gypsies and listen to flamenco music. Find pictures of gypsies and their caravans, etc. Answers: 2. Flamenco - fast and exciting Spanish dancing and music Castanets - a musical instrument made from 2 shells of hard wood fastened to the thumb by a string and played by being knocked together by the fingers. Swish - to cut through the air making a sharp noise. Gypsy - a member of a people who live in caravans and wander from place to place. 3. Spain 4. a) Beat – feet b) bright – tonight 5. a) throbbing b) tapping 6. use own discretion To read media texts: to understand Activity 5 the layout and design of a poster or LO 3.4 public notice Talk about instruments and listen to symphonic music. Ask learners to listen to specific instruments or to suggest the mood, etc. Listen to the national anthem and talk about national anthems in general. Answers: 1. a) Four b) strings; 54 c) French horn; trumpet; trombone; tuba d) Woodwind e) Percussion 2. a) 26 September 2002; 19:30 b) Soweto String Quartet c) Baxter Hall, UCT d) R15 Adults; R5 scholars / Students e) Computicket f) No I do not. g) They will be sold at the door. To write to communicate information: to write lists with Activity 6 LO 4.1 headings, expresses an opinion in writing BAND NAME STYLE Much of the assessment in this activity will be subjective. Discuss the criteria in detail with the learners prior to them beginning their tasks. Variety is emphasised here. Listen to various kinds of music and discuss with learners. Make it interesting by encouraging them to bring pictures/posters/music to class. Learners must be able to express an opinion and back it up by giving reasons. Activity 7 To design media texts LO 4.4 Allow the learners time to plan their poster and to EXPLAIN how they intend doing it – and WHY. The CD cover should be thoroughly done so that the learners understand just how much goes into producing a CD and that it is not cheap. Explain what the duties of the various people involved are. There is tremendous scope here for career guidance at the same time! The press release should be explained: The purpose of a press release and the effectiveness of this control. Perhaps negative and positive press can be explained here, in simple terms. To write for social purposes: to write Activity 8 LO 4.2 a simple note or message Teach the basic structure of a letter. Address xxxxxxx Date Xxxxxx Dear… Introduction. Body of note/letter. Conclusion. Kind regards / Yours Sincerely Name To write creatively: to use some techniques for creative writing - Activity 9 words which imitate their sound, LO 4.3 words beginning with the same sound Discuss aspects of poetry such as metre, rhyme, poetic devices such as alliteration, assonance, simile, metaphor, etc. Punctuation: Why is it necessary? Makes meaning clear, enhances mood/register, etc. Show how different ways of punctuating a sentence can change its meaning. To use developing knowledge of Activity 10 language structure and use: to use a LO 4.5 wider range of punctuation Teach the rules for contracting words. e.g. did not = didn‟t (the „ replaces the missing letters) e.g. Peter‟s ball… (the „ shows that the subject is not a plural, but is showing ownership. To use language across the curriculum: to understand and Activity 11 LO 5.1 produce texts in other learning areas Time line: link up with other learning area (History) – explain what a time line is, if necessary. Answer: TIMELINE E C A D B F G H 194 1950 1955 1960 1970 1980 1988 19 7 95 To use language for thinking: To Activity 12 answer and begin to ask some more LO 5.2 complex questions Possible Answers: a) Which is one of the latest forms of music? b) How do you think the word Kwaito originates? c) Where will you hear a heavy beat pumping? d) Where does Kwaito have its roots? e) What does Legowa mean? f) Who is one of South Africa‟s most famous Kwaito artists? To use language for thinking: to Activity 13 identify similarities and differences LO 5.2 between things Possible Answers They all have four strings. They are all played with a bow. They can all be plucked. They all have the same shape. The violin and viola do not have an endpin. The cello and bass are held upright. The violin and viola are positioned under the chin. The bigger the instrument the deeper / lower its sound. They vary in size. The cello is held between the knees. To use language for thinking: to Activity 14 LO 5.2 distinguish parts from the whole MOUTHPIECE PISTON VALVE BELL BELL MOUTHPIECE SLIDE BELL BELL MOUTHPIECE MOUTHPIECE TUBING TUBING To understand simple sentence Activity 15 structure: to analyse simple LO 6.5 sentences The answers to questions must contribute to consolidating certain basic constructions: Have you ever? No, I have never … Possible Answers: 1. a) No, I have never heard a song by the Alien Ant Farm. b) No, Ludwig van Beethoven did not like his father very much. c) No, I do not think that my grandmother likes heavy metal music. d) Yes, there are piano players in my class. e) No, I have not heard songs by Baba Maal. f) No, I did not know that he comes from Senegal. g) No, I do not know how to play the piano. 2. a) have heard b) did like c) do think ; likes d) are players e) have heard f) did know ; comes g) do know ; play The verb: Learners must understand that every full sentence must contain a finite verb, and that every finite verb has a subject. What is a sentence? Illustrate by saying “incomplete sentences” such as “The dog playing in the park” and show how it needs a finite verb to be complete. Do not, however, bombard the learners with too much grammatical jargon. It must be done subtly. 3. a) bought b) invited c) travelled d) sat e) clapped f) opened g) played h) enjoyed 4. VERB SUBJECT BOUGHT MARY INVITED SHE TRAVELLED MARY AND SAT LINDI CLAPPED THEY OPENED THE AUDIENCE PLAYED THE CURTAINS ENJOYED THE BAND EVERYONE MEMORANDUM: GRADE 5 MODULE 1 WINGS In this module the learners will be expected to give their imaginations wings – to use their initiative and to be very creative. STEP-BY-STEP THROUGH THE MODULE AND MEMORANDUM LEARNING UNIT 1 Page 1 - 2 Word Puzzle Activity 1.1 To solve a word puzzle LO 3.6.4 Before giving the learners the puzzle to do, initiate a discussion on methods of transport. Let the learners lead you in the discussion. This is a very straight forward activity. The words are not difficult to find and the clues are given below the wordsearch. aeroplane bicycle blades bus feet horse hovercraft jet land skis motor car move rollerblades rocket run rush skateboard sails microlight swim train trot water wheels windsurfer wing Page 2 - 3 Survey To read for information LO 3.3 To discuss advantages and Activity 1.2 LO 5.2.9 disadvantages To use information from a written LO 5.3.2 text to complete a table In finding the information the learners will need to work in groups of not more than four to a group in order to share the workload. It is of utmost importance that the research must be done thoroughly, as they will need this information for some of the tasks that lie ahead. They will need to complete the table with as much of the requested information as possible, so that the feedback they give is as comprehensive as possible. Page 4 Quick - debate This is not for assessment. Gives other learners a chance to LO 1.5.1 speak Listens to them and encourages them to speak in their additional LO 1.5.2 language The learners can work in groups of two. They may use the information they researched and may base their „argument‟ on this information. However, opinion may also be used in motivating why their selected mode of transport is the best/most economical. It is important that the learners give each other a fair chance to speak and that they listen and encourage each other to speak in the language. The educator must ensure that learners do not laugh at each other or ridicule each other. Page 5 - 6 Five “musts” for the visitor To answer and respond to LO 1.1.1 questions LO 1.1.2 Activity 1.3 To summarise the extract / story LO 1.1.7 with support Read the following extract to the learners twice. The learners need to listen carefully before attempting to answer the given questions. Assess the activity. 1. Groote Schuur Hospital 2. at night (at full moon) 3. the trip to Robben Island 4. fynbos and rock 5. you would walk / stroll 6. tandem paragliding, mountain biking, sandboarding, kloofing 7. 1967 This article has been written to tell the reader about the places of interest and the activities to experience in and around Cape Town. (any relevant answer will do – along the same lines as the answer above) Five „musts‟ for the visitor Cape Town has something to suit your style and energy level 1. Transplant Museum 2. Howl at the full moon ! The world‟s first human heart transplant was Make the most of the moonlight by walking performed at Groote Schuur Hospital on up Lion‟s Head at full moon. Set off well December 3, 1967. Book in advance to see before sunset and start walking up the sand a reconstruction of the event in the original road opposite the parking spaces under the operating theatre. The hearts of both the trees. The path offers breathtaking views of donor and the recipient are on display. Camps Bay, Clifton, Signal Hill and the harbour. 3. Robben Island 4. Table Mountain This outing is considered an essential No visit is complete until you have visited excursion, as it is a place of history, Cape Town‟s wonder – Table Mountain. education and a look into South Africa‟s past. There are various options to get closer to the The island is a living museum. Your ticket spirit of Adamastor, who, legend has it, was includes the return boat trip and a tour turned into fynbos and rock by the scornful around the museum by an ex-inmate. nymph of the sea. Take the cable car, or alternatively pack a picnic and take a stroll to the top. 5. Extreme Adventure Not to be missed ! Get your blood pumping … from a number of exhilarating, daredevil adventures – tandem paragliding, mountain biking, sandboarding, kloofing or a variety of other high-adventure activities. Table Mountain is the world‟s highest abseil at 112m, and therefore something definitely not to be missed. Assessment by teacher The learner will have the ability Cannot do Reasonable Excellent Good to: 1. answer questions accurately 1 2 3 4 2. summarise 1 2 3 4 3. write clearly, unambiguously 1 2 3 4 and easily 4. use correct punctuation 1 2 3 4 To give learners a chance to speak LO 1.5.1 To express opinions and give LO 2.1.3 reasons for them LO 5.2.8 Activity 1.4 To use additional language to communicate information about a LO 2.3.5 familiar topic, with preparation To mind map a summary of the LO 5.4.4 prepared text / oral The instructions in the module are self-explanatory to the learner. It is important that the learner understands that the success of this oral activity is based on the amount of research that is done. The research forms the basis of this activity. Quite specific places of interest have been selected for this activity, but for out-of-town learners and schools it might be of more interest to find a place of interest within their area to research and present. This is quite acceptable. Discuss the assessment criteria with the learners beforehand, so that they can prepare accordingly. 1 2 3 4 Success Needs Quite Categories Highly limited, support capable competent or none and Coping Excellent at all practice well Use of additional language Speaks easily. Uses relevant and 1 2 3 4 appropriate vocabulary and specific descriptions. Language used is appropriate for audience and context. Preparation Well organised. Planning and preparation 1 2 3 4 evident. Appropriate length. Uses initiative. Confident. Content of talk / research Information relevant to topic. Evidence of 1 2 3 4 research. Relevant and valid. Questions answered adequately. Presentation skills Interesting. Exciting. Enthuses the 1 2 3 4 listener. Speaker uses appropriate body language and expression. Has eye contact with the audience. Tempo, volume, pace, pausing and emphasis appropriate. Visual aspect (pictures or items) Effort evident. Pictures appropriate to 1 2 3 4 topic. Big enough for viewing from the back of the classroom. On p. 10 the learners are expected to listen to three speakers of their choice, and to complete a table, summarising information. This ensures that they listen with attention for specific information. To express an opinion and give a LO 2.1.3 reason for it LO 5.2.8 Activity 1.5 To express an opinion and give a LO 4.1.6 reason for it in writing To classify the tourist attractions LO 5.2.4 according to criteria This is quite an interesting activity – every learner will most probably have a totally different selection, and for vastly different reasons. This should lead to interesting discussions. Remind the learners to respect the opinions of others, even if the opinion differs. The written reason should be clearly stated. LEARNING UNIT 2 Page 12 - 15 Reading and comprehension To read text for pleasure LO 3.6.1 To use a dictionary LO 3.7.1 Activity 2.1 To put sentences into correct LO 5.2.3 sequence / order To use the present passive voice LO 6.2.3 Memorandum (a) air-borne : transported by air (b) enemy: foe ; opponent ; a person openly hostile to another (c) rudder: used for steering or guiding (on a plane or boat) Answer the following simple questions. The sentences have been started in order to help you answer. a. The book is called Discovering Flight. b. The tail feathers are used to help it to twist and turn while flying. c. The mammal is a bat. d. This mammal‟s wing is made of a thin skin. e. One kind of insect that can fly is a moth. (dragon-fly ; bee ; butterfly ; fly) f. A certain kind of fish can fly in order to escape from its enemies. g. False (It does not swim around the world. It flies from the Antarctic to the Arctic and back and the distance travelled is equal to swimming around the world.) h. False (Birds, animals, insects and plants can fly.) CHALLENGE : Think of a suitable title for this piece of reading. Any suitable heading that is relevant to the contents of the extract, should be deemed as correct. Discuss the assessment criteria with the learners beforehand, so that they know what to expect and where they need to focus. Assessment Self Teacher Cannot Reason- Good Excellent do able I could answer most of the Yes No 1 2 3 4 sentences correctly. I could complete the sentences given to help me answer the Yes No 1 2 3 4 questions. I understood most of the story I Yes No 1 2 3 4 read. I remembered to use capital Yes No 1 2 3 4 letters and full stops. Hot-air balloons: sequence of events 1. The hot-air balloon flew for 26 minutes. 2. Many new hot-air balloonists took to the skies. 3. A propeller and engine was added, and the shape changed. 4. A cabin was added to the airship design. 5. The Flyer flew successfully. Assessment by teacher 1 2 3 4 Oh dear! Start Reasonable, but Very few errors. Excellent! again. Read need to practise Well done! All correct carefully some more Page 16 - 17 Analysing sentences Activity 2.2 To analyse simple sentences LO 6.3.2 Page 16 is self-explanatory with regards to putting a sentence together. Ensure that the learners understand the work before continuing. Allow the learners to put together a simple definition of a simple sentence. Use their input and guide them in the right direction, even if it means that you spend time on this section of the activity. You might receive the following information from the learners : A simple sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop ; contains a verb; contains a subject (who or what); tells you something (one idea). The exercises on page 17 do not have one correct answer. Answers should be relevant and make sense. Assess the learners‟ work. Assessment by teacher 1 2 3 4 Oh dear! Start Oops! Reasonable, Very few errors. Excellent! again. Read but need to practise Well done! All correct carefully some more Page 18 – 19 Alphabetical order To solve a word puzzle and arrange words in alphabetical LO 3.6.4 Activity 2.3 order To use a personal dictionary LO 6.4.2 ALPHABETICAL ORDER … the 1st letter … the 2nd letter mug bug steep sheep bug hug sheep sleep hug mug sleep steep tug rug sweep suite rug tug suite sweep … the 3rd letter … the 4th letter enquire enclose senorita senator end end sent senior encore enforce senior sent enforce engage senator senorita engage enquire sense sense Arrange the following in alphabetical order: 1. untidy ; untouched ; untruth ; untuned 2. zest ; zip ; zombie ; zone ; zoom 3. songbird ; songbook ; songsmith ; songwriter Assessment Self Teacher Cannot Reason Good Excellent do -able 1. I can arrange words in alphabetical order, according to the 1st and 2nd Yes No 1 2 3 4 letters 2. I can arrange words in alphabetical order, according to the 3rd and 4th Yes No 1 2 3 4 letters 3. I can work neatly Yes No 1 2 3 4 4. I can copy correctly from the page, Yes No 1 2 3 4 limiting spelling errors LEARNING UNIT 3 Page 20 - 22 Reading and speaking To suggest an alternative ending for LO 1.1.5 the story To re-tell information / a story LO 1.1.6 To recount an event with support LO 1.4.2 Activity 3.1 To listen to others and encourage their attempts to speak additional LO 1.5.2 language To understand the moral of a story LO 3.1.2 To read for pleasure – non-fiction at an appropriate reading and language LO 3.6.1 level Here again, impress upon the learners to find information on at least one more tourist attraction anywhere in our country. The research is the basis for the task and needs to be done well. Do not rush this task. The learners need to read their information with concentration, in order to re-tell it successfully. If they struggle with this task, do it over – until they have mastered the skill. The two African stories : Allow the learners to lead in the following discussion. You may find that there is more than one interpretation of the story. Discussion What is the moral in each of these stories? What is the lesson that we can learn from each tale? How can we apply this lesson to our own lives? Suggest a different ending for one of the stories. Tell the rest of the class. Assessment Criteria 1 2 3 4 Excellent voice for a Clarity Cannot be heard Reasonably clear Good clear voice narrative Excellent story- Reasonably lively Animation Inanimate Good lively telling telling. Entertaining and entertaining and vivid Thoroughness Reasonably Thoroughness excellently done. Thoroughness Cannot do thorough done well Satisfied at the end of the story Page 23 Reading To read for pleasure non-fiction at an Activity 3.2 appropriate reading and language LO 3.6.1 level It takes practice to read fluently. Impress upon the learners to practice and to pay attention to pronunciation of difficult words and fluency of the piece of reading. Assessment of reading : educator Reads clearly. Words are defined. Volume adequate 4 3 2 1 and varies according to text. Reads at an appropriate pace. Pace varies according 4 3 2 1 to text. Interesting text. Related to the topic. 4 3 2 1 Fluent. Easy to listen to. 4 3 2 1 Page 24 - 27 Poems To understand some elements of poetry LO 3.2.1 Rhyme LO 3.2.2 Words beginning with the Activity 3.3 same sound LO 3.2.3 Imitation of sounds To write creatively LO 4.3.3 Points to ponder : discuss the following with the learners (Use other examples as well – those which the learners bring to school) Which words rhyme with each other? Are there words in the same line, or lines which follow each other, starting with the same sound? Who would read this poem with enjoyment (the target audience)? Acrostic poems are fun to do. Allow the learners to select their best poem and to rewrite it onto newsprint. Display these poems on the pinboards or display them in the corridors for others to read. Allow the learners to choose their own topics if they wish. Criteria 1 2 3 4 Nursery Clarity of Could not be Reasonably Good Excellent. A rhyme reading heard audible presentation Nursery Liveliness of Mechanical Reasonably Animation is Liveliness is rhyme reading animated good excellent. Entertaining and draws the class‟ attention Acrostic Neatness of Rather illegible Fairly neat Good Excellent. A poem writing pleasure to read Acrostic Originality of Could not do Quite original Originality good Excellent poem writing originality. Worth keeping To respect other learners, give them a chance to speak and LO 1.5.1 encourage their attempts to speak LO 1.5.2 their additional language Activity 3.4 To ask and answer questions in LO 2.1.1 the additional language To express an opinion and give a LO 2.1.3 reason for it Once again, the research is important. Use the samples brought by the learners in the discussion re layout. (see points 1 – 6) The Brochure Very clear instructions are listed for the learners to note. Follow the guidelines laid down for written work. Ensure that the learner‟s mind-map their ideas, put these ideas into sentences and paragraphs, write a rough draft which is edited – before writing a final draft. Use the space provided in the module. If this is not sufficient, allow the learners to work on blank paper or lined folio. Include this into the module. To write a short description of a LO 4.1.5 place To express an opinion in writing and LO 4.1.6 give reasons To design a brochure, incorporating LO 4.4.1 media (pictures) and text Activity 3.5 To write a rough draft LO 4.5.1 To get feedback from a classmate LO 4.5.3 To rewrite the draft after feedback LO 4.5.4 To spell familiar words correctly LO 4.5.5 To use a wide range of punctuation LO 4.5.6 Assessment Success Needs Quite Highly limited, support capable Checklist Yes No competent or none and Coping Excellent at all practice well Research is evident. Information is relevant. Variety Yes No 1 2 3 4 of reference books used. Research skills applied. Content is relevant. Questions Yes No 1 2 3 4 answered adequately. Presentation of product : neat and legible. Layout logical. Yes No 1 2 3 4 Pictures appropriate. Ideas organised. Logical. Uses headings where necessary. Yes No 1 2 3 4 Instructions followed. LEARNING UNIT 4 Page 34 - 38 Punctuation Activity 4.1 To use a wider range of punctuation LO 4.5.7 Memorandum Circle all the places in the speech bubbles above where capital letters have not been used: STOP! CHECK! REWRITE CORRECTLY! 1. The District Six Museum is an interesting place to visit. 2. You can visit the place from Monday to Friday, but not on Christmas Day. 3. I read that it is in Buitenkant Street, Cape Town. 4. It tells of the people who live on the slopes of Table Mountain. What are the following punctuation marks called and how are they used? a) A full stop is used at the end of a sentence E.g. The tourist walked up the mountain. b) ? A question mark is used at the end of a question. E.g. Where are you going? c) ! An exclamation mark is used to show emotion, such as anger, fear, surprise, shock. E.g. Help! I am falling! STOP! CHECK! REWRITE CORRECTLY! 1. Take a stroll up Lion‟s Head at full moon. 2. No! 3. Would you like to know more about Robben Island? 4. May I book your ticket to the island? 5. Please let me go! 6. He underwent the operation in December 1967 at Groote Schuur. Commas are used in various ways, such as - 1. to separate items in a list; 2. to separate the name of the person being spoken to from the rest of the sentence; 3. before „yes‟ and „no‟ in the beginning of the sentence; 4. when additional information is inserted into the sentence. Activity: Match the examples below to the rules listed above. (a) Yes, Dina Knoetze wrote a book about birds. (3) (b) Birds, bees, squirrels, fish and butterflies can fly. (1) (c) No, I cannot fly without wings. (3) (d) The bat, a mammal, flies in an expert fashion. (4) (e) Ayanda, did you know that squirrels can fly? (2) (f) The Arctic tern, a bird, flies a distance of 40 000 km each year. (4) (g) “The flying fish leaps out of the water to escape from enemies, John.” (2) (h) Nature has designed birds, animals, insects and plants in such a way that they can fly, glide or become air-borne! (1) STOP! CHECK! CORRECT! 1. You will see Camps Bay, Clifton, Signal Hill and the harbour. 2. Xolo, an ex-inmate, will take you on a tour of the island. 3. No, I do not wish to go along. 4. Yes, I don‟t mind carrying the picnic basket up the mountain. 5. Peter, my friend, is looking forward to the trip. 6. Mark, are you also going to the Transplant Museum? Write out the following sentences, using capital letters, full stops, commas, question marks and exclamation marks where necessary: 1. Are you going to surf at Noordhoek Beach on Saturday? 2. Do tourists often go to the Castle in Cape Town? 3. I went para-gliding, abseiling, mountain biking and sandboarding. 4. Have you tried South African foods before? 5. Siswe, a chef from Limpopo, specialises in crocodile steaks. Assessment Self Teacher 1. I can identify words in sentences that should be written with capital Yes No 1 2 3 4 letters. 2. I know where to use capital letters. Yes No 1 2 3 4 3. I can identify the different punctuation marks and can use Yes No 1 2 3 4 them correctly. 4. I can work neatly and copy correctly, without making Yes No 1 2 3 4 unnecessary mistakes. Page 39 – 40 To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 Activity 4.2 To understand between 3 000 and 4 500 common spoken words in LO 6.4.3 context by the end of Grade 5 1. gander 2. stallion 3. drake 4. she 5. cow 6. his 7. aunt 8. lioness 9. bitch 10. hen 11. squaw Use the list provided below in order to complete the following sentences : 1. bachelor 2. niece 3. widow 4. cow ; bull 5. she ; sister 6. daughter 7. actresses Page 41 – 42 To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 Activity 4.3 LO 3.7.1 To use a personal dictionary LO 6.4.2 submarine supermarket substandard superfine unknown subway superstructure untie rebuild undone rewrite replay These words begin with prefixes. The following are suitable meanings 1. submarine : under the sea sub- 2. subway : under the road 3. substandard : below standard 1. supermarket : huge / large shop super- 2. superstructure : huge / large structure or building 3. superfine : incredibly fine 1. unknown : not known un- 2. undone : not done 3. untie : not tied 1. rebuild : built again re- 2. rewrite : to write over again 3. replay : to play it over Page 43 Activity 4.4 To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 Practice the following method of learning spelling with your learners. Enforce it regularly. SPELLING AND VOCABULARY Try this method to remember how to spell the words - Study the word. Cover it up! ABC! Try to spell it! Write it. Check your word! fitted tipped tugged fitting tipping tugging begged clapped begging clapping hemmed popped planned hopped patted hemming popping planning hopping patting Page 45 - 46 Activity 4.5 To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 SHAKE THE WHIP!! shadow think thief thirsty shiver shoulder which whip (ouch!) shelf thunder whisper where wheel shout thought To reach the coffee on the shelf stand on tiptoe and stretch yourself! I'm so thirsty I need a drink. Water tastes so awful, so I think! Little BoBeep has lost her sheep – where would they be fast asleep? Thunder and lightning makes me quiver I get so scared I start to shiver! shark whiskers wheelbarrow thirteen shipwreck thumb MEMORANDUM: GRADE 5 MODULE 2 FULL OF FUN A. PHASE OVERVIEW This year is one of consolidating information and gaining new strengths and skills. It is important for the first additional language learners to grow with understanding and with tolerance this year, expanding on their listening, speaking, writing, reading and viewing, reasoning and understanding, language use and structure skills to gain a good foundation for the future. B. LEARNING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW The focus in this module is on gaining vocabulary: There is a word puzzle, a chance to use the dictionary, something about word formation, spelling and different kinds of nouns and diminutives, There is also a look at people from different countries and the language they speak. However, there are also many reading activities: About a heroic man, a fairy tale, and even reading for information. The skill of answering questions well is tackled and listening to a story as a narrative is included. Relationships are also handled, an important part of life and learners are encouraged to respond to social, ethical and critical issues. Tongue twisters and interviewing activities complete the module. This module should take 1 term to complete but educators are encouraged to be selective and to add to the activities as they see fit. Simplified and more complex Assessment Charts and Check Lists are also included to assist the learners to grow and to help the educators to understand where to help a learner. C. STEP-BY-STEP THROUGH THE ACTIVITIES AND MEMORANDUM To read for information and pleasure LO 3.6 and solve a word puzzle Activity 1 Use a dictionary and develop a LO 3.7 vocabulary Analyse word formation LO 6.4 Explain that the words could read horizontally, vertically and diagonally, in all directions. Motivate the learners by offering them 3 prizes: the learner with the most words after 10 min, after 20 min and after 30 min. Keep the prizes simple. Approximately 132 words are hidden. Encourage the learners to find as many as they can. fabric Fast fill flavours folds fright fabulous fat film flaw food frill face fatal films flea fool frost faces fauna fin fleet foot froze facing fax Fin flesh football frozen fact feat final flex for fruit fad feather finalist flip fore fuel fail fed finance flipper forest full faint fee finger flo forge fun fair feeble fingernail flop foul fur fairy feel fir flora four furniture fairyland femur fire floral fourteen furrow fait fen fireman flow fox fury fake fern fish flower fragrant falcon festival fist fluor Fran family feta fit fluorescent Frank famine fever fits fly Frankenstein famous few fix fly fray fan fib flab foe Fred far fidget flame foil free farm fifty flat font free farmhouse file flavour fold fresh Now give them the following words, to look up their meaning: Fabricate furrow flax Fabulous fait fluor Fad falcon fluorescent Famine fen foil Flaw feta Frankenstein Flex fib fray Flo fidget fury Forge flab feisty Frill To use a dictionary and develop LO 3.7.1 vocabulary To use language for thinking by Identifying similarities and differences LO 5.2.5 Activity 1 (extended) Distinguishing parts from the whole LO 5.2.6 To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 Play with words : Extend this activity by doing the following : Separate the class into groups of 3 or 4. Give each group a piece of chalk, a koki or a crayon and a sheet of newsprint. Give each group the task of studying the words and categorizing them according to Same word endings – specify which or allow them to „discover‟: Action words (verbs) Item words (nouns) Subjects Compound words, eg. Fireman (fire + man) Words containing „oo‟; „ou‟; „ee‟; „ea‟; … etc Words containing long/short vowels Words containing consonant blends Allow time for feedback to the class. Display the newsprint in class or even in the corridor. To notice the role that visual images LO 3.1.4 play in the construction of meaning Activity 2 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 Discuss the words given. Link these words to the learners‟ families. Allow the learners to respond. This is an interesting activity as it allows the educator some insight into the children‟s families. Answers In order: Dad; Andrea ; Grant and Alexander ; aunt and uncle ; false ; true ; true ; false ; true ; true Answers a. aunt b. brothers c. sister d. husband e. granny/grandmother Treat this exercise as an open memo task. As long as the statements are true, the sentences are correct. Encourage the learners to practise reading their true statements to their partners/group members. The oral activity need not take long. Let it be very informal. Allow the learners to speak – to tell the rest of the class of their choice. Use this activity as a practice session. Learners may speak to the class individually or they may speak in their groups to each other. Monitor that they do speak in English. Assess this task. Uses additional language to communicate information on a LO 2.3.5 familiar topic – with preparation Activity 4 Writes to communicate information LO 4.1.3 Treats writing as a process and uses developing knowledge of language LO 4.5 structure and use Allow the learners enough time to do this research. Refer to your Revised Curriculum Document with regards to the writing process. Encourage the learners to edit their work/their partner‟s work and to rewrite their draft, in an attempt to eliminate unnecessary errors. Although time-consuming, it is necessary to follow the process: 1. Encourage writing a rough draft – brainstorm ideas in the form of a spider diagram or in a logical way 2. Once the rough draft has been written, allow time for the learner to read the draft critically – either self or by a classmate. Get feedback from teacher, partner or a classmate, as to errors in spelling or grammar or suggestions as to style, order, etc 3. Keep in mind any given criteria. (rubric supplied by the educator, assessment criteria, checklist, etc) 4. Re-write the draft, correcting the errors. Use a dictionary, if necessary. 5. Repeat the process until satisfied. 6. write neatly. Do not be in a hurry to complete this section of work. Ideally this process must become second nature when writing. Discuss the assessment with the learners so that they understand what is required. State the obvious. Do not take for granted that they understand what will be assessed. Reads for information LO 3.3 Activity 5 To use language for thinking LO 3.6.1 Ensure that the learners understand All the difficult/new words and phrases What the story is about The thumb rule – using the thumb to slide down the side of the page in order to indicate to the reader where they are reading, especially after having made eye- contact with the listeners. That when someone is reading, everybody else listens (good manners !) That practice (and lots of it) makes fluent reading In this activity the learner will assess him/herself, as well as a partner. Ensure that the children are well practised before assessment. Discuss the criteria with the learners beforehand, so that they are aware of what is expected. Learners can write short phrases in the spaces provided, such as „good eye-contact‟ or „a little bit slow ; need to change the tempo‟. Another way of assessing would be to indicate with ticks (1 tick would indicate „needs more practice‟; 2 ticks would indicate „satisfactory‟ and 3 ticks would indicate „well done‟.) Learners could choose to assess by means of smiling or frowning faces. Decide on a system and ensure that the learners understand what to do. Activity 6 Reads for information LO 3.3 Ensure that the learners understand All the difficult/new words and phrases What the story is about - Before allowing the learners to begin answering the questions, ensure that everybody understands how to go about completing a comprehension. - In order to aid the learners to answer the questions in full sentences, each answer has been started. This should also prevent confusion in compiling/selecting answers. - Learners can complete the checklist either once they have completed the comprehension, or after evaluation by the educator. - Encourage the learners to copy correctly from the passage (spelling) and to write the answers in their own words. Answers 1. Kit-Kat is the family cat / a cat / a cat belonging to the Malherbe family. 2. They are being fed mother’s milk by Kit-Kat. 3. Three squirrels fell out of the tree. 4. They have named the orphans Snap, Crackle and Pop. 5. They are being raised on the Malherbe‟s farm / are being raised on a farm outside Paarl. 6. The words are “pink” and „little”. 7. The squirrels are naughty, because they nibble / take bites out of his butternuts and pumpkins. 8. The lambs are all called Lambchop. 9. Open memo – as long as the learner motivates the answer. Language Structure and Use Activity 7 LO 6.4.1 Analyses word formation Spend time with the learners when doing this task. It is important that they make the connection between the given clue (eg. „ph‟) and the sound (eg. „f‟). Keep in mind that the learners will need to check their answers, using the dictionary. Do not attempt to do all the sub-sections (a – i) in one lesson. Rather spend 20 – 30 minutes every second day, completing 2 sub-sections at a time. Allow them to write the meanings of the difficult/challenging words down on the page. If it sounds If it sounds If this sounds Like this: Try this: Like this: Try this: Like this: Try this: ch ch, c j j, g s s, c, ps, sc f f, ph k c, k, ch sh sh, ch su f g, gu, gh n n, kn, gn pn w w, wh h h, wh r r, wr, rh z z, x Answers : (a) factory physical phantom photograph feather fist (b) kitten carrot chemical chorus kudu cough (c) gnome knit knight/night pneumonia knock nature (d) single circle psalm scene scented simple (e) shoulder chef sugar chiffon shelter shovel (f) wriggle wrinkle rhyme rhinoceros wrist reward (g) jazz judge giraffe gem jacket (h) gaze guess ghetto ghost guide glamour (i) zero xinnia xylophone zulu Understands oral descriptions LO 1.3.1 Activity 8 And notes relevant information LO 1.3.3 Read the following extract to the learners, slowly and clearly the first time; less slowly the second time. Ensure that the learners understand what to do when answering on the given answer sheet. This is a very simple piece of reading and the T / F questions that follow are designed to test how well they have listened to detail. Once the educator has checked the answers (the learners can mark their own answer sheets, under the guidance of the educator), read the extract once more. This enables the learners to realize where they went wrong. The Checklist has been provided so that the learners can analyse their performance in a more personal way. Once they were FREAKS, today the girls adore them! Victor and Gabriel Gomez, known worldwide as the Wolf Boys, have become heroes since joining the circus. People used to avoid them and they were called „freaks‟, but now they are even more popular than the musclemen in the show. These Mexican brothers suffer from a rare and incurable disease called hypertrichosis or “werewolf syndrome.” This means that thick, dark animal-like hair covers their faces, neck and arms from a very young age. The townsfolk were certain that they were cursed. The brothers were stared at and teased in their home town and they became so unhappy that they refused to go to school, preferring to stay at home. But this all changed when the circus came to town and their grandmother insisted they join. Robert Campa, the manager, trained the very intelligent boys to be trapeze artists, jugglers and acrobats and he hired a teacher so that they could continue with their education. “I am so happy,” says Gabriel, “I earn a good salary, I have learnt and seen interesting things and I have self-respect. We can afford to send our family money.” Instead of hurtful comments and insults, the boys are admired and receive many compliments, especially from their female admirers. Victor (13) says his life changed into a fairy-tale with a happy ending, since joining the circus. “People still call us the Wolf Boys, but they do it with love,“ he says. British children‟s rights organisations have condemned using children in freak shows. They have insisted that the practice end, pointing out that even animal acts have been banned in circuses. Victor and Gabriel do not agree and hope to continue with their profession. (Adapted from the You magazine, 9 Nov. 1995) Answers to the questions (listening skill) 1. Victor and Gabriel are known as the Wolf Boys. T 2. The brothers and their family lived in Spain. F 3. The boys are covered in a thick animal–like fur. T 4. They refused to go to school because they were naughty. T 5. Robert Campa was the teacher who was hired to continue their F schooling. 6. The boys were trained to juggle and sing. F 7. Gabriel and Victor send money home to their family. T 8. The girls adore the Wolf Boys and give them compliments. T 9. Some children‟s rights organisations want freak shows using children, to T stop. 10. Circus acts using animals are still illegal. T Discusses ethical, social and critical Activity 9 LO 1.1.4 issues Encourage the learners to speak about the issue. Depending on your class set-up, you might find it more beneficial to allow them first to discuss the topic in their groups, before giving feedback. What is teasing? Why is it sometimes fun to tease? Who gets teased? How do you feel when you tease someone / are teased? What is the alternative to teasing? This is a real-life situation and many of the learners, if not all, will be able to identify – in some way – to being teased or victimized. Thinking and Reasoning LO 5.2 Uses language for thinking LO 5.2.4 Activity 10 Classifies things according to criteria LO 5.2.5 Identifies similarities between things The humorous tale of the Three Little Pigs and the big bad wolf has been used as an introduction to Nouns. Allow the learners, either individually or in pairs, to select the 10 correct answers. This activity is simple and should not prove too difficult. Do not assess this activity – it is solely to be used as an introduction to Nouns and not as a spelling or silent reading exercise. Answers: 1. straw 2. field 3. sticks 4. forest 5. river 6. wood 7. bricks 8. bungalow 9. sun 10. lips Use the following to explain to the learners the four types of nouns. Please note that they do not have to know or identify Abstract nouns, but explain what they are to the learners. Type Description Your example Common a word used for any person, nouns animal, place or item (not specific) – ordinary, everyday things, e.g. puppy Proper the name of a particular person, animal, place or item and always begins with a capital letter (specific) –e.g. Pasha Here‟s a clue concerning the proper noun: because it is the specific name of something or someone, it is written with a capital letter. nouns Collective a word used for a collection or nouns group of similar persons, animals or items – e.g. a pile of bones Abstract words which name feelings or qualities (cannot feel nouns these with your hands) – (We do not do this in detail at all) Various exercises follow for the purpose of ensuring that the learners are able to distinguish, identify, classify, list or correct words, phrases and sentences – all involving nouns or the uses thereof. Be selective. If it is not necessary to complete all the given exercises, select only the ones you deem necessary. This is an interesting activity which allows the pupils to debate as they work. Allow them to work on their own for 5 – 10 minutes, before allowing them to continue in pairs; checking their answers at the same time. 1 Common noun 2 Proper noun 3 Collective noun 4 Abstract noun 2 Casper 3 A litter of kittens 2 Peter 3 a swarm of bees 2 Monday 3 bunch of flowers 1 ghost 4 happiness 2 Pasha 1 cat 4 a feeling of freedom 4 fear 2 Pretoria 4 peace 2 December 1 claws 3 A crowd of on-lookers 2 World War 1 Plays games involving language LO 2.4 Uses language for thinking – identifies similarities and LO 5.2.5 differences between things Activity 11 Uses language forms and structures LO 6.2 to communicate orally and in writing Develops own vocabulary LO 6.4 Have fun with this exercise. This is an oral exercise. All you wish is to elicit nouns (occupations; animals ; foods ; pencil bag items) from your learners. 1. Break away from the usual, dull method by obtaining a soft blow-up beach ball or a sponge ball, and tossing it to the learners in turn. As they catch the ball, they are required to call out the relevant answer. For example: Teacher throws ball to James and calls out, „Occupation!‟ James catches and returns ball, answering, „Farmer!‟ Teacher throws ball to Khanya and calls out, „Food!‟ Khanya catches and returns ball, answering, „Cheese!‟ Teacher throws ball to Mishkah and calls out, „Animal!‟ Mishkah catches and returns ball, answering, „Elephant!‟ … and so the game continues … Develop the game by eliminating anyone who stalls in giving an answer (or repeats an already given answer) and speed up the pace, to eliminate all participants until the „champion‟ is left. If the group is too large, break it up into smaller groups and play the same way. The educator can call out the „requests‟ and the group members can toss the ball(s) to each other within their groups. Learners within that group then have the opportunity to check on themselves. This is an energetic and fun way to get all the learners participating in an active and enthusiastic way. 2. Correct answers to this exercise : Common nouns that name Common nouns that name Proper Nouns people (RED/ brackets) objects (BLUE/underlined) (GREEN/outlined) i. neighbour squirrels Elize Grobbelaar ii. Mother cat Berena ; Kit-Kat (not „orphans‟‟ as they are not people) iii. kittens Snap ; Crackle ; Pop iv. father ; farmer pumpkins ; butternuts Pama 3. a He is a game ranger in the Kruger National Park. b. My Aunt Anne works as a secretary for the Nature Conservation Society. c. The only lioness left in captivity in Natal can be viewed at Durban Zoo. d. Port Elizabeth is a holiday resort in the eastern Cape. e. We have an “I love Cape Town” sticker on the back of our Opel Astra. 4. Basically an open memo exercise. Elicit various options from the learners. Discover how different each person‟s sentence can be. Uses punctuation LO 4.5 Activity 12 Uses language forms and structures LO 6.2 to communicate orally and in writing Learners connect the collective nouns correctly. a litter of puppies/kittens a pride of lions swarm of bees or locusts a herd of cattle a flock of sheep a school of fish/whales a bouquet of flowers a flight of stairs or aircraft a canteen of cutlery a horde of savages a fleet of motor cars a pack of wolves or cards a troop of soldiers a team of players a choir of singers Test the list of collective nouns in a circle or a row and as an answer is answered correctly, move the learner up one. Have fun with the words they make up for collective nouns. Answers 2. a Mordred, the wily wolf, eyed Lard lying in the sun. b. The Pork Times, a local newspaper, ran an article about Bacon, Rasher and Lard. c. Mordred planned to have the piggies on Christmas Eve for dinner. d. The Fry River flowed past Bacon‟s house, 3 Forest Drive, Bushville. e. “I am starving! Bacon and eggs will do!” moaned Mordred. f. The forest is situated on top of Porkchop Ridge, just below Roast Ridge. There are many reasons for using capital letters. Make sure they are correct. Activity 13 To use a personal dictionary LO 6.4 1. Enjoy their sketches 2. This activity links to the section on nouns. Capetonians Chinese Russian Namibian Congolese South African 3. a. Australians live in ...................................................... Australia b. Welsh people live in ..................................................... Wales c. In ........................................... the Swiss farmers make cheese Switzerland d. .................................................... fashion designers live in Italy. Italian e. In Japan, the ......................................... eat a staple diet of rice. Japanese f. We have .................................................. visitors from Norway. Norwegian g. In England we ate ............................. cucumber sandwiches. English h. In .......................................... the Dutch people speak Dutch. Holland i. I ate Greek salad in ............................................................ Greece j. The Spaniards are outstanding in .............................. dancing. Spanish 4. 1 P 2 O R T U G U E 5 S E 7 E O U C 9 S G L S 4 F 6 N O R W A Y 3 A U S T R I A T E P N I A D T D A N 10 D A N E I N C A E 8 I N D I A N R S 11 M E R I C A N A S 12 T U R K I S H To use language forms and Activity 14 structures to communicate orally and LO 6.2 in writing owlet owl gosling duck duckling cow kitten hen calf cat foal goose lamb goat chick ewe nestling bird kid mare The baby of a dog and the baby of a The baby of a cow and the baby of an seal have the same name: Pup elephant have the same name: Calf Let the learners read out to the class why baby animals are so sweet and attractive. Discuss cruelty to animals etc. Writes a creative script for a LO 4.3.1 dialogue Activity 15 Treats writing as a process, and uses developing knowledge of language LO 4.5.1 structure and use Treats writing as a process, and uses developing knowledge of language structure and use Child must write it and then dramatise it and then perhaps fill in the bubbles properly. So let them write down the speech in PENCIL first. Let them know that when writing dialogue, leave a space open between speakers AND new speaker; new line. This is different from writing in bubbles though where punctuation should really be correct and interesting. Ask them to avoid slang and contractions if they can. It will make a difference to the finished product! Understands, in a simple way, some LO 3.2.1 of the elements of poetry Activity 16 rhyme words which begin with the LO 3.2.2 same sound We all know these tongue twisters! Have fun with tongue twisters by seeing how quickly they can be read/said - without getting confused? They are in the Learners‟ Module. Discuss with the learners what makes this kind of poetry unique the style of this kind of poetry rhyme alliteration Encourage the learners to find other tongue twisters and to bring them to class to read or recite. This kind of poem lends itself to lots of fun – and ultimately the pupils will enjoy poetry. Groups of learners, reciting or reading tongue twisters, can compete against each other. Encourage the learners to display their choices on the pinboard, or allow them to paste their tongue twister onto an extra page in their unit of work. Poetry is for enjoyment. Keep this in mind at all times. Respects other learners gives other learners a chance to speak LO 1.5 listens to them and encourages their attempts to speak their additional language Interacts in additional language Activity 17 asks and answers questions takes part in a conversation on LO 2.1 a familiar topic expresses opinion and gives reasons expresses feelings Answers and begins to answer more LO 5.2.1 complex questions Finding out about interviewing! read the notes in the Learners‟ Module with them: Now give them the instructions: “Work with a partner. One of you is the interviewer and must interview the other. You may select topics of your own. Use current news stories. You may only use 1 prop each.” Allow the learners to complete the checklist below, before presenting their interview to the rest of the class. Remember that it is never easy interviewing someone. It is a skill that needs to be practised. Allow the learners to practise in class – so that you can help if necessary. It is simple if you allow half the class to practise at one time (a bit noisy!) while the other half of the class „ tutors‟ them. The following checklist can be put up on newsprint, on the chalkboard or even handed out to the learners, before the time. This serves as a guide while they are working in their groups. Checklist 1. The questions lead to informative answers. Yes No 2. The interviewer spoke clearly and audibly. Yes No 3. Enough time was given to answer properly. Yes No 4. The topic was interesting and newsworthy. Yes No 5. The interviewer introduced the guest. Yes No 6. This was an enjoyable task. Yes No ASSESSMENT BY EDUCATOR FOLLOWS : ASSESSMENT BY EDUCATOR 0 = Difficulty 1 = Not coping. Aid needed 2 = Needs practice 3 = Satisfactory 4 = Very well done 5 = Excellent. Competent. 1. Speaks clearly, at an appropriate pace. 0 1 2 3 4 5 2. Voice loud enough. Variety of tone. 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Questions well prepared. Not ambiguous. 0 1 2 3 4 5 4. Displays an interest in answers given. 0 1 2 3 4 5 5. Replies to questions are informative and interesting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6. Interviewer links answer. Replies to next question. 0 1 2 3 4 5 7. Well prepared. Audience clearly interested. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Try to establish how much the learners have discovered in this module. MEMORANDUM: GRADE 5 MODULE 3 FUSS ABOUT FOOD To solve a word puzzle LO 3.6.4 Activity 1 To developing your own vocabulary LO 6.4 This activity is a bit different – in this task the words are given and the learners are requested to find them. Let them shade the words. Explain that the words could read horizontally, vertically and diagonally, in all directions. Motivate the learners by allowing them to work in groups of 2 or 3. Give them a time limit. (A reward?) Continuation of task: Ask each of the learners to bring to class a pinch of one or two of the spices mentioned. Allow them to taste, smell and feel the spices. Discuss what and how these spices are used. What does the aroma remind the child of … eg. Cinnamon could remind one of winter days and hot pancakes. How quickly could they put the words into alphabetical order, according to the first letter – according to the second letter . . . Begin a herb garden in the classroom or in the school‟s garden. Make the watering, weeding, planting etc, the responsibility of the children. By the time all the work in the unit has been completed, the herb garden should be thriving. To respect other learners LO 1.5 To interact in additional language Ask and answer questions LO 2.1.1 Express an opinion and gives a Activity 2 reason for it Express feelings To switch from one language to LO 1.5 another where appropriate To classify tastes according to LO 5.2.4 criteria Continue with taste – Remind the learners to bring samples of the mentioned foodstuffs to class. For this activity to be successful, each group of learners should have the same samples to taste as every other group. For the sake of semi-control (ready yourself for a noisy tasting session!), seat the group members around tables, with their worksheets, so that they can taste and write as they go. Allow them to discuss, ask, answer, express opinions and feelings within their groups. Allow them to speak in their mother tongue only when translating in the case of someone not understanding. Encourage them to respect the opinions and feelings of others. Surprisingly, during the feedback session, it will become apparent that not everyone experiences taste as others do. In a few cases, the learners may differ in how certain tastes were categorized. Enjoy this activity, but be prepared – without firm control it could be chaotic. To interact in additional language LO 2.1 Activity 3 To collect and record information LO 5.3 To do a mind map summary of a LO 5.4 sensory experience Learners can work in pairs, but must work individually for at least one of the mind maps. Discuss the descriptive words that the class come up with. Let them record these words in their „Vocabulary Book‟. Continuation of task : The learner can select one of the mind maps and rearrange the information into informal sentences, which can be read out aloud to the class. (Reading not assessed). To read text for information LO 3.3 Activity 4 To read media text (advertisement) and respond to questions relating to LO3.5 the advertisement (visual and written text) Comprehension 1. Ensure that the learners understand: All the difficult/new words and phrases. What the text is about. 2. Discuss the text and the questions with the learners before they begin the task. Ensure that they know that they should start the full sentences with capital letters, use correct punctuation and copy any words correctly from the text. 3. Encourage the learners to write the answers in their own words. Answers 1. a) (iii) b) (i) 2. a) bowl b) beef c) cooked 3. Open memo – to an extent. The learner must be able to convey that brainfood is food/cereal that is very nutritious and feeds your body (brain) with everything it needs to make you perform at your best / your peak. 4. a) Super-Cereal is being advertised. b) It contains all the nutrients / vitamins necessary. c) Open memo – the learner must give TWO valid reasons, taken from the text, or motivate them in some way. d) Learners‟ own opinion, but reason must be logical and reasonable. e) Mothers are targeted. “Your family” implies this. To write a sequence of instructions LO 4.1.2 Activity 5 To sequence the stages in a process LO 5.2.3 Copy these instructions and allow the learners to study the eight lines well in order to rearrange them into the correct sequence. It is easier at this age to do it in a more concrete way (like a puzzle). Let them write the operative words in each instruction on slips of paper and juggle these about e.g. Place bowl / Eat / Sprinkle nuts / Peel / Ice-cream in / Split lengthways / Place two halves / Drip chocolate This is a simple exercise. The learners need to understand that there is a specific sequence involved in order for the recipe to make sense, and that using operative words (skimming) helps. To understand a sequence of LO 1.2.1 instructions by responding physically To give a sequence of instructions LO 2.3.2 Activity 6 To describe a process LO 2.3.4 To sequence the stages in a process LO 5.3.1 Learners study the sequence of the pictures and devise instructions for each, using the given words and phrases if necessary. Allow them to discuss this sequence in pairs, but the rest of the work must be done individually. It will be interesting to hear how many different versions there can be of one simple sequence of instructions. Why is this? Discuss this with your learners. The learners give their instructions orally to the rest of the group, while one or two of the listeners respond physically by miming the actions. Do not allow the learners to read their oral instructions from handwritten sentences. This is an oral exercise. Allow them to use the pictures and the words or phrases. Teach them that making mistakes is perfectly normal – and that mistakes can be rectified. In order to learn, one must make mistakes. To use language forms and structures to communicate orally and LO 6.2 Activity 7 in writing To analyse word formation LO 6.4.1 Singular and Plural … simply means: One and Many The tasks on singular and plural are covered thoroughly in this unit. Learners are provided with clues and strategies with regards to knowing when and how to use plurals, with special emphasis on spelling. Read and then: 1. Underline all the singular nouns (singular = ONE). mate ; litter ; friend ; pile 2. Circle the plural nouns in RED (plural = more than ONE). kittens ; fur; noses ; ears ; paws ; tails Discuss: What letter do you find at the end of each plural noun? Yes! Most singular nouns gain an –s when changed to the plural form. Identify other plural noun endings from these words. Write the singular noun in the boxes provided. (1) box (2) shelf (3) toy (4) potato (5) radio (6) child (7) country Discuss that some words change slightly in the plural form. Instructions to the learners : Help Pasha to teach Gemma how to discover the simple, yet valuable clues and help them to use the clues in the rules. Teach them how to look for clues : On what letter/s What was added to the Singular does the singular Plural noun word when it changed to noun noun end? the plural form? class ss classes box x boxes coach ch coaches es bush sh bushes bus s buses city The singular cities noun ends on The –y changes fly flies a consonant into -ies country and a -y countries If a noun ends in a „y‟ following a consonant, change the y to an ies. day The singular days noun ends in a Only an –s is monkey monkeys vowel and a added toy –y. toys If a noun ends in a –y following a vowel, only add an –s. shelf f shelves The f changes roof f roofs into –ves or only gains an -s. wife fe wives (This one is tricky!) When a noun ends in a single f or fe, change the „f‟ into –ves ; alternatively the word gains an –s. potato o potatoes tomato o tomatoes es mosquito o mosquitoes There is no firm rule for these words. Some plurals end in „es‟; others only take an „s‟. (Note: All musical terms end in „-os‟.) Some nouns do not really have rules on how they change. Take a look and then add a couple of your own examples: mouse - mice foot - feet child - children Examples of plurals which learners could give : louse – lice ; policeman – policemen ; fireman – firemen ; woman – women ; goose – geese ; tooth – teeth ; man – men ; die – dice ; ox – oxen Can you think of any nouns which do not change in the plural form? In other words, they stay the same … (usually name of animals) - sheep ; water ; salmon ; buck ; deer ; fish ; moose ; aircraft ; series ; reindeer Some nouns take a singular form as they are „uncountable‟ : advice ; gold ; luggage ; hair ; parking ; paper ; weather Some words appear only in plural form : scissors ; clothes ; thanks ; police ; news ; riches ; stairs ; measles ; mumps ; sports 4. Answers 1. babies 2. thieves 3. calves 4. bulls 5. chiefs 6. chimneys 7. skies 8. water 9. secretaries 10. elves 11. journeys 12. torches 13. foxes 14. atlases 15. keys 16. parties 17. silos 18. radios 19. houses 20. lice 5. Next activity: 1. battery 2. buck 3. church 4. memory 5. trolley 6. leaf 7. photo 8. gas 9. loaf 10. sheep 11. buffalo 12.. wolf 13. inferno 14. hero 15. remedy 16. mouse 17. elephant 18. bench 19. goose 20. woman To read for pleasure, practicing pitch, pace and pausing – non-fiction Activity 8 LO 3.6 and fiction at an appropriate reading and language level This activity is designed to introduce the art of reading to the learners in an interesting way so that a listener will want to reader to continue. Here the 3 P‟s are introduced to the learners: Pitch ; pace ; pausing. The designed work page is self-explanatory. To understand oral instructions and LO 1.2 descriptions To respect other learners LO 1.5 To use additional information to Activity 9 LO 2.3 communicate information To describe a process LO 2.3.3 To talk about a familiar subject with LO 2.3.5 preparation 1. Discuss this in detail with the learners. Inform them of the 3 P‟s to SUCCESS: Planning, Preparation and Practice! The success of this activity rests on the above-mentioned LEGS … It is essential that you read through the Assessment Criteria with the learners, ensuring that they understand exactly what is expected of them. NOTE Make the oral demonstration more interesting or challenging by giving learners a theme: e.g. food from other cultures (countries); desserts; economical dishes, vegetarian dishes, etc. Do not allow the learners to tell how to make a particular dish. Telling and demonstrating are two very different skills. Demonstrating how to make something is a more difficult skill as the learner needs to know how to fill up the „empty spaces‟ with relevant talk. The Assessment Criteria below is self-explanatory. Make sure that the learners receive a copy before they prepare for the oral. 2. Extension of the activity: Another brilliant idea – MONEY-MAKERS! Collect the illustrated recipe from each one. Have the pages copied. Bind in a book form. Sell! Generate an income for your class … To play a game in additional LO 2.4 language Activity 10 To use tenses to communicate orally LO 6.2 and in writing To use subject verb concord LO 6.2 Verbs are ACTION words! 1. Discuss what is happening to Gemma in this picture: You should hear answers such as: The kittens are jumping; attacking; biting ; teasing ; tickling; … Gemma. Gemma is sleeping; irritated ; unhappy ; growling ; snoring ; dreaming ; … . Explain that these are action words – they tell us what is happening. Suggested game: Let‟s play a little game: close your eyes and think of an action. Now turn to your partner and mime an action (act without talking or giving sound effects) – your partner must guess what you are miming. Swop around and now guess what action what your partner is miming. These actions are known as verbs. Every sentence has at least one verb. Use the following sentences as examples: Instruct the learners to identify verbs in the given sentences: 1. Our tomatoes grow plump and juicy in the sun. 2. We cram thirty-six tomatoes into each bottle of sauce. 3. We add herbs, vinegar and spices. 4. We enjoy our product. 2. Answers to the recipe activity : 6….4….3….7….11….14….13….12….5….8….1….10….2….9 3. Answers 1. Eggs are the power behind brainpower. 2. Buy a bag of potatoes today, as they contain all the goodness. 3. I am buying this brand of dog food, because it is just what my dog deserves. Explain the difference between 1 and 3: „are‟ = finite verb ; „am‟ = auxiliary verb/helping verb. 1. The kittens had attacked Gemma while she was sleeping. 2. Gemma is / was sniffing a nasturtium. 3. Did you know that nasturtiums are edible? 4. I am / was arranging the petals in a salad. 5. She has / had eaten today. 6. The naughty kittens are / were stalking the dog. 7. She is / was sneezing from the pollen. 8. She is / was an inquisitive puppy. An assessment is provided for the educator. To use tenses to communicate orally LO 6.2 and in writing Activity 11 To use subject-verb concord LO 6.2 Go over present, past and future tense with them. 1. Crumbs specialises in fantasy confectionary. It is the brainchild of former jewellery designer, Greg Robinson, and ex-social worker, Max Schonfield. It started five years ago and now boasts among its clients Tina Turner and Eartha Kitt. The Queen Mother ordered a birthday cake 2 m high and they covered it with icing butterflies. It will be valued at over R22 500. Extract taken and adapted from Incredible Edibles (You, 18 March 1993) 2. Complete the table below, by filling in the correct tense. Yesterday… Today … Tomorrow… (Past tense) (Present tense) (Future tense) e.g. sat sit will/shall sit 1. specialised specialises will/shall specialise 2. was is will be/shall be 3. started starts will start 4. boasted boasts will/shall boast 5. ordered orders will/shall order 3. Read the extracts and change them into the present tense: Enguiries pour into the shelter from animal lovers. They send cards with good wishes for Scarlett and her off-spring. Offers of support come from all over the world. Twins rescue cat from tree Worms. They live, breed and eat inside you. 4. Serving delicious muffins had never been this easy. They were the hottest thing to hit your freezer – muffins that went from frozen to golden in minutes. They were easy-to-use ; hassle-free and they were delicious. Yumberry „Squeeze „n Bake” ready-mixed muffin batter which came in its own piping-bag. It was as easy as that. Yumberry „Squeeze „n Bake” was available in five delicious flavours … and what was even better was that they could be stored in your freezer for up to 6 months, so you never needed to run out of muffins. 5. 5.1 went 5.6 taught 5.2 did 5.7 practised 5.3 was 5.8 watched 5.4 laughed 5.9 unfolded 5.5 made 5.10 said 6. 1. a turkey gobbles 2. a pig grunts/squeals 3. a bee buzzes 4. a horse neighs 5. a donkey brays 6. a cat mews 7. a cow lows 8. birds twitter 9. a wolf howls 10. an elephant trumpets 11. a lion roars 12. a cock crows This exercise brings to the end the section on verbs. By this time the learners should have a good and sound knowledge of verbs, their function and tenses. They should have built up a solid vocabulary as well. Check and do more examples if necessary or give extra work for practice. An assessment task is built in for the Educator. To understand, in a simple way, LO 3.2 some elements of poetry Activity 12 To write a short description LO 4.1 To write creatively LO 4.3 This can be quite fun – choose a celebrity or even someone the children can relate to (such as the Tuckshop Lady or even a secretary – what about the Principal !) and, using the formula, write an octopoem about them. Encourage the learners by offering them a prize in the form of a certificate for Best Octopoet of the Year, or even wearing civvies for the day (with permission – of course !). Display the poems, read them to the other grades, to the staff, the Principal … send copies to the local village newspaper and have them published. Boast about your octopoems ! Allow the learners to assess their own efforts. Help them to fill their own criterion into the block. To act in culturally appropriate ways LO 2.2 To role play a familiar situation, using Activity 13 LO 2.2 appropriate language and gestures To understand how to express LO 2.2 politeness in additional language Begin by explaining the difference between POSITIVE and NEGATIVE reactions so that the learners understand what is expected of them. This activity has been structured to that the learners can see how problems can be handled. They need to grasp the better way of handling a problem and why a positive way is a better method. Spend time discussing this so that they do comprehend. Link this to the previous unit where handling conflict was emphasised. To analyse word formation LO 6.4 Activity 14 To use a personal dictionary LO 6.4 Remember to continue with the spelling system with the learners: Remember to *Study the word. *Cover it up! * Try to spell it! *Write it. *Check your word! 1. When „c‟ or „g‟ are followed by : a, o or u : hard sound. 2. When „c‟ or „g‟ are followed by : e or I : soft sound. cemetery century giraffe circle giant circus cigarette engine Evaluate the learners by giving them a spelling test and allocating marks accordingly. Activity 15 To use a dictionary LO 3.7 This activity is designed to help the learners to understand how words are used in the dictionary – so that they will be able to recognise when words are used as verbs, nouns etc. 1. noun barn (barn) n. a building used to shelter farm animals and to store grain. 2. The word coop is a verb in meaning nr 2 and 3 and a noun in meaning nr 1. coop (coop) n. 1. a pen for keeping animals such as rabbits or chickens; -v 2. to put or confine in a coop; 3. to keep in a small area. (The dog was cooped up all day in the house.) 3. In this activity the learners need to explain how the word light is used as a noun and as a verb. They will need to use the dictionary for this. (a) noun e.g. The light in this room is poor. (b) verb e.g. If you light this area you will see better. 1. Look at the word beard. a. What does it mean? hair growing on the chin of a man or a goat b. What part of speech is beard ? noun c. What is the adjective form of the word? bearded / beardless 2. How many meanings does cookhouse have? 3 3. From which language is teacake derived? British 7. (a) Which gall is produced in the body? A (b) Which gall swells up leaves of plants? C (c) Which gall hurts? B (d) Which gall is caused by irritation? B 8 Use your dictionary to find these words which all begin with „tu‟. a. smart jacket for formal occasions: tuxedo b. a greenish blue colour: turquoise c. a tasty fish (delicious when tinned): tuna d. someone who teaches or instructs: tutor e. a kind of headdress: turban f. small tower: turret g. a water tortoise: turtle h. stiff net skirt worn by ballet dancers: tutu An assessment task is provided for both the Educator and the learner. MEMORANDUM: GRADE 5 MODULE 4 PEOPLE WITH PASSION To collect and record information in different ways LO 5.3.2 To do a simple survey and record the information on a LO 5.4.1 graph To transfer information form one Activity 1 mode to another To ask questions and record LO 5.4.2 information To use the information to LO 5.4.3 create a graph To use the information from the graph to write a text This is an interesting activity – but beware! It can grow quite rowdy. Allow the learners to do the survey. Discuss the rules concerning orderliness (vs chaos !) and be firm. Otherwise this activity can be a nightmare … If your class is large, allow the learners to select a cross-section group and only work with them. Display the graphs. Discuss the findings. Invite the other classes in the grade to inform your class about their findings. Allow for discussion: differences and how to cope; specially talented people vs other-talented what makes one person interested in one thing and the next person not; etc. Let the ideas flow. Once the survey has been completed, the learner must write a few sentences explaining or expanding on the results of the survey. See page 4: People make money from hobbies. How? Develop this idea within your class. You may be surprised to find that some learners are already earning from their hobbies. Perhaps compile a booklet with ideas for others. Extension of task: Feel free to use the following grid for another survey. JUST FOR FUN ! Do a sport survey among your peers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Rugby Hockey Netball Soccer Swimming Gym Horse riding Other Total of each sport! To interact in additional language, to express an opinion and give a reason LO 2.1 for it Activity 2 To use additional language to communicate – to describe the LO 2.3 purpose of something This task is quite well explained in the learners‟ unit. A choice is given – allow the learners the freedom to choose. The second choice could develop into quite an interesting oral. Turn it into a quiz. To develop own vocabulary Activity 3 LO 6.4.1 To analyse word formation 1. Remind the learners what this means: study the word ; cover the word ; spell the word ; write the word ; check the word ! The answers are : sketch ; much ; scratch ; hatch ; fetch ; itch ; duchess ; ditch ; catch ; kitchen 2. Match each invention to its use. This is a very straight forward task. This is a vocabulary task and the words can be used for spelling. Apply the strategy to this task. Devise a method to teach this task so that every child is exposed to all the words and everyone participates. JUST FOR FUN! Find out about an inventor or invention and come and tell about it! (not to be assessed) This activity is „just for fun‟ and to give the children an opportunity to communicate informally. Do not expect them to stand up in front of the class with this oral task. Allow them to work in their groups – very informally. Do not assess. To interact in additional language To take part in a conversation on a LO 2.1.2 familiar topic To express an opinion and give a reason for it Activity 4 To use language for thinking LO 2.1.3 (informal oral) To express cause and effect To express opinions and give reasons for them LO 5.2.7 To discuss advantages and disadvantages Keep these LO‟s in mind when working on this task. As before, this task in self-explanatory. The aim is to encourage the learners to state their opinions in a logical and confident way. Extend this activity: each learner brings an interesting news article to school, reads and tells the partner or group members what they have read. (Is it a good article; why; why was it chosen; what is it about?). Let them discuss how they could slant or change the angle of the article. Even better, let the group select one article out of all that were brought by their group members – let everyone try to angle the article differently. To read for pleasure – to solve a LO 3.6.4 word puzzle Activity 5 To use Language Structure and Use LO 6.3 This could be quite a challenge. Many answers could be incorrect, but there is more than one answer for each vacant space. Discuss the possibilities with the learners. Allow them to experiment with words. By inserting the correct word, the learner is proving to the educator that (s)he understands the passage. In order to understand the passage, the learner will need to read and re-read the passage, before inserting possible answers. Encourage the learners to check the passage to see that it makes sense after filling in the missing words. Possible answers : At three (1) months old he was so ill it was believed that he was dying of Aids, and he was (2) sent / transferred to the Red Cross Children‟s Hospital. He was so (3) sick / ill that it had been decided that no attempts should be made to resuscitate him if he grew any sicker. Wendy Tuffin, a 22-year-old psychology (4) student and hospital volunteer, fell in (5) love with the baby in the mere minute that he (6) looked / smiled / gazed at her. Her resistance crumbled and she soon moved him to her family (7) home in Pinelands. Wendy took time off from her studies to be a full-time (8) mom / mother / parent to him and now, two years later, with Thulani a healthy (9) toddler / child / three-year old attending play-school, she has returned to her (10) books / classes and studies. This section of the unit does not attempt to touch on Aids but this is perhaps a good link to Life Orientation and the Aids Programme. As an experienced educator who has knowledge of the backgrounds of her learners and the environment from which they come, it will be up to you how to take this further. This author has not continued with the Aids link in this module, as excellent material has been written which is already being implemented in the classroom. The answers given by the learners would mainly be synonyms. This activity is continued on page 29 (Thesaurus). Activity 6 To read for information LO 3.3 4. Ensure that the learners understand All the difficult/new words and phrases What the story is about 5. Ensure that the learners read through the passage quickly, read through the questions and then read through the passage again. 6. Before allowing the learners to begin answering the questions, ensure that everybody understands how to go about completing a comprehension. 7. Encourage the learners to copy correctly from the passage (spelling) and to write the answers in their own words. Answers to the comprehension: 1. Her name was Sonia Bata (was her name). 2. She had nearly 10 000 shoes / she had nearly 10 000 shoes and artefacts spanning 4 500 years. 3. Bata Shoe Museum in Toronto housed the collection. 4. . . . bark and other plant materials. 5. Grass insulated his shoe. 6. Insulation protected his foot from the cold/ kept out the cold/ prevented his feet from freezing. 7. It is a shoe museum and the building is shaped like a shoe box. 8. Chinese shoes were an example of foot mutilation; cruelty and suffering. 9. Commoners would have shoes with toes not longer than 15 cms. 10. Servants helped gentlemen balance on their extremely high platform shoes. 11. Wacky means „strange‟/„weird‟. (Need correct quotation marks). 12. She wore red stiletto‟s. (Apostrophe should be correct). 13. a. assistance b. photographs c. insulation d. evidence Assess this task. Allocate the following marks per question: Nr 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12 = (1) each. Nr 4, 8, 9, 10, 13a-b and 13 c-d = (2) each. Do corrections of language and spelling. Ensure that all answers are absolutely correct. Correct quoting and apostrophes. Ensure that the learners answer in full sentences and work neatly. To respect other learners LO 1.5 To interact in additional language Activity 7 LO 2.1 To use additional language creatively To imagine and describe LO 2.4.4 possibilities Before allowing the learners to begin, make sure that everyone understands your instructions clearly. The learners assess their groupwork according to the given assessment scale. There is also a self-assessment and an assessment scale for the educator. To use language forms and structures to communicate orally and LO 6.2 in writing To identify and recognise adjectives, Activity 8 to be aware of alternatives to use in a LO 6.2.7 descriptive way To use adjectives as comparatives and superlatives Additional information for the educator : 1. Adjectives describe a noun and may come before the noun, e.g. the white cat sat still. 2. Adjectives could follow linking verbs, (am ; is ; are ; was ; were) e.g. The cat is white. Adjectives can be used to form nouns : beautiful – beauty Nouns : Punk-Cat ; tom-cat ; eyes ; tail Verbs : gazes ; purrs ; flicking The words describing the nouns are Adjectives: ginger, green long, fluffy. The words describing the verbs are Adverbs : lovingly, happily, slowly. 2. Answers to the task involving categorising words into hats Movement Shape Taste Feelings/emotions Weather Feel/Touch Smell slow round salty lonely overcast woolly Can use: rapid rectangular sweet happy sunny rough sour fast square bitter sad (cold) (smooth) sweet jerky oblong sour (cold) knobbly (smooth) triangular tasteless content By placing the words in the „hats‟, the learners are experiencing and categorising the words. This is a good activity and quite enjoyable. Friendly debates as to which word fits where and why are to be expected. Challenge the learners by making them add to the lists, or to begin a totally new list in the remaining hat ! 3. So often the children only use the words „good‟, „bad‟ and „nice‟ (even the word „ugly‟) – mostly incorrectly, or in the wrong context. This exercise aims to encourage the learners to think of, and to use, other descriptive words. More than one answer could be correct. 4. Second paragraph is more interesting. The learners should be able to tell you that the paragraph is more interesting because there is more information. (It has been „coloured in‟). 5. Let different members of the class read out their sentences. Make a list of new words. 6. Comparing Adjectives : Go through the notes in the Learners‟ modules as well. How do they know when to use which form of the word: CLUE: When comparing two, add -ier to the end of the word. When comparing three or more, add -iest to the end of the word. One Two Three or more (a) large larger largest (b) tall taller tallest (c) poor poorer poorest (d) naughty naughtier naughtiest (e) silly sillier silliest (f) hard harder hardest (g) quick quicker quickest (h) old older oldest 7. a) richest b) younger c) worst d) least e) fastest 8. a) That bicycle is more expensive than this one. b) This the most comfortable chair in which I have ever sat. c) You must be more careful with your books, Anne! d) This is the most exciting story I have ever heard. e) He is the most impatient person I know. Peer-assess the learners : scale given in Learners‟ module To use language forms and Activity 9 structures to communicate orally LO 6.2 and in writing This section on Adverbs is set out very clearly for the learners in their modules. Work through the exercises carefully. As with the previous language sections in the units, do not attempt to continue unless the learners are confident in the work. Select the most suitable adverb – discuss the answers with the learners. Listen to them. Get them to think rationally in selecting an adverb to best suit the sentence. Let them work out what each word tells us (how, when, where, why, to what degree) i.e. Let them tell you the function of an adverb. The same applies to the exercise labelled; Adverbs tell us HOW, WHEN and WHERE. And the exercises which follow. Discuss the options. Allow the learners to tell the others what they have selected as an answer. A checklist in the form of an assessment (for the educator) is provided. ENRICHMENT EXERCISE : Make a spinning wheel chart, using 3 layers of cardboard joined in the middle with a split pin. Write adjectives in the outer circle, nouns in the middle circle and verbs in the inner circle. (as shown) 1. Spin and write the adjective. e.g. silly 1. Spin again and write the noun. e.g. ogres 2. Spin again and write the verb. e.g. tickle 3. Spin again for another adjective. e.g. chocolate 4. Spin again for another noun. e.g. worms Write the sentence: .................................................................................................................................... Try some more: .................................................................................................................................... This is a great game to play – and from experience I can vouch that the learners get maximum enjoyment from it. The instructions are basic and self-explanatory. See the Learners‟ Module. Develop the game by allowing the learners to change the adjectives, nouns and the verbs. Give prizes for . . . The most nonsensical sentence The weirdest sentences The truest sentence The funniest sentence, etc Allow the children to make up their own categories. Additional task – just for fun ! “PICTURE-A-NOUN!” 1. Think of a noun. 2. List 15 – 20 words describing this object. 3. Create a “picture” outline of this object, using your descriptive words. (= earthworm) To use reference books and develop Activity 10 LO 3.7 vocabulary Fill the books with words having similar meanings to the word on the spine of the book. Refer to the KEY to understand the code given. This is a very simple exercise, but it has been designed so that the learners are actually forced to use a dictionary/thesaurus, in order to find the answers. Refer to Unit 3, Activity 16 for help. Discuss context with them, and relevance. To develop own vocabulary Activity 11 LO 6.4.1 To analyse word formation Once again, use is made of a wordsearch. Allow the learners to either work on their own, in pairs or in bigger groups. Make the activity more exciting by reverting back to the method used in module 2. Give little prizes, even certificates. Select perhaps 10 words, maybe more, and practise spelling them according to the system they have been taught. Apply the strategy to this task. Additional task : some s- words. You will need a garbage bag. Get into groups of 2. You may cut, twist, knot, shape or get inside the garbage bag to depict the word you have chosen. Once finished, choose the best group. To understand stories (told or read) LO 1.1 Activity 12 To summarise the story with support LO 1.1.7 Writing IT ROSE TO THE OCCASION! Read the extract twice to the learners, fairly slowly. Their instruction is to summarise the main idea of the „story‟ in not more than TWO sentences. This article can be given to the learners beforehand or after the exercise. For this reason it has been designed to be cut and folded (not to be seen until instructed). Allow learners to write their summaries on newsprint to display in the class for purposes of discussion. Discuss the various answers given. Allow the learners to decide whose summary is better and why. Discuss the use of full sentences, clarity, simplicity, correct punctuation and spelling. To read for pleasure Activity 13 To read fiction and non-fiction at an LO 3.6.1 appropriate reading and language level LET‟S READ! Do you still remember what we learnt about in Unit 3? Practise these three concepts again. A checklist is provided for the learner to complete and a group reading assessment scale is provided for the follow-up task. By group-reading the following is meant: allow the learners to practise an extract as a mass reading / choral-verse reading. Only once they have practised as a group, should you allow them to read for assessment. To use additional language creatively LO 2.4.1 To tell a story To perform a simple play Activity 14 LO 2.4.2 To write creatively To write a play script LO 4.3 This is a group activity! Show the learners how to make finger puppets. Instructions on how to continue with planning the play, writing the drafts and then the final play, are provided and can be found in the learners‟ module. Remind the learners 1. New speaker – new line 2. Leave a line open between speakers 3. No inverted commas The way of writing the play has been set out very clearly so that there is no confusion. Make sure the learners understand the meanings of plot/storyline. This is an exciting way to end off the series of modules. Go through the notes in the Learners‟ module with the class. You will find that your learners will „go to town‟ with this task. Allow them freedom, within parameters. This might even be a good task to film on video. The learners will be quite interested to see their productions on „TV‟. There might be some parents who can help with this. Now it is time to judge their best work – have a class exhibition perhaps ? MEMORANDUM: GRADE 6 MODULE 1 CYCLE LOGIC B. LEARNING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW In this module we will focus on two aspects: Speaking and Thinking and Reasoning. The learners will be required to work in groups, with partners and on their own as they work through the activities. There is also an emphasis placed on writing dialogue and presenting dialogue. This will create an opportunity for the educator to revise and consolidate the punctuation used when writing dialogue, or using direct and indirect speech. There will also be opportunities in this module for learners to develop their vocabulary and to learn some life skills e.g. Fixing a puncture on a bicycle. Learners will learn the difference between fact and opinion and will be expected to express their opinion and that of their group in different activities. There will also be an opportunity for learners to discuss the situation in South Africa with regard to Road Safety and our accident statistics and to present possible solutions. The module is designed to be completed over a term. Some activities will require more time than others, especially the ones where talks have to be prepared or where groupwork is involved. Deadline for each activity should be given, so that learners are able to plan their time accordingly. Rubrics or Assessment Charts are laid out at the end of each activity. Explain WHY they are doing the activity and WHAT they should learn or grasp during the activity. They will also be assessed on neatness and presentation in many of the activities. C. STEP-BY-STEP THROUGH THE MODULE AND MEMORANDUM Activity 1 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity is designed as an introduction to the module. The aim is to encourage the learners to start thinking and talking about bicycles but also to encourage them to take note of the details in the picture. Before allowing the learners to tackle the activity, discuss the cartoon picture with them. It is important that they understand how the illustrator has communicated the cyclist‟s fall to us in the picture. They must be encouraged to pay attention to the detail in the drawing, e.g.: the look on his face, the size of his eyes, and the shape of his mouth. Each one of these details has been drawn in this way to communicate specific information to us – visual literacy. Ensure that learners have an adequate understanding of adjectives so that they are able to complete question 4 on their own. Read through the comprehension questions with the class before allowing them to answer the questions on their own. Learners should be encouraged to use full sentences as far as possible. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart once you have marked the questions. Memorandum for comprehension: 1. He is called a psychologist. 2. Learners should comment on the play of words. 3. Creative thinking must be encouraged. 4. scared, shocked, pain, frightened, surprised, afraid, 5. bulging eyes, shape of mouth, hands outstretched, legs outstretched To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories. Activity 2 To use language for thinking. LO 5.2 In this activity, we focus on reading and using language for thinking. We want to determine whether or not the learners are able to understand what they are reading. Before allowing the learners to answer the questions, read through the story with them. This may be an opportunity for you to assess certain learner‟s reading ability as they read aloud for their peers. Before they start reading, go through the rubric at the end of the activity with them, highlighting what you will be listening for as they read. Allow a learner to read a few paragraphs aloud and then make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to record your assessment. This exercise could also be done in groups. One group member could read the story aloud while the other members make use of the rubric to do a peer assessment. Once the story has been read through at least twice, it is time to allow the learners to answer the questions on their own. Be sure to read through the questions with the class before they start the questions. Encourage them to answer the questions in full sentences as far as possible. 1. Randy was riding with Mona and Rush. 2. She was feeling half-elated and half-afraid. 3. She saw an old lady and some chickens run across the road. 4. Her first fall was caused by a squirrel. 5. Randy had been trained to ride a bike but could not remember: paragraph 4…”She couldn‟t remember how to stop or put on the brake.” She also knew to ride on the right-hand side of the road. 6. “smooth as satin”, “skimming like a swallow” 7. This would indicate that he was shocked or surprised at seeing Randy speeding so fast down the hill. 8. stores, Carthage, concrete highway 9. excited = elated, strictly = sternly, “pick up” speed = gathered speed 10. “broad blue back” 11. “whist, whist” 12. This line is a paragraph on its own because the author wants to emphasize it. 13. Learners must think up the next paragraph for the story. Activity 3 To develop own vocabulary LO 6.4 The following activity is designed to introduce learners to the correct vocabulary to use when talking about bicycles, but it will also teach them about fixing punctures. Children who have fixed a puncture before, on their own or with a parent, should not have a problem understanding and completing this exercise, but many children may not have been exposed to the process of fixing a puncture and may need a little help. If at all possible, arrange to have a bicycle or bicycle wheel in your classroom for this lesson, so you are able to show your learners exactly what the words in the exercise are referring to. Read through the exercise with your class before allowing them to complete the answers. It would be a good idea to allow one learner to demonstrate using the bicycle wheel as you or a learner read the instructions. The answers are as follows: (in the correct order) valve bubble wheel tyre lever puncture water sandpaper patch chalk check tube onto pinch wheel Activity 4 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 The focus of this activity is FACT and OPINION. Read through the definitions, found at the start of the activity, with your class. Encourage them to give you examples of facts and opinions. Be prepared to give them a few verbal examples of facts and opinions and ask them to identify which is which, so you can determine whether they are developing an understanding of the concept or not. Read through the given article with the class before allowing them to attempt the answers. Once again, the learners are asked to look at ways in which the illustrator is communicating through the drawing – discuss the picture before they begin. The second part of the activity consists of sentences that need to be classified as FACT or OPINION by the learners. There are a number of ways that this part of the activity could be done. You could read through the sentences and allow the learners to classify them as you read, or allow them to complete the whole exercise on their own, or divide them into groups and allow them to classify the sentences in groups. The sentences that have been given to them are all about social and environmental issues. These may spark some interesting debates as the learners decide whether they are FACT or OPINION, so it could make for an interesting group work activity. They are then required to think of some facts and opinions of their own. This part will allow you to determine who has grasped the concept and who needs some more practice. This part of the activity should be completed on their own. If you feel that another exercise is required, it is possible to make use of a newspaper/magazine article. Learners must identify facts and opinions in the articles. Also, remember to refer to fact and opinion as you are discussing or teaching other subjects in your classroom. When statements are made, ask learners to determine whether they are stating a fact or expressing an opinion. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart when you are marking the exercise. Activity 5 To interact in additional language LO 2.1 Our focus shifts now to speaking. Each member of your class will have an opportunity to speak in front of the class for 1-1½ minutes. Start this activity by dividing the class into groups of four. There are four topics to be discussed. These topics must be shared out in the group so that each group member is talking on a different topic. The topics are as follows: 1. Causes of accidents and road deaths in South Africa. Speaker 1 2. Rules of the road that we think are essential. Speaker 2 3. Responsibilities of cyclists and pedestrians. Speaker 3 4. How we can help to improve the situation. Speaker 4 This activity will require a few lessons for preparation. Over two or three days, allow some time for the group to meet and to discuss the topics. Each speaker must express the opinion of the group with regards to their topic, but they may also add their own feelings or opinions if they choose to. When the group presents their talk, the whole group must sit together in front of the class. Allow time at the end of each group‟s presentation for the class to ask questions about what they have heard. Read through the Assessment Chart with the class before any of the talks take place. Learners may assess each other during the talks, but this would be dependent on the availability of copying facilities that would allow you to copy extra rubrics. To use additional language to Activity 6 LO 2.3 communicate information This activity will focus on speaking. Learners will be required to prepare a talk on their own. They must choose one of the topics provided and prepare a two-minute talk to be presented to the whole class. Speaking in front of other people can be a difficult and daunting undertaking for many learners and the educator will need to put their minds at rest and give them tips on how to prepare themselves adequately. Read through the Educator‟s Assessment Chart with them. Be sure to explain and demonstrate the meaning of “eye-contact”, “enunciation” etc. and to explain the correct use of notes and visual aids. Learners must make use of the space in the workbook to prepare their talk. Encourage them to think about their introduction, main points and conclusion. Once they have done this, they can start preparing in more detail, and making their visual aids and notes. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to assess each learner as they speak. Learners may also assess each other. To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 7 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 Our focus moves away from speaking now and back to reading and using language for thinking. In this activity, learners have the opportunity to learn about a famous cyclist called Lance Armstrong. Allow learners to read through the article on their own or use this as a reading assessment by allowing certain learners to read the article aloud for you. Read through the questions with the class before they start the activity. Allow them to answer the questions on their own. Encourage them to make use of full sentences when answering the questions. Make use of the following memorandum as a guide. 1. A person who rides a bicycle regularly, takes part in competitions. 2. unbeatable 3. He did not really understand how serious his condition was and he did not go for treatment. 4. The three factors were physical conditioning, a strong support system and a competitive spirit. 5. The Tour de France is a cycle race that is held in France. 6. He has won the race four times. 7. (Allow children to think for themselves.) 8. (Make dictionaries available, if possible, in case they would like to look up words.) 9. wine, Eiffel Tower Use the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Showing development in ability to Activity 8 write stories, play scripts and LO 4.3 dialogues In this activity, learners will be given the opportunity to write creatively. They are required to write a play-form dialogue that takes place between a mother and daughter. This will also allow you to focus on the punctuation used when writing a dialogue. Ensure that you read through the task with the learners. Discuss the pros and cons of the request, allowing learners to mention what the mother might be concerned about and what the daughter would be arguing about. Once the discussion is finished, remind the learners of the punctuation that is used when writing a dialogue. Important points to stress would be: New speaker, new line. Make use of the colon. Leave a line between speakers Do not use inverted commas. It may be a good idea to write an example of one or two lines of dialogue on a board that learners may refer to. Then allow learners to brainstorm their own ideas in the space provided for the rough draft before they attempt the final copy. Draw their attention to the rubric that will be used for assessment. To use language forms and Activity 9 structures to communicate orally and LO 6.2 in writing Learners will once again be working in groups for this exercise, combining their creative thoughts, while still focusing on the concept of a dialogue. Once they have been divided into groups of four, allow them to discuss the pictures in their workbook, making suggestions about what has happened and what is being said in each picture. Once they have reached consensus, the dialogue that they have thought up must be written on the lines provided. Remind learners that no inverted commas are required at this stage. The names of the girls in the story are Deb and Sally. The correct dialogue for each picture is then presented to the learners in the next part of the activity and in their groups, they must discuss the sentences and match them with the correct numbers so that the story makes sense. Once this part of the activity is complete, learners will then work on their own, to complete the next part of the activity. Unlike the exercise before, this activity requires inverted commas and commas. It may be necessary to revise the use of inverted commas and learners might find it useful to have an example on a board to refer to. Make use of the rubric at the end of the activity for your assessment. Memorandum: 1. C 2. L 3. E 4. J 5. F 6. K 7. A 8. I 9. B 10. H 11. G 12. D Correct punctuation of sentences: 1. “Hello Deb,” called Sally. “Where‟s your bike?” 2. “Somebody stole it last night,” replied Deb. 3. “Jump on. I‟ll give you a lift, “ offered Sally. 4. “Thanks,” said Deb. “Let‟s go down to the canal.” 5. “Mind that dog, Sally!” shouted Deb. 6. “Oh no!” cried Sally. 7. “Ouch! My leg!” moaned Deb. 8. “Never mind your leg. What about my bike?” asked Sally. 9. Can you see it?” asked Deb. 10. “No, the water is as black as ink,” replied Sally. 11. “Here it is, Deb!” shouted Sally. “I found it.” 12. “And here‟s my stolen bike too,” cried Deb. Activity 10 To use additional language creatively LO 2.4 This activity combines a number of the aspects covered in the previous activities. Learners must be divided into pairs. They will have to write a dialogue between two people involved in a situation that they have chosen from the list provided. Once they have written the dialogue, and have been given sufficient time to prepare, they will be required to present the dialogue to the class. Before the learners make their choice about which dialogue to write, read through each situation with them. Then allow enough time in class for them to work on a rough draft and to complete their final copy. Any extra work to be done with regards to their dress or visual aids will have to be done at home. Draw their attention to the rubric. Be sure to schedule enough time every day to listen to the dialogues. Activity 11 Using language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity requires learners to work on their own again. They will be expressing their own opinion – not that of a group! The learners are presented with two adverts for bicycles. Read through these adverts with the class before allowing them to start the activities. As the learners read the adverts, encourage them to use their pencils to underline the words that they do not understand. These words can then be written into the table and looked up in the dictionary. Learners are required to make a choice between the two bicycles in the adverts. They must be able to explain what appeals to them about the bicycle. They must also use their imagination and mention what they would like added to the bicycle to make it perfect. Once the exercise is complete, allow learners to share their ideas with each other, just for interest sake. Remember to draw their attention to the fact that they will be assessed on neatness, creativity as well as spelling and punctuation. deep, protective MUDGAURDS twist grip control GEARS a giant REFLECTOR heavily studded tread TYRES kickdown PROP STAND quick adjusting SADDLE powerful, reliable BRAKES a detachable HOLDALL To collect and record information in LO 5.3 different ways – labelling a diagram Activity 12 To develop own vocabulary LO 6.2 Learners must label a bicycle in this activity. It may be interesting to allow them to complete it on their own with no help from you. The answers are as follows: 1. seat or saddle. 2. rear brake 3. rear mudguard 4. rear reflector 5. chain 6. crank axle 7. chain wheel 8. crank 9. pedal 10. handlebar grip 11. headset 12. handlebars 13. brake lever 14. brake cable 15. down tube 16. front mudguard 17. front brake 18. tyre 19. rim 20. spoke 21. tyre valve The last part of the activity is just for fun. This could be completed with a partner or in groups. Dictionaries may be required for this activity. SEAT OR SADDLE TYRE VALVE PEDAL DOWN TUBE Another mode of Dictionary Write down TUBE is also the name of the transport that meaning of another word needs a saddle: VALVE ending in –al. UNDERGROUD TRAIN HORSE DEVICE FOR MEDAL in London. CONTROLLING PASSAGE OF LIQUID OR GAS THROUGH PIPE CRANK HANDLEBAR GRIP REAR MUDGUARD BRAKE CABLE Add a letter to this Complete the A word that What is another meaning of word to make a saying: Get a rhymes with REAR the word CABLE? new word. GRIP on is TO COMMUNICATE A CRANKY REALITY NEAR, TEAR MESSAGE REAR BRAKE RIM rear reflector FRONT BRAKE Opposite of the Another place Another word that Another word that sounds word REAR where a RIM is ends in –or the same as BRAKE but is found spelt differently FRONT DIRECTOR, CUP INSPECTOR BREAK HANDLEBARS SPOKE HEADSET FRONT MUDGUARD Another word that Is this a noun or a Think of another What is the meaning of ends in –le verb when word containing MUDGUARD? referring to a the word HEAD CANDLE, “bicycle spoke”? GUARD ON BICYCLE THAT SANDLE HEADACHE, PROTECTS BICYCLE AND NOUN HEADREST CYCLIST FROM MUD That brings you to the end of the first module. Well done. MEMORANDUM: GRADE 6 MODULE 2 A ZOO IN THE CLASSROOM B. Learning Programme Overview The theme of our second English Module is “Zoo in the Classroom”. As this title suggests, the module deals with many different types of animals, real and imaginary, and is designed to be fun and interesting. The focus of this module is „Reading and Viewing‟ and „Thinking and Reasoning‟. There are activities involving creative writing too, and learners should have a good grasp no adjectives and writing descriptively after completing this module. The learners will still have opportunities to work in groups, in partners and on their own as they work through the activities. The educator will have the freedom to decide, in many cases, whether to allow learners to work individually or in groups, as many of the activities can be done in either way very successfully. This module also encourages learners to use their imagination and will assess listening abilities of each learner. We also look at idioms and give learners a chance to make up their own idioms. Learners reading abilities are also developed – first teaching them to establish the main point of a passage, and then encouraging them to pick out details and to determine which statements relate to the topic and which to not. They will also learn to gather information from different sources e.g. from a bar chart. The module ends off with a sequencing exercise and the opportunity for learners to design their own advert. This module is also designed to run over the term. Be sure to give learners a deadline for each activity as you begin the activity, so that they are able to plan their time accordingly. Rubrics or Assessment Charts are laid out at the end of most activities. It is important to read through these rubrics with the class before allowing them to begin the activity. Make sure that they understand WHY they are doing the activity and WHAT they should learn or grasp during the activity. Enjoy working through this module with your class. C. Step-by-step through the Module and Memorandums To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 1 To developing own vocabulary LO 6.4 This introductory activity is about a little girl with a pet dinosaur! Learners are required to complete the story by filling in the words that have been provided in the correct place. Allow learners to complete the exercise on their own. The rubric will allow you to assess who is able to make sense of the passage as they read. Anne has got a very UNUSUAL pet. He is a dinosaur. She WON him in a raffle. Her pet is called Thesaurus. Every day Anne takes Thesaurus for a WALK. Thesaurus becomes upset when he sees everybody run away as he comes into view. He does not know that HUMANS are afraid of dinosaurs. Anne MAKES Thesaurus curry for his tea. He eats 1,427 bowls of curry PER week. Thesaurus likes rice too. He eats 150 kilos of rice a day. Thesaurus sleeps in ANNE‟S back yard. When he snores, all the TILES fall off the roof. His snoring keeps the neighbours awake. They have told Anne to GET RID OF Thesaurus. Anne bought EAR plugs for them instead! The AUTHORITIES have told Anne not to take Thesaurus out on the street. Thesaurus's huge feet make deep holes on the pavement. Thesaurus has a NASTY habit of sitting on cars. This squashes them flat like PANCAKES. Sometimes he sits on them when the drivers are inside! People come from all over the WORLD to see Thesaurus. He tries to shake hands with everyone he meets. They run away as FAST as they can. Anne is KNITTING Thesaurus a scarf for his birthday. It is 124 metres long. The second part of the activity makes use of the same words, but is a fun exercise. Learners make work in partners or groups to complete the table. The answers are as follows: knitting nasty per pancakes Think of another word with What is the opposite of Think of another word that What two words make up the –ing sound. this word: starts with this sound. this word? LIVING, RUNNING KIND PERSON, PERHAPS PAN + CAKE Anne‟s fast ear makes What part of speech is Use this word as an Think of another word with Think of a word that this? adverb: this sound: rhymes with this word. PROPER NOUN RUNNING FAST TEAR, NEAR CAKES, BAKES humans won world walk What is the dictionary What part of speech is What is the dictionary Write down a word that meaning of this word? this word? meaning of this word? rhymes with this word: BELONGING TO THE VERB TIME OR STATE OR TALK GENUS HOMO SCENE OF HUMAN EXISTANCE authorities tiles unusual get rid of What part of speech is Think of a word that What part of speech is What would the opposite this word? rhymes with this word. this word? of this phrase be? NOUN MILES ADJECTIVE AQUIRE To write to communicate information Activity 2 LO 4.1 accurately This activity will require learners to use their imagination! They have to pretend that they also own a pet dinosaur. They must draw a picture of their dinosaur in the first block provided. Before allowing them to draw the picture, have a class discussion about what they should include in their drawing e.g. body shape, head, tail, colour, eyes and mouth. The dinosaur should also have a facial expression that communicates its feelings. In module One, we looked at how illustrators communicate information through their drawings. Remind the learners of this and discuss some examples: closed eyes = sleeping, big bulging eyes = fright, sparkling eyes = happy. Make sure that the learners understand that they will have to describe their dinosaur in the next part of the activity so they must draw things that they will be able to describe! Once the dinosaur has been drawn and coloured-in, allow learners to give their dinosaur a name. In the next part of the activity, learners must describe every detail of their dinosaur in the block provided. Ensure that they have a good understanding of descriptive adjectives before they start. Draw the learners‟ attention to the checklist that has been provided. They may tick off each item as they describe it. Once the description is complete, divide the class into partners. Allow learners to cover the drawing of their dinosaur with another piece of paper. The learners will then swap books with their partner. They must write their name in the space provided and read the description of the dinosaur. Once they have read through the description a few times and have formed a picture of the dinosaur in their heads, they must draw the dinosaur in the block provided. Once they have both completed their drawings, they can give the book back to their partner. Learners must then compare the two drawings to see how accurate their partner has been in interpreting their description. The learners and the educator can complete the Assessment Chart in this activity. Activity 3 To use additional language creatively LO 2.4 The focus shifts now to oral work, although the learners are still pretending that they own a pet dinosaur. In this activity the learners must make up a story about how they came to own this dinosaur in the first place. Learners must talk for 1-1½ minutes each. The class must be encouraged to listen as their fellow learners speak. Encourage learners to make the talk interesting to listen to. Draw their attention to the rubric at the end of the activity so that they know what they will be assessed on. A section has been provided for brainstorming and for the planning of the final copy of their talk. Activity 4 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 In this activity the focus is on REAL animals and not imaginary ones! Learners must look carefully at all the animals in the picture. Have a discussion about what animals they can see and what they are called. In the table that follows the picture, words that are associated with each animal are listed in a block. Learners must guess what animal is being referred to. One letter in each word must be circled to make up the animal‟s name. 1. brown tail bite 7. ears grass babies Rat burrow field fast Rabbit 2. speak gay tropical 8. carry aggressive jump feathers multi-coloured Parrot desert long-necked Camel pet 3. golden king roar jungle 9. poison long scales Lion quick tongue Snake 4. black forest large fur 10. pink dirty greedy Bear Pig 5. hunt striped growl 11. small nervous quiet fierce courageous Tiger cheese hole Mouse 6. timid speedy gentle 12. angora horns hair herd Deer mountains Goat 13. loud cross stubborn back hooves grey Donky Once they have completed this part of the activity, the learners are then asked to use the words in sentences. The important thing to notice, is that they also need to include a collective noun in the sentence. This means that they may have to make up collective nouns for many of the animals. This is meant to be a fun creative activity and learners can share their suggestions for creative nouns with each other once the activity is complete. Draw their attention to the fact that they will be assessed on the correctness of their sentences, so they must write full sentences that make sense, even though they are inventing collective nouns. Punctuation, spelling and neatness will also be assessed. To use language for thinking LO 5.1 Activity 5 To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories This activity is testing the learners‟ comprehension of a passage and their understanding of the characters‟ reactions in the story. Read through the passage with the class. Make use of the opportunity to allow some learners to read aloud so that you can assess their reading using the rubric provided. Read through the questions with the class before they begin. Remember to encourage them to use full sentences when they answer. Memorandum: 1. The elephant wanted to know what a hospital was like. 2. The first ward he visited was full of old ladies. 3. He knocked over a vase of flowers with his trunk. 4. The old ladies screamed. 5. The old ladies were afraid of the elephant. 6. The doctor brought the situation under control. 7. The elephant followed the doctor because he grabbed two oranges and the elephant loved oranges. 8. The doctor was very CLEVER. 9. The elephant waved his trunk from side to side just to be friendly. 10. (Learners must think of a creative title.) 11. (Learners must make up this part of the story.) Activity 6 To show understanding of stories LO 1.1 This activity is a listening activity! The educator will read a passage about gorillas. The learners will be asked to underline the answers to questions about the passage as the educator reads. It is important to read slowly and clearly. Read through the passage twice. The first time, the learners must just sit and listen to the passage. The second time, the learners must take their rulers and underline the correct answers. Educators will then assess the activity making use of the chart provided. The passage: When we think of the gorilla, we often think of chest-beating. The gorilla is the only animal that does it. So what is the chest-beating all about? Gorillas live in rain forests in parts of Africa. They live in family groups. One of the older males is the leader of the group. The gorillas wander through the forest, feeding as they go. If a strange animal appears, the leader gives a mighty roar. The animal may be another male gorilla who is not welcome. The sound of this roar almost shatters the ears. One roar like this is enough for most animals. They turn tail and flee. But if the roar is not enough to frighten the stranger, then the gorilla begins his chest-beating routine. He begins by hooting. At first this is not very loud. But slowly the hoots get louder and more frequent. Soon it becomes a flood of sound. It ends up in an ear-splitting scream. The leader becomes annoyed if any of the other gorillas interrupts him. When this happens, he stops and begins again. As well as making this noise, he also bites at tree branches, and he tears up whole bushes and hurls them into the air. Even lumps of soil are sent flying. At last he comes to the climax. He stands up to his full height, and begins to beat his chest. His cupped hands give a hollow, booming sound. This carries a long way through the jungle. Besides his chest, he may also use other parts of his body. If a tree is nearby, he may beat that. Other members of the group may help him by beating their chests, but sometimes they hide behind bushes and leave him to it. If the strange animal is a male gorilla, the leader may then take a few steps towards him. He jerks his head, growls and gnashes his teeth. If the stranger stands his ground, the leader moves forward again. This time he waves his arms wildly. Then, if all this has failed, he charges, screaming as he goes. Most animals will have fled by this time, but another male gorilla may stand his ground. Then the leader goes up to him and stares in his face. The two huge animals hardly ever actually fight. They just stare, until one of them gives up. He turns his back and walks away. For a while the winner stares after the loser. Then he walks back to the group. The answers: 1. Gorillas live in rain forests/ parts of Africa / rain forests in parts of Africa. 2. The leader of a group of gorillas is always a/an female / young male / older male gorilla. 3. The leader first tries to frighten the stranger by beating his chest / giving a mighty roar / hooting. 4. Most animals flee when they hear the first roar / they see the leader / the leader charges. 5. The chest-beating routine starts with climbing / hooting / beating. 6. If the gorilla is interrupted, he runs / starts again / screams and charges. 7. During his routine, the gorilla may also jump up high / whistle / bite tree branches. 8. At the climax of his routine, the gorilla beats his chest / charges / bites the stranger. 9. Other members of the group may help the gorilla by jumping / beating their chests / fleeing. 10. The last thing the leader does to frighten the stranger is stare / charge / scream. 11. The male gorillas always end up by fighting / usually fight / hardly ever fight. 12. The gorillas stare at each other until nightfall / one gives up / one gets sleepy. To use language forms and Activity 7 LO 6.2 structures tot communicate In this activity, we are once again looking at ways to describe things. The learners are introduced or reminded about SIMILES. (Comparisons using the words LIKE or AS) Similes allow us to create vivid word pictures. Read through the definition with the class and discuss the given example. The learners are then faced with a list of similes that must be completed by choosing the correct ending. This can be done as an individual exercise or as a group activity. The answers are as follows: 1. as angry as A WASP 2. as busy as A BEE 3. as blind as A BAT 4. as clumsy as AN OX 5. as sly as A FOX 6. as lazy as A BEAR 7. as mischievous as A MONKEY 8. as playful as KITTEN 9. as sick as A DOG 10. as strong as After completing this exercise, the learners are required to identify similes in a passage. This exercise should be done on their own. Read through it as a class before allowing them to start. Make use of the Educator Assessment Chart once you have marked the activity. When full-grown, the body of the harvest mouse is only as long as a crayon. Three adult harvest mice would not weigh as much as one slice of cheese! Like a newborn baby, a harvest mouse needs to eat constantly. You can find them crunching and munching at any time of the day or night. A field is a perfect place for harvest mice to build their nests. First, grass is woven to look like a cup. Then the cup is lined with more grass that the mice shred until it is as soft as cotton. The tiny nests of harvest mice hang from grass stalks. The nests are small because a newborn harvest mouse weighs less than a thumbtack. Watching harvest mice is as much fun as watching a circus. The mice look like midget acrobats performing tricks. They swing and twirl from grass stem to grass stem as swiftly as a trapeze artist changes trapezes. Their long narrow tails swing from side to side. Harvest mice look like they might fall, but they hold onto the grass by wrapping their tails around the blades. Then they use their hind feet to grab the stems and ride the grass like children on a swing. Their front feet are stretched out and their whiskers are like a spider web in a breeze. Although harvest mice may look like they’re putting on a show, they are actually working. Their scurrying to and fro as if playing hide and seek is really their process of searching for food. Activity 8 To develop vocabulary LO 6.4 This activity focuses on the sounds that animals make. Ensure that learners understand the word ONOMATOPOEIA. (Words that sound similar to the sound they describe.) The learners are given two lists – they must match the correct sound to the animal that makes that sound. Go through the list with the learners before they begin. Talk about the sound of the words and what each one means. (This could get a little noisy as the learners experiment with the sounds!) 1. A sheep BLEATS. 6. Cats PURR. 2. Snakes HISS. 7. Pigs GRUNT. 3. Turkeys GOBBLE. 8. Wolves HOWL. 4. Donkeys BRAY. 9. Frogs CROAK. 5. Elephants TRUMPET. 10. Monkeys CHATTER. The next part of the activity is still focused on developing vocabulary, but this time we are looking at the words used to refer to males, females and babies in the animal families. The learners are provided with the words they need and must match the correct word with the correct family. Once again, this could be done individually or in partners. Learners must understand that when they work together, they have to agree on an answer that they will both use. If this answer is wrong, they will both be affected in the assessment. It is one of the difficult lessons to learn when working with another person or in a group. Animal Male Female Baby Pig boar SOW piglet Cow BULL cow calf Sheep ram EWE lamb Dog dog bitch PUPPY Hen ROOSTER hen chicken Horse stallion mare FOAL Elephant bull COW calf Lion lion lioness CUB Swan cob pen CYGNET Goose goose GANDER gosling Make use of the Assessment Chart at the end of the activity once you have marked the answers. Be sure to point out to the learners that they will be assessed on neatness and thoroughness. To use language forms and Activity 9 LO 6.2 structures to communicate This activity focuses on idioms. Learners must study the pictures in their workbooks very carefully and then write the correct idiom, using the clue given, under each picture. Before allowing the learners to complete this exercise, go through the clues with them. They may not have heard of the idiom that is being referred to in the clues. If you find that idioms are a very new concept to your learners, write the idioms on the board and allow them to match the correct idiom to the picture by choosing one of the options from the board. To cry crocodile tears. To take the bull by the horns. Like water off a duck‟s back. To count your chickens before they hatch. To feel like a fish out of water. Like a wolf in sheep‟s clothing. In the next part of the activity, learners must try to think of idioms that make use of colour. They may work in groups, ask parents, look in books etc to find these examples. Should books not be available, or should they be finding it difficult to find examples, make use of the following list of idioms to help them. 1. All that glistens is not gold. 2. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 3. Beggars can‟t be choosers. 4. New brooms sweep clean. 5. Once bitten, twice shy. 6. Charity begins at home. 7. Every cloud has a silver lining. 8. Too many cooks spoil the broth. 9. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 10. More haste, less speed. In the last part of the activity, learners are asked to be creative and to think of their own idioms that make use of animals as a theme. This is a challenging exercise and learners may want to work in partners or in groups. As an introduction to this part of the activity, go though some examples of animal idioms that already exist and discuss the meanings. The following are some examples that you may use: 1. The early bird catches the worm. 2. While the cat‟s away the mouse will play. 3. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 4. Let sleeping dogs lie. 5. The last straw that breaks the camel‟s back. 6. Give a dog a bad name and hang him. 7. Every dog has its day. 8. Care killed the cat. Remind learners that they will be assessed on neatness and on the originality of their examples. Activity 10 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity relies on the fact that learners have grasped the concept of what a FACT is. They have to identify the sentences in a passage that have nothing to do with the topic. The topic of the passage is SPEED of various animals. Read through the passage with the class before they begin. Then allow them to underline the sentences they think are not related to the topic. This exercise should be done individually. Ensure that you remind them to use a ruler as they work – they are being assessed on neatness in this activity. The sentences are: A porcupine protects itself from enemies by arching its quilled back. The cheetah is found in Asia and Africa. Antelopes are timid creatures that usually run away rather than face a fight. With the exception of humans, the elephant has no natural enemies. A snail leaves a silver slimy trail as it moves. Make use f the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. To understand some elements of Activity 11 LO 3.2 poetry Rhyming words are the focus of the following activity. Learners are required to complete a poem by filling the words that are missing. As an added challenge, the exercise must be timed to assess how quickly the learners can identify the words. Learners with a good understanding of rhyming words will be able to complete the entire poem in the allotted time. Learners who are battling with the concept of rhyming words will not be able to find the correct words and will therefore not complete the poem in the allotted time. The Assessment Chart at the end of the activity will also help you with the assessment. Before allowing learners to start the activity, discuss rhyming words with them. Ask them to give you some examples of words that rhyme. Once you are happy that you have revised this concept, let them start the activity with a time limit. (no more than 5 minutes.) After the allotted time, take their workbooks in for marking. Once the books have been marked, it is important that they complete the activity. Allow more time for this. Learners may now work in partners and compare answers so that those who need a bit more time to consolidate the concept may learn from their peers. The poem should be completed as follows: I'd like to tell you now the TALE, Of Willowby, the lovesick WHALE, Who felt his life was getting STALE, For want of his own young WHALE, There wasn't anyone to BLAME, That he could never find a DAME, He didn't fly into a RAGE , Instead, he sought the ocean SAGE, Who organised a whale PARADE, To see if Willowby made the GRADE, With a lovely lady whale called JADE, Whose beauty wouldn't ever FADE, The route the whale parade would TAKE, Would pass up through a deep sea LAKE, The sage was sure Jade's lovely SHAPE, Would make young Willowby's whale mouth GAPE, And sure enough, her beauty RARE, Made Willowby both stop and STARE, He flipped for joy and made a WAVE, And took Jade with him to his CAVE, And swam about in happy DAZE, His dear Jade never left his GAZE, In calmest days or in a GALE, Of whales, he was the happiest MALE. Activity 12 To write creatively LO 4.3 The focus shifts now to creative writing. Learners must complete a story by giving it a humorous ending. Before they begin, read through the cartoon with the class to ensure that they understand what has happened to the poor lion. Once this is done, allow them a few minutes of silence to think about their ending and to plan it in their head. Be careful of making too many suggestions as this could stifle the creativity that you are looking for. Remind learners that you are looking for original ideas and that they will be assessed on neatness as well as the correctness of their spelling and punctuation. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to guide your assessment. Activity 13 To read for information LO 3.3 This activity allows learners to practise the skill of identifying the main point in a passage. There are two passages provided. Read through the passage with the class before beginning the exercise. The learners must then underline the main point from the given options. The learners must also think of an appropriate title for each passage. Answer for passage 1: A. Earthworms are very valuable creatures in several different ways. B. The earthworm's diet is mainly dead plant material. C. Earthworms can be found in the top layers of the soil. D. Earthworms cannot see well. Answer for passage 2: A. How leopards greet each other. B. How leopards grow up. C. Why leopard cubs hide in bushes. D. How many cubs leopards have The Educators Assessment Chart will help with your assessment of this activity. To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 14 To respect other learners LO 1.5 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This is a reading activity, but learners will also have to listen to each other very carefully and make use of interpretation skills while they are reading. Begin by dividing the class into groups of four. Each member of the group will be a character in the story. Allow some time for them to decide who will be reading which part. Allow some time for the groups to read through the passage. They will need to practise the voice they are going to use, practise any gestures they would like to use as they read and familiarize themselves with the text so that they do not stumble over their words. Pay careful attention as the group works together – you can assess them on their teamwork abilities at this stage. Once the practice time is over, you can allow the groups to listen to each other. They must show respect and listen quietly during the reading of the dialogue. After the reading is complete, learners must complete the questions about the piece they have read. This could be done in their groups or as an individual exercise. Encourage the learners to make use of full sentences wherever possible. The answers are as follows: 1. “Spick and span” tell you that he was neatly dressed. 2. No, he did not open his mouth. “ He spoke like a vicar, as if his teeth were stuck together with chewing gum. “ 3. Learners can express their opinion but should comment on the odd behaviour of Mr. Catt. 4. It was Mr Catt‟s way of coping with his job – “you need a sense of humour to work in a cemetery.” 5. „Halo‟ has connotations of heaven and angels and would put the minds of the pet owners‟ at rest to think that their pet was going to heaven. 6. Mr Catt was going out, leaving Dave alone, and the owner of the pet was not coming to the burial so there was no fixed time that it had to be done. 7. The snake had to be buried in a specific way – facing Brasil where he was born, so the coffin had to point south west. Dave needed to compass to find south west. 8. The snake was pleased to see Dave because he was still alive and had almost been buried alive. 9. Mrs Longton offered the snake a rabbit for tea and he came down to eat the rabbit. 10. “like a huge caterpillar”, “like a vicar” 11. “Epitaph” means “words inscribed on a tomb” 12. “spick and span”, Pet‟s Paradise” 13. Learners must think of their own animal joke. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Activity 15 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 IN this activity, the focus is still on reading. We are assessing the degree to which learners are able to pick details out of a passage they have read. This would be a good exercise to allow learners to complete on their own and with no extra help from you. Give them the instructions and set a time limit. Allow them to read the passages for themselves, and to answer the questions themselves. Once the time limit is up, collect the workbooks and mark the exercise. This will give you a good idea of what the learners are capable of when they work on their own. Once you have completed your assessment, hand the workbooks back and go over the exercise with the class, ensuring that the learners correct their work and take note of their mistakes. Story A Story B 1. The farmer had a big farm. 1 2. The fox lived near the farm. 2 3. The farmer kept hens. 3 4. The farmer kept pigs. 4 5. The farmer put the fox in a box. 5 6. The farmer tied the fox to a tree. 6 7. The farmer's son tried to save the fox. 7 8. The farmer tied some twigs to the fox's tail. 8 9. The farmer shot the fox. 9 10. The fox jumped into the river. 10 Make use of your Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment of the accuracy of the answers and the attention to detail. To collect and record information in Activity 16 LO 5.3 different ways In this activity, the learners are required to gather information from a bar graph instead of from ordinary text. As an introduction to this activity, study the graph with the learners, pointing out important things that they must take note of e.g. which animal has the longest life span, has the top speed etc. Explain how the numbers down the one side of the graph work and what the lines in between indicate. This will help the learners learn to read the graph correctly. This activity could be done in partners or in groups as well. Once they have grasped the concept pf bar graphs, allow them to tackle the questions that have been asked. They have to answer TRUE, FALSE or NEE, which stands for NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE. Be sure to explain to them what this means. (Statements are made, but it is difficult to tell from the graph whether the statement is true or false because of lack of examples or because you require other information that is not available to you.) About bar chart A 1. A mouse can live for three years. T 2. Alligators don't live for as long as ostriches. F 3. Women usually live longer than men. T 4. Both the reptiles live longer than the bird. T 5. Rhinos live longer than both men and women. F 6. Some small animals don't live very long. No 7. Dolphins live longer than people. F 8. Trout live only a short time because they live in water. No About bar chart B 9. The fastest animal is the cheetah. T 10. Tortoises are the slowest animals. T 11. Trout can swim at 20 mph. F 12. An ostrich can overtake a jack rabbit. T 13. The animal with the longest legs can run the fastest. No 14. All the water animals on the chart are slower than the land animals. F 15. All the birds in the world live longer than all the fish. No About both bar charts 16.The slowest animal can live one hundred years. T 17.The animal that can run at 50 mph can live fifty years. No 18.The jack rabbit does not live very long because it runs fast. No Activity 17 To use language for thinking. LO 4.1 In this activity, learners are asked to look at a series of pictures and the sentences that go with them. Once they have studied the pictures carefully, they should be able to order the sentences so that the story makes sense. Once again, this activity could also be done in a group or in partners. It would be advisable to discuss the pictures and to read through the sentences with the class before allowing them to begin. The sequence should be: 1. Danny tied the apple to the cotton. 2. Danny put the rope over a branch of the tree. 3. He tied the walking stick to one end of the rope. 4. Danny tied the heavy log to the other end of the rope. 5. He lowered the apple down to the sheep. 6. When the sheep was eating the apple, Danny lowered the walking stick very slowly down the cliff. 7. He hooked the walking stick under the sheep's horns. 8. He pushed the heavy log off the cliff. 9. The log fell down the cliff and the sheep was pulled up. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Activity 18 To read for pleasure LO 3.7 This word search exercise is just for fun. No assessment is required. H U E Y J B I G O Y E K C I M O S Y L V E S T E R L C G R T B W D M D N C B Q Y K P H Y E O O E E E J J K G U N E Y I E T O N L R I D F L Q I G M T P K B T Y K E E W F E W U P S U D O L P H C T R S N L N L T Y B O M O F J E S W O L I I Y O A K U S Z N A H I N U A X M P E K C R N V U S I M B V G D A H P N G P O N P W D S H A N E R B J E A I O P Y L D Z B P O B M U K E R M I T A A O T G U K R A D N Q F E L N N S T I O E G V D M O N I D O C C S U R O Y N S U D B S E D E G E I L F F L I C K A L I L R G U R E P O Y M K R E E L A D R E V L I S Activity 19 To design media texts LO 4.4 This activity should be great fun! Learners are asked to design an advert for a movie involving one of the characters from the previous exercise. If you have a movie house in your town or city, approach them for some old advertising posters that you can use for this lesson. If this is not possible, look at adverts in newspapers or magazines or even adverts from your local shop or supermarket. When discussing adverts with the class, be sure to point out that the headings are bold and often colourful – they must be eye-catching! Take note of the information that is given and what size the different information is written in. Look at any illustrations on your advert and discuss placement and why the picture has been used. Once this discussion is complete, learners may start designing the rough draft of their advert. Draw their attention to the checklist – this will help them as they plan their advert. They should also check the rubric to see what they will be assessed on. Once they have completed their rough draft, the final copy must be completed in the space provided. This activity could be carried one step further into an Art lesson. Learners could design their posters on large pieces of paper making use of bright paints or crayons. Once complete, these posters could be put on display. That brings us to the end of our module on “A Zoo in the Classroom”. Well done! MEMORANDUM: GRADE 6 MODULE 3 ABOUT ME B. Learning Programme Overview The theme of Module 3 is “About Me”. This module focuses on the learner as a unique human being emphasizing the fact that we are all different and yet, special. We all have a special name, we have our own thoughts and opinions and we are entitled to them. The module starts by looking at basic information about each learner e.g.: likes, dislikes, favourite things, but then it takes learners into deeper issues e.g.: are they able to be alone, what are their strong and weak points etc. There is a focus on listening skills in this module. Learners are required to listen to poems, music and each other. There are reading and speaking activities, many of which will allow the educator to get to know each learner a little better. There is a strong focus on alphabetical order and use of the dictionary. There are creative writing opportunities and research activities. The usual reading and comprehension exercises are included and the module ends with a look at commonly confused words. This module is designed to take a term to do. Educators are advised to select and even add material as they see fit. Be sure to give learners a deadline for each activity as you begin the activity, so that they are able to plan their time accordingly. Rubrics or Assessment Charts are laid out at the end of most activities. It is important to read through these rubrics with the class before allowing them to begin the activity. Make sure that they understand WHAT they should learn or grasp during the activity. and WHY they are doing the activity C. Step-by-step through the Module and Memorandum Activity 1 To write to communicate information LO 4.1 We begin in this activity by asking the learners to complete a table and some questions about themselves. This will force them to think about their opinions on things and give them an opportunity to express their like and dislikes. This will be valuable for you as the educator, as you will learn many things about your learners that you did not know. Read through the exercise with the class before allowing them to start so that they know exactly what is expected of them. Remind them they will be assessed on spelling and punctuation, and on neatness. Read through the rubric with them. Activity 2 To understand oral descriptions LO 1.3 This activity focuses on listening abilities. Learners are required to concentrate and listen well, if they want to complete this exercise. The poem is incomplete in the workbooks, and as you read, learners must fill in the missing words. Set the rules before you begin the activity. Learners must understand that there can be no talking during the reading of the poem. They should sit and listen for the first reading, but they can start filling in answers as you read through it for the second time. Wait till everybody is focused on you and then read the poem slowly and clearly, twice. Once the activity is complete, mark the workbooks straight away for an accurate assessment. When you return the books to the learners, it is important to go over the poem with the whole class so that learners who were unable to complete the poem can fill in the correct answers. The poem is “Just Me‟ written by Margaret Hillert. (It is important to mention the title of the poem and to mention the author.) The words that have been left out in the learners‟ books are highlighted in the poem that follows. JUST ME Nobody SEES what I can see, For back of my EYES there is only me. And nobody knows how my THOUGHTS begin, For there‟s only myself inside my SKIN. Isn‟t it STRANGE how everyone owns Just enough skin to cover his BONES? My FATHER‟S would be too big to fit – I‟d be all wrinkled inside of it. And my baby BROTHER‟S is much too small – It just wouldn‟t cover me up at all. But I feel just RIGHT in the skin I wear, And there‟s nobody like ME anywhere. Activity 3 To understand oral descriptions LO 1.3 In this activity, we are once again focusing on developing the learners‟ listening abilities. The way that you carry out this activity will depend on the resources available to you in your teaching situation. If you have access to a tape recorder or CD player, choose a song from a children‟s tape or CD. Play this song twice for the children. As they listen to the song, they must write down any words that they hear that are nouns or verbs. It is important to revise nouns and verbs before you begin with this activity. Look around the class and pick out as many nouns as you can. Ask learners to give you examples of verbs, or to mime a verb that the rest of the class must guess. Once you are happy that they know what kind of words they will be listening for, then play the song. If there are no tape recorders available, you could choose a song to sing to the class. The activity will work in the same way – you will have to sing the song twice. If you are not confident enough to sing to your class, you may have to read the words of a song to them and allow them to pick out the nouns and verbs as you read. This will work just as well. It is important that you are well prepared for this activity, and that you have listened to the song yourself and written down all the nouns and verbs that you can hear. You will use your list to help you with your assessment. Once you have marked the answers, use the Educators Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. To use language for thinking LO 5.2 Activity 4 To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories The focus now shifts to reading and understanding stories. The passage provided should be read aloud with the class. Make use of this opportunity to assess some of the learners, as they read aloud for you. The rubric is at the end of the activity. Read through this with your learners before they begin. The answers are as follows: 1. Annie first used her rifle to A hunt food 2. A new life began for Annie when she B found out that she could shoot 3. Annie‟s career began when she C won a match against a famous marksman 4 Annie Oakley became famous as a C sharpshooter 5. The best title for this piece is A How Annie Oakley Got Her Start Activity 5 To interact in additional language LO 2.1 This activity gives learners the opportunity to prepare an oral to present to the class. The topic for the oral is “Something that is special to me.” Learners must choose one of their belongings that is very special, bring it to school and then explain to the class what it is, where it came from, and why it is so special tot hem. After their presentation, the class may ask them questions about their special possession. The talk must be 1-1½ minutes long, and learners can make use of the assessment chart to assess each other. Keep in mind that this is often a daunting task for many learners. Make sure that they have adequate time to prepare and make them feel as relaxed as possible. To use language to communicate Activity 6 LO 2.3 information In this activity, learners will work in groups to present a talk to the class about a famous person that they have chosen. Divide the class into groups of four. Allow them to choose somebody who is famous for a good reason. There are four different topics that must be discussed. Each member of the group must choose one topic. The group must then discuss or research each topic together, helping that person to prepare the section. The nature of the research will depend on what is available in your teaching situation. Should there be a library at your school or computers linked to the Internet, make these facilities available to the class for their research. If there is no library in your school or in your town, you may have to write to the nearest library and ask them to send you some books. Learners may also make use of any newspaper or magazine articles that they can find. Read through the rubric with your class before they begin the task. Ensure that they know the time limit for the activity and that they have time each day to work as a group while in class. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart as they speak to complete your oral assessment for each learner. Activity 7 To write to communicate information LO 4.1 The focus of this activity is writing. Learners are asked to complete a PNI assessment of themselves. PNI stands for the following: P = positive information (your strong points) N = negative information (your weak points) I = interesting information (hidden talents or facts) Learners have to write the information into the table and then ask a friend that they trust to complete the table for them as well. This is a valuable exercise, as it will open their eyes to the value that other people see in them. Be sure to explain to the learners that this must be a positive experience and that they must be very sensitive when writing what they think somebody‟s weak points are. They may want to leave this section out if they cannot think of anything. Read through the rubric with the class before they begin as they will not only be assessed on their ability to express their thoughts about themselves, but also on spelling, punctuation and neatness. Activity 8 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity focuses on the learners‟ ability to arrange words in alphabetical order. The learners must complete this activity, on their own. Read through the activity with the class before they begin. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Remind learners to check through their answers once they have completed the activity. The marking of the first part of the activity will be different for every student, as they may choose their own names. The answers for the second part are as follows. 1. Allistair, Andrew, Annabel, Anne, Arabella 2. Beauty, Bella, Ben, Benjamin, Brian 3. Cassandra, Cassie, Catherine, Cathy, Claire 4. Damian, Dawn, Debbie, Dorothy, Dylan 5. Gabriel, Gail, Garth, Gary, Graeme 6. Harriet, Harry, Henry, Herman, Hester 7. Jabu, James, Jane, Janet, Jenny 8. Mandla, Mandy, Manu, Mary, Meredith To use a dictionary to develop Activity 9 LO 3.8 vocabulary The focus of this activity is dictionary work.. Learners are required to make use of a dictionary to look up words and their meanings. It would be ideal to have one dictionary between two learners, but if this is not possible, learners can be divided into groups and will have to share the dictionaries. Should there be only one dictionary available, one group can use it while the others carry on with another task. Read through the activity with the whole class and point out what they will be assessed on, by looking at the rubric. The following answers, taken from the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, should help you. 1. Alphabet: set of letters used in a language 2. alpha: first Greek letter ; alphanumeric: containing both alphabetic and numerical symbols 3. Alsace, Alsatian, alsike, alter, altazimuth, althorn, altruism, alum, aluminium, alumina, alveolus 4. The letter Q is always followed by the letter U. 5. The following words are some examples that you may use if you do not have access to a dictionary at all: Quaff: drink deeply Quag: marshy or boggy spot Quagga: extinct SA quadruped related to ass and zebra Qualm: momentary faint or sick feeling Quandary: state of perplexity Querulous: complaining, peevish Quiddity: essence of a person or thing Quotidian: daily, of every day Quoin: external angle of building 6. Some examples for you to choose from: Quadragenarian: person from 40 to 49 years old. Quadrangle: four-cornered figure Quadrant: quarter of circle‟s circumference Quadratic: square Quadrillion: a million raised to the power of four Quadruped: four-footed animal Quadruple: fourfold Quadruplet: four children born at the same time Quad- means “four” 7. Some examples for you to choose form: Quinary: of the number five Quinate: having five leaflets Quincentenary: the five-hundredth anniversary Quinquagenarian: person from 50 to 59 years old Quinquennial: lasting, recurring every five years Quint: sequence of five cards of same suit Quintette: composition for five voices or instruments Quintillion: a million raised to the fifth power The prefix quin- means five. Relationship: State of being related Friend: One joined to another in intimacy and mutual benevolence independent of sexual of family love Surname: Name common to all members of a family Family: Members of a household, parents, children, servants etc.; set of parents and children, or of relations, living together or not. Personality: Being a person, personal existence or identity Individual Single, particular, special Opinion: Judgement or belief based on grounds short of proof, view held as probable Autobiography: Writing a story of one’s own life. To transfer information from one LO 5.4 mode to another Activity 10 To respect other learners LO 1.5 This activity allows learners to assess whether or not they manage well, being by themselves or not. Learners must answer questions and then plot the answers on a graph. Start by reading through the questions with the class. This part of the activity must be done individually. Learners may not talk or discuss answers, and they must answer each question. Once this part is complete, learners must plot their answers on the graph. Then learners can read the explanations and see what the interpretation of their answers is. The next part of the activity asks them to express an opinion about the result: learners can comment on whether they agree or not and why. Divide the class up into groups of four. In these groups, learners must share what their result was and whether or not they agree. Each member of the group must be given a chance to speak and the other members must show respect by listening and responding appropriately. Walk around and listen carefully as the groups work so that you can complete the Educator‟s Assessment Chart. To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 11 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity focuses on reading and understanding elements of stories. The passage provided can be read aloud by some students and you can make use of the Assessment Chart to assess the reading. Once you have read through the passage at least twice with the class, allow them to answer the questions by underlining the correct answer The answers are as follows: What did the author say? 1. Many useful ideas go to waste because we a. fail to give them a second thought 2. An expert in a field often cannot make an idea work because he does not c. both A and B Do you remember what you read? 3. Elias Howe had an idea that led to the development of b. lockstitch sewing machines 4. The man with the idea about matchboxes found that getting someone to listen to him was a. endless trouble 5. For saving a match company money, the man received a. $15 000 a year How well do you reason? 6. The fact that someone took O‟Sullivan‟s mats showed that b. O‟Sullivan had a good idea You can often tell the meaning of a word by reading the words around it. Find the word in the paragraph shown in brackets that best fits the meaning. Write the word on the line provided. 7. something newly thought up (4) invention 8. deserving of time or effort (5) worthwhile 9. small, useful object or machine (13) gadget Make up your own mind. 10. What kitchen gadget do you consider to be the most brilliant invention? Give a reason for your answer. Learners must express their opinion in this question but compare the ideas in the class. Activity 12 To write creatively LO 4.3 This activity gives learners the opportunity to write creatively about themselves. They will have to write an acrostic poem using their name. Ensure that learners understand what an acrostic poem is by studying the example provided. Allow them to make sure that there is a block provided for the rough draft. They may brainstorm words and try various combinations of words. Once they have finalized their poem, they must do the final copy in the next block. Encourage them to make it a special page, using colour and fancy letters to make their name stand out. Should time and resources allow, this activity could be extended to the art lesson. Learners could do their poems on large pieces of paper that could be put up for display. Remind learners to check spelling of words and make dictionaries available to them. Use the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to compete your assessment. To show awareness of the way language constructs knowledge and LO 2.5 Activity 13 identity and positions people To respect other learners LO 1.5 This activity continues to focus on names. Learners are required to complete a series of questions about their name. Most of the answers they will be able to obtain from their parents and family. Name books will also be helpful if you have access to them. Start this activity by reading through the questions and ensuring that the learners are aware of what is expected from them. Allocate sufficient time for this activity (about two weeks) and make sure that the learners know when their report- back will be done. Learners must then carry out the research on their own. Once the allotted time is over, learners must be divided into groups. They must report their findings back to the group. Each member of the group must be given an opportunity to talk and other group members must show respect and listen carefully. There may be a time for questions at the end. Educators should walk around during this report-back time, assessing each group‟s ability to work as a team and to show respect. Activity 14 To write for social purposes LO 4.2 Each learner is required to write a letter to express an opinion in this activity. The letter is to be addressed to the local Member of Parliament. You will have to find out the name and address of your local MP for this activity. The learners have been given four topics to choose from. Read through the topics with the class and have a brief discussion about each one. Once learners have chosen the topic that they would like to write about, allow them to work on their rough draft, brainstorming their ideas and ordering their thoughts. Discuss the basic elements of a letter with them so that they are able to write their letter in the correct format. The letter must be written in the space provided. Read through the assessment chart with the whole class before they begin. Activity 15 To develop own vocabulary LO 6.4 To complete this module, we are focusing on developing vocabulary and ensuring that learners can tell the difference between words that are often confused in English. In the first part of the activity, learners must select the correct word. In the second part of the activity, learners must write sentences to indicate that they understand the difference between the words. Before allowing them to start, discuss each pair of words with the class, allowing them to give you examples of the correct way to use the words. Once learners have discussed all the words, allow them to complete the activity individually. The answers are as follows for the first part of the activity: 1. I (knew, new) the answer to the question. 2. The rugby (practise, practice) was at 2 o‟ clock. 3. We did not want to (loose, lose) the hockey match. 4. (Lightening, Lightning) flashed across the sky. 5. My sister (passed, past) her exams. 6. The (principal, principle) of our school is very busy. 7. They have found (there, their) missing dog. 8. The teacher likes the class to be (quite, quiet) when she is teaching. 9. (Where, were) are you going now? 10. The (weather, whether) is very unpredictable at the moment. In the second part of the activity, the sentences written by the learners must show that they understand the meaning of the words. Make use of the Educator‟s assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Perhaps they can work out a way of remembering the spelling? (Mnemonic) MEMORANDUM: GRADE 6 MODULE 4 GREAT BALLS OF FIRE! B. LEARNING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW The theme of the last module is FIRE! The module deals with the topic of Fire from many different angles and is designed to encourage learners to think and reason about many different situations involving fire. The focus of the module is „Writing‟ and „Reading and Viewing‟. Once again, there is a good combination of individual and group work activities. Learners are encouraged to work as a team and to listen to and respect one another in all the group activities. There are activities designed to extend the learners‟ „fire‟ vocabulary and other activities where they are required to think creatively and write creatively. Some activities are also designed to prepare learners to handle situations where a fire has occurred and to express their opinions about issues related to fire. Like the other modules, this module should also take a term to do. Learners receive a deadline for each activity as they begin the activity, so that they plan their time accordingly particularly in research o survey activities. Rubrics or Assessment Charts are laid out at the end of most activities. It is important to read through these rubrics with the class before allowing them to begin the activity. Make sure that they understand WHAT they should learn or grasp during the activity and WHY they are doing the activity. Enjoy working through this module with your class. C. STEP-BY-STEP THROUGH THE MODULE AND MEMORANDUM To use language for thinking LO 5.2 Activity 1 To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories This activity focuses on reading and comprehension skills. Learners must read through the passage on fire and then answer the questions that follow. Educators can make use of this opportunity to assess some of the learners on their reading ability by asking them to read the passage aloud to the class. Once the passage has been read through at least twice, read through the questions with the learners and then allow them to complete the questions on their own. Remind them to make use of full sentences wherever possible. 1. Another element of nature is water / wind / snow. 2. The meaning of the word „mythology‟ is „body of myths, especially relating to particular person or subject‟. 3. The meaning of the word „defiance‟ is „challenge to fight or maintain or cause open disobedience‟. 4. Another word that ends in –ology is sociology / zoology / psychology. 5. The father of the gods was Zeus. 6. A „demigod‟ is a „partly divine being, offspring of a god and mortal, person who seems to have god-like powers‟. 7. Prometheus stole a lightning bolt from heaven to return fire to mankind. 8. The opposite of „harder‟ is „softer‟. 9. Mankind needed fire to keep them warm and to allow them to cook their meals. 10. Fire became an enemy of man when the city of Troy was destroyed and when a library burnt down in Alexandria. 11. A word with the same meaning as „devastated‟ is „destroyed‟. 12. In the stone-age, fire was made by rubbing two stones together to produce sparks, or by rubbing two dry sticks together. The Khoisan still use this method today. 13. Learners must comment on the value of books. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Activity 2 To develop own vocabulary LO 6.4 In this activity, we focus on developing the learner‟s vocabulary. The first part of this activity deals with words or phrases that begin with the word fire-. The learners must match the correct word to the correct picture. They are then asked to use these words in sentences to indicate the correct meaning of the word. Remind the learners that their sentences must start with capital letters and end with full stops. If you have access to dictionaries, these should be made available to the learners to look up the words that they are unsure of. The correct answers are as follows: 1. Fire-eater 2. Fire-engine 3. Fire station 4. Fire-escape 5. Fire-extinguisher 6. Fireworks 7. Fire-fighter 8. Fire-break 9. Firearm 10. Firebird Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. To interact in additional language LO 2.1 Activity 3 To respect other learners LO 1.5 This is a group activity that focuses on the learners‟ ability to interact in a group and to listen to one another. There are four sections to be discussed. The group will discuss all four sections, but one learner from each group will report back on each section on behalf of the group. Each member of the group must speak for one minute. Read through the task with the learners before they begin. Discuss broadly what they should consider when discussing the correct fire procedure to follow. Ensure that they have sufficient time to discuss all four topics and to prepare their presentation for the class. Read through the rubric with the class. Ensure that they understand what enunciation and eye-contact mean. To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 4 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity focuses on the learners‟ ability to read, and understand what they are reading. In addition to this, they will also be asked to express their opinion and to interact in their groups. Read through the passages with the class. Some learners can read aloud for the class – this will allow you the opportunity to assess their reading. Once the articles have been read through at least twice, allow learners to answer the questions that follow. The answers are as follows: 1. TRUE 2. TRUE 3. FALSE 4. FALSE 5. NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE 6. TRUE 7. TRUE 8. NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE After answering the questions, learners are asked to express their own opinion about the issue. Allow them to write their thoughts in the block provided. Encourage them to use full sentences and to check their spelling. Learners must then explain their opinion to the members in their group. Every member of the group should be given the opportunity to share. Then group members must list the pro‟s and cons of allowing fires to burn, in the table provided. Should time allow, learners could share their findings with the class. Activity 5 To developing own vocabulary LO 6.4 This activity focuses on developing vocabulary. The learners are given a list of words. They must decide whether the words best describe small, medium or large flames. Read through the words with class before they begin. Learners must look up words they do not understand in a dictionary. This activity could also be done in groups. This would give learners the opportunity to discuss the words and to decide together. Here is an example of how the table could be filled in. Learners may have a different opinion about the words. LARGE FLAMES MEDIUM FLAMES SMALL FLAMES destroy flame Glow devour crackle Spark roar flare Flicker leap spurt Smoulder blaze lick Splutter spread Learners are also encouraged to add some more words to the table. These words can be shared with the class so that everybody has the opportunity to fill their tables. The next part of the activity tests the learners‟ ability to arrange words in alphabetical order. Learners must refer back to the original list of words and arrange them in the table provided. 1. blaze 2. crackle 3. destroy 4. devour 5. flame 6. flare 7. flicker 8. glow 9. leap 10. lick 11. roar 12. smoulder 13. spark 14. splutter 15. spread 16. spurt The last part of this activity requires the learners to match words to make descriptive word pictures. This is another section that could be done in groups or in partners. Sirens wail a twig snaps a door slams water splashes fires crackle steam hisses the wind howls flames leap ashes smoulder coals glow Make use of the Educator‟s assessment Chart to complete your assessment. To understand some elements of LO 3.1 stories Activity 6 To write creatively LO 4.3 This activity focuses on the learners‟ ability to read and to pick up what the passage is about. Allow learners to read the passage through on their own and to fill in the missing words. Once they have completed all the answers, they can read the passage aloud to each other to check that their story makes sense. While Peter and his mother were out shopping, they heard a man, shout, "Look, there's a fire." Everyone ran down the road. There was a house with flames and smoke coming out of the windows. Everyone watched as the firemen unrolled fire hoses and put up ladders. Some fireman took hoses and ran up the ladders and spurted long jets of water into the flames. Soon the fire was out, but there was a strong smell of smoke and the house looked blackened and burnt. Because of the quick actions of the fire department the house did not burn to the ground. Once the learners have read through the story, they have to make up a story that describes what happened just before Peter and his mother noticed the fire. Have a discussion with the class before allowing them to start writing. Remind them to consider aspects like who the owners of the house were, where they were, how the fire started, whether there was anybody / any pets in the house at the time, who called the fire department etc. Learners must also give the story a title. Read through the Educator‟s Assessment Chart so that they know what they are being assessed on. To communicate information LO 4.1 Activity 7 To collect and record information in LO 5.3 different ways This activity requires learners to think about they would do if their own house burnt down. (Be sensitive to the fact that this may well have happened to somebody in your class. They might like to share their experience with the class if possible.) Learners must decide on the three things that they would choose to take with them. They must also give reasons for their decision. After this part of the activity is complete, learners must ask three other people in their family, or close environment, the same question. They must fill the answers in on the table provided. This will require a bit of time so be sure to allocate sufficient time for the learners to do the survey, and to record the answers. Give them a deadline before they start the activity. Once they have completed the survey, allow some time for learners to share their findings with one another. This could be done as a whole class or in a group situation. The Educator‟s Assessment Chart will help you complete your assessment. To use language forms and Activity 8 structures to communicate orally and LO 6.2 in writing This activity focuses on idioms and idiomatic expressions. The first part of the activity requires learners to match the idiom to the correct sentence. The illustrated idioms and meanings are provided. Read through these with the learners. Discuss the illustrations and how they help to communicate the meaning of the idiom. Then allow learners to complete the sentences on their own. The answers are as follows: (a) It is difficult to believe that Janet stole money, but where there‟s smoke there‟s fire. (b) Do not trust Peter. He will help you out of the frying pan into the fire. (c) Our dog bit the neighbour's cat. Now the fat is in the fire. (d) You can't take up tennis too. You already have too many irons in the fire. The next part of the activity is very similar, but now the meanings and pictures have not been provided. Learners will have to read and think very carefully about the answers. This could be done in groups or individually. The answers are as follows: (a) Your sister is angry. Don't add fuel to the flames by teasing her. (b) Jenny ought to get full marks in the test. She is such a bright spark . (c) The news of the president's death spread like wildfire . (d) The sparks really flew when Sue and Anne quarrelled over the new rugby captain. (e) You will have to fire James if he keeps on coming to work late. (f) The sergeant made a fiery speech in which he urged the soldiers to fight bravely. (g) If I don't burn the midnight oil, I won't pass the examination. (h) Your poor advice helped Patrick out of the frying pan into the fire. Now he really is in deep trouble. (i) Peter is the only friend who will go through fire and water for me. (j) Come away from that vicious dog! You are playing with fire. (k) My mother breathed fire and brimstone when she saw that we had tied tins to the dog's tail. The next part of the activity must be completed in groups. Allocate an idiom or idiomatic expression to each group. The group must discuss the idiom, and then decide on the best way to illustrate the idiom. The group must all draw the same picture in the block provided. This could be taken a step further into an art lesson. Learners could illustrate or paint the idiom onto large pieces of paper that could be displayed around the class. Remember to read through the Educator‟s Assessment Rubric with the class. To write creatively LO 4.3 Activity 9 To act in culturally appropriate ways LO 2.2 This activity focuses on preparing the learners to handle a fire emergency. Divide the learners into partners for this activity. The first step is to ensure that they know what number to phone in the case of a fire. If possible, have some telephone directories available for learners to look up the correct number. Encourage learners to write this number somewhere near their telephone at home. (Design a small card in Design and Technology or Art that has all the emergency numbers on it.) Before the learners begin the next part of the activity, have a discussion about what would happen if they had to make an emergency call to the fire department. Talk about the information that would be requested and possible questions that would be asked. The learners, in their partners, will have to write a dialogue between the eyewitness, who first notices the fire, and the operator who receives the call at the fire department. Then revise the punctuation that they will use when writing their dialogue. Allow enough time for learners to discuss and write their dialogue together in class. Once the written part is complete, learners can present their dialogues to the rest of the group or class. Some props, like a set of telephones will make the telephone conversation more realistic and interesting to watch. Make use of the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Activity 10 To write for social purposes LO 4.2 This activity focuses on writing. Learners are required to write a letter to a friend. Start by revising the layout for the letter. Remind learners about including their address on the right hand side of the page, the date, writing in paragraphs etc. Learners have to imagine that the hotel they were staying in, burnt down. The have to describe the events to their friend in the letter. Study the picture, which is included in the workbook, with the class. This picture is meant to inspire them and set the scene. Talk about how people would feel, and about different possibilities for the way that the fire started and the ways that people were rescued. Learners have a block to brainstorm in, and then they must write the letter in the correct format in the „final copy‟ block. Remind them to check their spelling and punctuation, and to be creative. Read through the Educator‟s Assessment Chart to complete your assessment. Activity 11 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 This activity encourages learners to think carefully about things in the home that could cause fires. They are asked to study a picture where there are many situations that could cause a fire. They must make up rules, which must correspond with the numbers in the picture, to help prevent fire in the home. Talk about the picture before allowing them to begin. Give them one or two clues as to what the problems could be. Do not give them all the answers. Allow them to complete the exercise, ad then have another discussion afterwards where learners can share their rules with the rest of the class or the rest of their group. Some ideas for you to use: 1. Do not plug too many plugs plugged into one socket. 2. Do not allow children to play with matches. Do not leave matches where children can get to them. 3. Do not allow electric cords to run under mats where they will get walked on. 4. Do not leave a fire unattended. Do not make a fire without a screen. 5. Do not put pots on the stove with the handles sticking out over the edge of the stove. 6. Do not place bottles or any other items that could catch fire, on the stove. Do not leave boiling pots unattended. 7. Do not leave the iron unattended. Do not leave the iron switched on. 8. Do not leave candles burning near curtains. To use reference books LO 3.1 Activity 12 To write to communicate information LO 4.1 To respect other learners LO 1.5 This is a research activity. Learners must be divided into groups and must select a topic, from the four provided, for their research. Each member of the group will be responsible for researching a different question about the topic. Allow time for learners to discuss the topics and to allocate the questions. Depending on what resources you have available to you, learners may make use of books, encyclopaedias or the Internet for their research. Give the learners a deadline for their research. Once the research section is complete, learners must report their findings to the group. During this time, they will be assessed on how they work as a group, how they listen to and respect one another. The Assessment Chart will help you with the assessment. To understand some elements of LO 3.2 poetry Activity 13 To use language for thinking LO 5.2 The last activity in the module deals with poetry and the learners‟ thoughts about animals in a fire. Start by reading through the short poem with the class. It is a fun poem, which introduces the serious topic of the effect of fire on animals. Once you have been through the poem with the class, allow them to answer the questions about the poem. The first few questions deal with rhyming words, words that imitate sound and questions about the content of the poem, but then the learners are also asked to express their opinion about the effect of fire on animals, and which animals have the greatest advantage or disadvantage in a fire. The answers to these questions should be interesting, so allow learners a chance to share their answers with the class. Answer to questions: 1. do, zoo; jungle, rumble 2. roar, rumble 3. The elephant could spray the flames, or spray himself to keep himself cool. 4. Fire makes animals very nervous. They run to try and get away from it. The smoke can affect their eyes and their breathing. 5. Learners must express their own opinion in the questions that follow and give reasons for their answers. The last part of the activity requires learners to write a poem about animals and fire. Discuss rhyming words with the class and allow them to brainstorm some words together. Encourage them to make use of the „rough draft‟ block to order their thoughts. The poem need not be long, four lines is enough. Read through the Educator‟s Assessment Chart with the class before they begin. MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 1 COATS AND CODES Educators are informed that not every answer to each task is provided; this memo serves only to provide clarity where there could be confusion. 1. Cloze procedure The following are only suggestions and not the only answers. Competition / sportsmanship; world; rings / circles; continents; Olympics; games; hundred; flag; win; take 2. Every picture tells a story. (a) (i) E (ii) F (iii) A (iv) B (v) C (vi) D (c) (i) C (ii) I (iii) J (iv) B (v) H (vi) F (vii) G (viii) D (ix) A (x) E 3. Dedication (a) T (l) T (b) F (m) T (c) T (n) T (d) F (o) T (e) NEE (p) F (north) (f) F (q) F (south-east) (g) NEE (r) T (h) F (s) F (i) NEE (t) T (j) T (k) F MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 2 CUDDLY KITTENS AND CRAFTY CATS Comprehension (i) …recorded / written and painted on the walls of the tombs of Pharaohs (ii) … worshipped as a sacred animal. (iii) … worshipped because of their ability to get rid of pests … (iv) … mummified / embalmed, and buried in coffins decorated with gold. (v) … for smuggling cats out of the country. (vi) … not revered or respected as before, and used for evil purposes / not seen as gods (vii) … groups of people in Germany used the cat for evil purposes. (viii) … dreaming about days gone by when he was revered. (ix) wild domestic modern ancient (x) holy divine unlawful illegal very small miniature (xi) An old cat knows fresh milk: experience counts There are more ways of killing a cat than choking her with cream: there is more than one way of doing something / completing a task, than only one way. Limericks Limerick has 5 lines Rhyme scheme: aabba Spelling exercise Words in order: died; cried; die; cry; denied; magnified; tried; satisfied; decried; vilified; lied; implied / replied; mortified; dried; pacified; eyes; wise Silent reading b. (i) a little patience (ii) easily damage your relationship (iii) reward and love her (iv) train her to use a scratching post (v) train her with a lead and a harness (vi) coaching - training destroyed - damage vulnerable - delicate well-known - popular / familiar taking a risk - danger (vii) and (viii) for discussion Cloze (c) The following answers listed, serve as a guide. More than one answer may be correct, as long as it is used in context. … was driving his … … either side … … a sheer drop. … such thick mist / fog that … … pin-points of light shone … … lights of the car / vehicle had … … in the eyes of … … was saved from injury / death. … hundred of cats sitting … … middle of the road. … studs with glass centres like … … in the middle / tar / covering of … … night is grateful … … world safer to drive along after dark. Cloze (d) 1. late 2. went 3. fuse / bulb 4. electricity 5. around 6. floor / chair 7. turned 8. watched 9. jumped 10. front 11. over 12. paws 13. dropped 14. playing 15. boy‟s / child‟s 16. switch / lamp 17. medium 18. off 19. many 20. cat 21. controlled 22. drift „cat‟ words (i) catalogue (ii) catacombs (iii) catamaran (iv) catapult (v) cataract (vi) catastrophe Cat Rescue There is more than one correct answer for this task. By dramatizing this situation, the learners should cover all the possibilities. As long as the dialogue makes sense and the learners can justify their choices, the answers are correct. Direct and Indirect Speech (d) Direct Speech [in order as listed in (c)] Mom said (answered / soothed),” Don‟t worry, James, I‟ll get the cat down.” “Oh, no! Not again!” cried (shouted) James. “Here, take hold of the other end of the ladder.” He / she requested (said). She asked, “May I help you?” “Please phone the fire brigade?” requested (asked) Mom. “Now, what are we going to do?” wailed (moaned / groaned / asked) James (Mom). “Be careful, Mom. Oh goodness!” warned James. James asked, “What must I do, Mom? “Can you manage to reach him, Mom?” asked James. “Look out, James. Stand away from the tree.” Said (warned) Mom. “No, not quite. I think I‟ll have to climb along the branch.” Replied Mom (e) Indirect Speech (in order as above) Mom answered James that he should not worry and that she would get the cat down. / Mom soothed James and told him that he should not worry. She would get the cat down. James cried out no and that it could not be happening again. She requested that he take the other end of the ladder. She asked if she may help him. His mom requested that he take the other end of the ladder. She asked if she may help him. His mom requested that he phone the fire brigade. / He requested that she phone the fir brigade. James (Mom) asked (in desperation) what they were going to do. James warned his mom to be careful. James asked his mom what he should do. James asked his mom if she could manage to reach him / the cat. Mom told James to look out and warned him to stand away from the tree. His mom replied that she could not and thought she would have to climb along the branch. Silent reading (i) Devon Rex (ii) Siamese (iii) Persian (iv) Abyssinian Feline Figurative Language (i) to let the cat out of the bag (ii) to fight like cat and dog / cat and dog existence (iii) like a cat on a hot tin roof (jumpy and anxious) (iv) to see which way the cap jumps (v) raining cats and dogs (vi) a cat burglar (vii) a catcall (viii) (ix) copycat (x) fat cat (xi) the cat who stole the cream (xii) a cat-nap (xiii) can‟t swing a cat (xiv) someone is referred to as „cattish‟ (xv) with cat feet / cat-foot MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 3 MEAN MACHINES Comprehension (a) (i) inventing (ii) No, they thought he was crazy / because he was ahead of his time. (iii) They are ahead of their time. (iv) The wheel (v) At the same time as written language was invented. (vi) The Industrial Revolution (vii) Open memo (viii) Impossible; modern; sane (ix) Invention used in guiding space flight. (x) Open memo Harvey, the household robot Words in order: feet; garage; lonely; damp; posts; lick; many; dark; arms; safely in; there is no answer for this space, but from looking at the picture, one could surmise that the answer could be „vacuum cleaner‟ or „lawnmower‟; holes Pronouns (a) (i) his (ii) himself (iii) himself (iv) her (v) our (vi) himself; his (vii) ourselves (viii) myself (ix) their (x) mine The Laundry (a) (i) Friday (ii) Mom was in hospital and Dad worked during the day. No-one had been doing the washing. They wore clean clothes every day as Mom had taught them. (iii) Dad worked and they were at school. (iv) Dad (v) He needed a clean shirt for Monday. (vi) They could all work together and clean the house as well. (vii) No (vii) Sally (ix) So that the colours would not mix or run. (x) She used the soap for hand-washing and not the soap used for machine-washing. (xi) There can be more answers than the ones listed here: catastrophe; laundry; co- operate; washing power; happy Listening skill (a) iii (b) I (c) iii (d) I (e) iii (f) iii (g) iii (h) ii (i) iii (j) ii Reading (b) Heading: The Fire Brigade Detail: Equipment / Appliances and uses thereof (i) pump (to force water) (ii) ladders (for rescuing people high up) (iii) acetylene cutting gear (to release trapped people) (c) Heading: Underground rescue workers / Mine rescuers Detail: Equipment used by underground rescuers (i) oxygen cylinder (ii) mask (iii) electric light on head gear (iv) Davy Lamp (d) Heading: Sea Rescue boats Detail: Equipment (i) Safety devises (ii) Communication devices (iii) Line-throwing pistol (e) Heading: Helicopters as useful aircraft / machines Detail: how they can be used (i) During rescue operations (ii) To lift heavy objects (iii) For crop-spraying (Please note that there could be more than one type of answer per section for the abovementioned reading task. Thus, the answers given above must not be understood as the only answers, but as „possible‟ answers.) The Miracle Chip (i) PT (ii) T (iii) T (iv) F (v) F (vi) PT / F (vii) T (Humans do) (viii) T MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 4 DREAMS GUIDELINES FOR THE EDUCATOR The educator must bear in mind that the written module is a framework, and that he/she can enhance it significantly by utilising all the material in a creative fashion. LO 1: LISTENING As the emphasis is on listening skills, it is suggested that the educator read the passage on The Great American Dream to start off with. Aspects such as intonation, pronunciation and stress are important, so the learners should hear the passage being read effectively and correctly. Bearing in mind that vocabulary expansion is important, pick out some interesting words and explain them. Also how they should be used in sentences and get the learners to participate by making their own sentences with such words. Interesting words are e.g. globe, to tap the treasures (as rubber is trapped), misnomer, hotch-potch, liberty, unanimous, flourish, emigrants (as opposed to immigrants), business magnates, immense, also show to make a new word from one you already know, e.g. assassinate – assassin, etc. Without making it too obvious, parts of speech can be introduced. This passage lends itself ideally to cross-curricular activity. Geography, History, Life Orientation can all be linked. LO 2: SPEAKING Everything that was said in the foregoing passage is applicable to this LU. In addition, however, it is essential that rhetorical devices are pointed out when reading the Martin Luther King speech. Note the numerous examples of repetition, metaphor, climax. In listening to the Negro Spiritual, one can point out that the slaves longed for freedom, their families, etc. and found solace in the religious songs they sang. They must note the element of sadness and yearning. If there is time, one could also discuss the Blues that originated amongst these people. Utilise music as much as possible to make things interesting and to introduce greater dimension to the classroom activities. Concerning vocabulary: It is the task of the educator to explain certain words, such as pivotal, rife, etc. Emphasise the fact that both King and Gandhi embarked on non-destructive, non-violent action. LO 3: READING AND VIEWING Here reading is paramount, therefore the educator must focus mainly on the reading activities of the learners. However, wider interest in literary activities can be stimulated by dramatisation of the Joseph story, and by discussion of musicals such as Evita, Cats, etc. Music should play a significant role once again. In reading the poem (educator should read it first) be careful to follow run-on lines and to take note of the punctuation, as it helps to elucidate the meaning. The poem is important insofar as it deals with the theme of loving one‟s fellowmen. Encourage learners to read on their own. List of books (graded readers) must be augmented. LO 4: WRITING Dictionaries and reference books to be used optimally. There can be a great deal of activity across various Learning Areas such as Geography and Science. In writing a message (assignment 11) stress the importance of clarity and brevity. In the Crossword, it may be necessary to explain “symbol” and specifically to explain that the answer to Down 6 may look unusual (H2O). LO 5: THINKING AND REASONING In assignment 14, make sure that answers are in full sentences. Learners must, therefore, know what a full sentence is. As in LO 4, dictionaries and reference books to be used optimally. There can be a great deal of activity across various Learning Areas such as Geography and Science. LO 6: LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE In working with grammatical concepts such as parts of speech and sentence structure, the educator must very subtly introduce these concepts. Bear in mind that the language usage is paramount. In assignment 16 the article a or an can be used, depending on the word chosen to follow it. This offers an opportunity for the educator to explain the use of the indefinite article, and also make sure that the learners know what a vowel is. Vocabulary. Encourage them to make their dictionaries attractive. MEMORANDUM LO 1: LISTENING Assignment 1 Each learner should read at least five sentences from the passage loudly, to illustrate their understanding / interpretation of the content. Pronunciation, intonation and stress are important aspects here. Assignment 2 The learners must answer 10 questions by writing their own answers in full sentences. 1. own answer 2. own answer 3. It is called a nightmare. 4. The “treasures of the east” were mainly spices, but also other products that were not available in Europe but were in great demand. These were things with which traders could make lots of money. 5. A “racial hotch-potch” is a mixture of people from various racial groups (who find themselves together in the same place). A hotch-potch is literally a “stew” (like “potjiekos”) with many different ingredients in it – a real mixture of ingredients thrown together. 6. Was being born = It was still taking place. Had been born = The process was over – it had been completed. 7. No. 8. opposed 9. Yes we have proof. 10. e.g. photographs from spacecraft. LO 2: SPEAKING Assignment 3 1. Reading preferred part of speech loudly – again important to have intonation, pauses, pronunciation and emphasis correct. 2. King emphasised the fact that everybody is somebody – no-one is a nobody – in other words, the concept of self-worth was stressed. 3. Brief comment on Negro Spiritual. Assignments 4, 5 & 6 Own presentations. In assessing the learners‟ presentations, focus mainly on the clarity of their communication, and the aspects that have been pointed out in the foregoing work, namely things such as pronunciation, intonation, stress, etc. See Guidelines. LO 3: READING AND VIEWING Assignment 7 1. Own examples. See Guidelines. 2. / 3. Comments on the music, CD cover and lyrics. In assessing, determine to what extent learners show an understanding of the text on the cover, as well as the lyrics. Assignment 8 4. – 6. Learners‟ enthusiasm, creativity and ability to communicate are main focal points. Assignment 9 Reading as before. The poem is about a man who was visited by an angel which had a list of names of people who love the Lord. Abou‟s name wasn‟t on the list, so he told the angel to write his name down as one who loved his neighbour. The next night when the angel visited him again, he saw his name topped the list and he knew that God had blessed him. The commandment Love thy neighbour was a reality in his life. Presence, vision They are like Biblical words – fit the context or “scene”. Possibly Arabian? Name sounds Arabian or maybe even Hebrew: “Ben” means “Son of” or “Of the house of” as in Ben Hur. Also “May his tribe increase” suggests this – as in the 12 Tribes of Israel. It implies surprice – it happened unexpectedly and suddenly. Own sentence. The message is that if you love you fello-men, it means that you also love God (and vice versa). One cannot love God and detest one‟s neighbour. aa, bb, dd, etc. Comparison: “like a lily in bloom”. The idea of loving one‟s fellow-men is the link. Learners‟ lists of books and their comments. LO 4: WRITING Assignment 10 Suggested translation: On the wings of the wind The American adventurer, Steve Fossett, made his sixth attempt this week to become the first person ever to fly around the world in a hot air balloon. Here his hyper-modern balloon can be seen floating 5 486 m above Western Australia, where his flight began on Wednesday afternoon. Assignment 11 Clarity and conciseness in the communication are most important. Assignment 12 ACROSS: 1. adventurer 2. flight 3. solo 4. balloonist 6. hero 8. modern 10. thrilling 12. he DOWN: 1. attempt 2. flame 5. lo 6. H2O 7. gas 9. lonely 11. sphere LO 5: THINKING AND REASONING Assignment 13 1. It is a standard of time that is determined by the observatory in Greenwich outside London (Standard time for English astronomers). 2. It is “lighter than” air. 3. He 4. The South Pole region 5. The Tropic of Cancer 6. It was at the same time of the year – January. Maybe conditions are very good there at that time of the year. (Any possible deductions.) 7. August 1998 8. On the east coast of Australia – more or less north of Brisbane. 9. August and January 10. It means thirteen days, thirteen hours, 16 minutes and 34 seconds. Assignment 14 1. He would not be able to breathe and he would ultimately become unconscious. 2. It would cool down and lose altitude. 3. Own opinion, but something like: It tells us that Fossett like adventure. 4. Own choice, but possibly the one by Aquila, which has to do with persistence. 5. Peaceful. It is not a rough sea. Assignment 15 Projects Continent “A lot of hot air” figuratively means idle boasting, having no substance. Fossett proved that he could realise his dream, so it wasn‟t just idle talk. Word play on the hot air in the balloon (literal meaning). LO 6: LANGUAGE AND USE Assignment 16 Adverbs that modify adjectives: own choice, but here are some suggestions: 1. very / extremely / exceptionally 2. very / tremendously / exceedingly 3. rather / quite 4. terribly / very / unbelievably 5. totally / altogether 6. favourite, heartbroken Assignment 17 Own sentences. Punctuation at end of sentence: 1. full stop 2. question mark 3. full stop or exclamation mark 4. exclamation mark own sentences MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 5 YOU‟RE A SPACEMAN GUIDELINES FOR THE EDUCATOR The educator must bear I mind that the written module is a framework, and that he / she can enhance it significantly by utilising all the material in a creative fashion. LO 1: LISTENING As the emphasis is on listening skills, it is suggested that the educator red all passages in this module (where he / she deems it necessary), taking aspects such as intonation, punctuation and stress into consideration, so that the learners should hear the passages being read effectively and correctly. Bearing in mind that vocabulary expansion is important, pick out some interesting words and explain them. Also show how they should be used in sentences and get the learners to participate by making their own sentences with such words. It would also be useful to sensitise learners to language, e.g. by pointing out that words are sometimes confuse (eligible / illegible) or that there are similar words in a context, such as exceptional / outstanding; amazing / cool (more with-it words used in their everyday language). In vocabulary work one can also show how to make a new word from one you already know, e.g. realize / realization, etc. Without making it too obvious, parts of speech can be introduced. Word-pay is an interesting aspect (Thawte; even the name Mark Shuttleworth – Mark – to hit the mark after aiming at something, and Shuttle – the space shuttle, etc.) This passage lends itself ideally to cross-curricular activity. LEARNING UNIT 2 SPEAKING Everything that was said in the foregoing passage is applicable to this Learning unit. In addition, however, the vibrant nature of language should be stressed here with the introduction of the concept of neologisms (i.e. new words are constantly being created. Also humour can be stressed (Boeranof). In assignment 3 the stress is to be placed on telephone etiquette and clarity. The important of clear, concise communication should be emphasised, as lack of it could lead to serious distortion of messages. Cell-phone etiquette is important (e.g. in a public area one does not speak loudly – one leaves the room, etc. A phone should be turned off when one is at the movies or in a concert, in church, etc.). Concerning vocabulary: It is the task of the educator to explain certain words, which he / she might regard as being new to the learners. Explain what prefixes and suffixes look like and what their function is. LEARNING UNIT 3: READING AND VIEWING Here reading is paramount, therefore the educator must focus mainly on the reading activities of the learners. Learners can be made aware of lyrics of songs. This could be a very fruitful exercise in making them aware of the influence of lyrics; of poor lyrics as opposed to effective ones. Get them to bring some favourite songs to school and concentrate on the lyrics. One could even discuss the destructive influence of some words, such as those used by rappers in some cases. Don‟t be judgmental; let them discover with you. The lyrics of DREAM are important insofar as they deal with the theme of following one‟s dreams and achieving success. Encourage learners to read on their own. List of books (graded readers) must be augmented. In assignment 5 the function of the adverb is to be discussed and the –ly ending explained. Metaphors: Learners can be encouraged to bring examples of metaphors (e.g. in poems, prose or in newspaper headlines, advertisements) to school for discussion. Explain what rituals are and compile a list of everyday rituals that are known to the learners. The history of the first manned flights in space offer a wide field – e.g. the history of the race for space against the backdrop of the Cold War; the first animals in space, etc. LEARNING UNIT 4: WRITING Dictionaries and reference books to be used optimally. There can be a great deal of activity across various Learning Areas such as Geography and Science. In writing the letter to the editor (assignment 7) stress the importance of clarity, brevity, tone and register and the fact that it should not be personal, sarcastic or biting. The form of the letter must be explained. Examples of letters to the editor can be examined and discussed. In the advertisement exercise, it will be necessary to explain various aspects of an advertisement; also the different media in which advertising is done. Learners should bring / discuss examples of effective ads. And discuss the role of music in advertisements these days. Explain what a logo is and how it is used to enhance corporate image or how it reinforces a product. In Hip2b2 the “square peg in a round hole” idea can be discussed and drawn to show how a “square” is someone who doesn‟t fit in. Juxtaposition of “hip” and “square” is used extremely cleverly, with the mathematical square root sign added – so much is implied in this short compilation of word and signs. LEARNING UNIT 5: THINKING AND REASONING In assignment 9, make sure that answers are in full sentences. Learners must, therefore, know what a full sentence is. Also explain and utilise examples of factual and emotive language deals with opinions and attitudes. As in previous learning areas, dictionaries and reference books to be used optimally. There can be a great deal of activity across various Learning Areas such as Geography and Science. LEARNING UNIT 6: LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE In working with grammatical concepts such as parts of speech and sentence structure, the educator must very subtly introduce these concepts. Bear in mind that the language usage is paramount. In assignment 10, the most important thing to remember, is that learners must use the structures and many more such examples in order to assimilate the structures and get the feel of the language. Vocabulary. Encourage learners to use the words they have recorded in their personal dictionaries. Also encourage them to make their dictionaries attractive. MEMORANDUM LEARNING UNIT 1: LISTENING Assignment 1 (a) a young unmarried man who is considered to be a good “catch” in terms of marriage (b) a “young upwardly mobile professional person”, i.e. one who has a promising career and is making quite a lot of money (c) see b. (d) He / she has become arrogant or conceited about his / her success. (e) Nerd: a dull and bookish person; usually a male. (f) Cool: good, excellent. (Depending on context it could also mean mellow.) (g) Dishy: very handsome (h) Any five words of their own. (i) Electronic trading, i.e. buy and selling via the Internet (j) It sounds like “thought”, so the implication is that the intellect is involved. (k) Any suitable adjective Assignment 2 Dictation LEARNING UNIT 2: SPEAKING Assignment 3 1. (a) Role0play (b) Conversation (c) Message 2. (a) Astronaut and cosmonaut both mean “space traveller”, but astronaut is American (eng.) and cosmonaut is used for Russian space travellers. (b) Afronaut is a neologism meaning an astronaut or cosmonaut from Africa. (c) As in b), but playfully suggesting the space traveller is a “Boer”. 3. neologism 4. own new words Assignment 4 1. Any two suitable questions. 2. An amateur participates in some activity for the enjoyment value, or for the love of it, while a professional gets paid for doing something (e.g. in sport). 3. An inspiration (in this context) would be someone who inspires one, while a “super- inspiration” would be able to inspire one tremendously – to a very high degree. 4. A role model is someone whom you would emulate. You would try to be like that person. Learners discuss their role models and explain why they admire them. LEARNING UNIT 3: READING AND VIEWING Assignment 5 1. Learners read lyrics and paraphrase the song. 2. (a) the message manifests clearly. (b) It‟s written so clearly (These are adverbs and must have the –ly ending.) 3. (a) manifest: show, display, reveal (b) command: instruct, order (c) tension: anxiety, nervousness These words must be used in sentences of their own to illustrate that learners understand how they are used. 4. (c) The spacecraft is like a silver bullet in the sense that it is travelling at high velocity, and it is a metallic colour. Any other possible points of comparison to be considered. (d) It is very effective, because it suggests power, streaming, aiming at a target (goal), and “something special” – a silver bullet is special, not everyday. Assignment 6 1. Posters 2. Research (links with History) into the Cold War, the space race and the first Russian cosmonaut. 3. Vocabulary as in assignment 4. LEARNING UNIT 4: WRITING Assignment 7 1. He is shocked at the state of the world; he is critical of the press for giving such prominence to Shuttleworth‟s trip as there are more pressing problems that need to be highlighted; we must believe in our own dreams and our own lives (implied: for the betterment of society). 2. Letter to the editor. The format is important, as are the tone and register. Assignment 8 1. Any suitable translation can be accepted. 2. The advertisement is visually striking and relates to the subject: One sees cells (microscopic images, suggesting the scientific experiments that formed an important part of the project), the earth as seen from space, and a satellite. The US Sunsat project was, like Shuttleworth‟s undertaking, a first for Africa. The two things are linked through the visuals. The copy suggests vibrancy (“skiet” / shoot), and also faith in the future of the country. It promotes the US as an institution that is on the forefront of new developments. (Anything along these lines.) 3. The logo: Learners‟ own opinion (must be substantiated). Logo has leaf because Stellenbosch is traditionally associated with the oak trees. Typography is perhaps too stilted. 4. Own advertisement: All facets to be explored: copy, graphics, typography, etc. 5. The + places it within the context of science and maths. The words “multiply” and “divide” reinforce this. 6. (a) “hip” means stylish, following the latest fashion, “with-it” (b) “square” means old-fahioned, opposed to new trends, not “with-it”. 7. It links it to the idea of a scientific equation. 8. Infinite means never-ending. It fits with the idea of space. 9. … promote science and technology and maths, especially amongst the youth of our country. LEARNING UNIT 5: THINKING AND REASONING Assignment 9 1. Any suitable questions. 2. Conditions where there is very little (almost no) gravity. 3. Embryos of mammals. 4. Any strange mammals. 5. Project 6. One takes it apart to study the parts of the whole. 7. Synthesis. That means putting the constituent parts together to form a whole. 8. Own comments. LEARNING UNIT 6: LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE Assignment 10 1. On reading the passage, special attention must be given to stress and intonation by the learners. 2. mania craze, obsession, passion campaign movement, crusade, promotion enthusiastic excited, eager, keen, passionate tumultuous chaotic, noisy, boisterous related recounted, told, shared, communicated all and sundry everybody 1. The university, college or school where one studied. (The Romans: “fostering mother”) 2. Learners‟ own contributions. See Guidelines. Assignment 11 1. Underline the following verbs: has been visiting; have been following; have been comiling; has been growing; have been making. 2. Four sentences of their own. MEMORANDUM: GRADE 7 MODULE 6 IDOLS AND ICONS GUIDELINES FOR THE EDUCATOR: The educator must bear in mind that the written module is only a framework, and that he/she can enhance it significantly by utilising all the material in a creative fashion. LO 1: LISTENING As the emphasis is on listening skills, it is suggested that the educator read all passages in this module (where he/she deems it necessary), taking aspects such as intonation, pronunciation, tone, register and stress into consideration, so that the learners should hear the passages being read effectively and correctly. Bearing in mind that vocabulary expansion is important, pick out some interesting words and explain them. Also show how they should be used in sentences and get the learners to participate by making their own sentences with such words. It would also be useful to sensitise learners to language, e.g. by pointing out that words are sometimes confused or that there are similar words in a context, such as god/deity, object/thing, desire/wish, etc. PLACING WORDS IN THEIR CONTEXT is an important principle that should be taught. In vocabulary work one can also show how to make a new word from one you already know, e.g. idol/idolise (also point out that there are many words which take either –ise or ize and that one should choose one form and be consistent in a text. This could also lead one to the British vs American spelling of words – American spelling uses only the –ize ending, e.g. analyze. Other examples of Brit. vs Am. spelling / words can be introduced.). Without making it too obvious, parts of speech can be introduced. This passage lends itself ideally to cross-curricular activity, e.g. music, history, religion studies, values studies, etc. LO 2: SPEAKING Everything that was said in the foregoing passage is applicable to this LU. In addition, however, here the emphasis obviously falls on tact, etiquette and clarity in verbal communication. In Assignment 3 (1c) one could also stress the importance of punctuality and reliability in keeping appointments. The importance of clear, concise communication should be emphasised, as lack of it could lead to serious distortion of messages. Body language (e.g. in the interview situation) can be explored and certain guidelines set regarding posture, dress code, etc. Concerning vocabulary: It is the task of the educator to explain certain new words to the learners. Prefixes and suffixes and their function could be revisited, e.g. journalist, reporter, reincarnated. Consider words such as telephone, television, etc. and point out how they are “put together”. The use of elder/eldest and older/oldest can be introduced. Elder/eldest for brothers/sisters, e.g. “He is my elder brother”, but “John is older than that boy.” Also degrees of comparison – how they are used. In the interview, creative/original questions are to be encouraged. LO 3: READING AND VIEWING Here reading is paramount, therefore the educator must focus mainly on the reading activities of the learners. Learners can be made aware of lyrics of songs. This could be a very fruitful exercise in sensitising them to different generations and how music, art, fashions, films, etc reflect the spirit of the age. Let them compare the titles and the sound of songs in the Sixties to contemporary songs to see how things have changed. Encourage learners to read about characters from that era on their own. List of books (graded readers) must be augmented. One could explain “pop culture” and even bring in some history of art (Andy Warhol, for example). Link this to the poster (Assignment 5). Talk about musicals – e.g. “Sixtysomething” and encourage learners to go to the theatre. LO 4: WRITING Here is a wonderful opportunity to broaden learners‟ knowledge of history and art. Icons (literally speaking) are objects that originated in the Byzantine age. Visually very satisfying to look at Byzantine art forms; also very varied. Show examples and work in collaboration with arts and culture people. The Greek Orthodox Church (which has many of these Byzantine influences) has splendid rituals, e.g. at Easter. Here one could collaborate with religion studies educators for a very enriching exploration of traditions other than one‟s one. Diversity can be emphasised and it can be shown how it enriches our lives. There can be a great deal of activity across various Learning Areas such as Geography, History, Arts and Culture, Religion Studies, etc. Dictionaries and reference books are to be used optimally. In the translation exercise, it will be necessary to explain the different kinds of dictionaries one can use and how in translating a text one must not translate too literally, but retain the idiom and tone of the original while keeping the sense the same as in the original. In assignment 10 the educator will have to check all the “own sentences” to make sure that the learners‟ sentences are grammatically correct and that the sense of the word has been correctly interpreted. LO 5: THINKING AND REASONING In assignment 10, encourage discussion on various aspects of cricket and any other sports that the learners like. Encourage them to name other people they would regard as icons, and let them explain why. Point out the difference between an idol (more temporary influence) and an icon (permanent symbol). As in previous learning areas, dictionaries and reference books are to be used optimally. Books on famous shipwrecks should be consulted, and map work (Geography) can be a fruitful exercise. The history of the Kei and Fish Rivers could also be touched on. Explain “remote” and “rural” and establish a link with the concept of labelling people, e.g. thinking that someone is stupid or backward because he/she comes from a remote area. They have other skills that city dwellers lack, etc. Logical reasoning to be emphasised. Point out difference between emotive and factual language. LO 6: LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE In working with grammatical concepts such as parts of speech and sentence structure, the educator must very subtly introduce these concepts. Bear in mind that the language usage is paramount. In assignment 14, the most important thing to remember is that learners must use the structures and many more such examples in order to assimilate the structures and get the feel of the language. Vocabulary. Encourage learners to use the words they have recorded in their personal dictionaries. Also encourage them to make their dictionaries attractive. NB: ALWAYS TRY TO RETAIN AN ELEMENT OF FUN IN THE CLASSROOM. MUSIC (SOME ORIGINAL ELVIS SONGS) COULD BE PLAYED – ALSO OTHER MUSIC FROM THAT ERA.
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