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					                                                                     Newlans


               IEEE 802 Tutorial
                       November 11, 2003


 Use of Millimeter Waves LAN (mmwLAN)
        for Enterprise Applications


1. Rosio Alvarez, Director OIT, U.Mass.   End User need for mmwLAN
2. Leigh Chinitz , CTO, Proxim            mmwLAN / mmwWAN Convergence
3. Dev Gupta, Chairman, Newlans           mmwLAN for Enterprise Applications
                                                                 Newlans


                    Technology Objective

 Investigate the Possibility of Creating a Standard To Provide
      True Gigabit Ethernet transport to any station
      Comparable or better availability than copper or fiber
      Comparable or better performance than copper or fiber
      Comparable or better security than copper or fiber
      Mobility




                    Market + Technology + Value


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                                                                 Newlans


                    Top Level Requirements
      Multi Gigabit data rate solution for wireless Gigabit To The
       Desktop (GTTD) which operates in 56 + GHz bands
      Provide reliability through frequency, time and space
       diversity
      Minimize probability of interference, interception and
       jamming
      Provide security at PHY and MAC layers
      Robust QoS coupled with high throughput
      Enable rapid installation and provisioning with minimal
       technical knowledge and experience
      Readily reconfigurable, reusable and redeployable
      Lowest cost for high data rates ($/Mbps)
      Complete, safe, hassle-free coverage
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                                                                                                                    Newlans


      802.11 – Standard In Evolution
                                                                                               Phase 3

                                                            True        enterprise     grade
                                                            Gigabit-Ethernet-To-The-
     Enterprise                                             Desktop
                                                                                                               Gi    Fi

                                                                       Phase 2
                                                                               54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz

                                                                                     802.11g
                                                                                                    Security
              SMB                                                                          QoS      802.11i
                                                                                         802.11e
                             Phase 1

                                          802.11a 54 Mbps at 5.7 GHz

                                          802.11b 11 Mbps at 2.4 GHz
Home / SOHO
                    802.11   2 Mbps at 2.4 GHz




                         Late 1990s                 2000                  Early 2000s                      2005

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                                          Ethernet’s Past & Future
                                                                                                            170 M
                                                                                Transition to GigE
                                    180

                                    160
      Millions of LAN Connections




                                    140                                   110 M
                                    120
                                            Transition to FE
                                                                                            1980 – 10 Mbps – 802.3
                                    100
                                                                                            1990 – 10 M-BaseT – 802.3i
                                           45 M                                             1997 – 100 Gbps-BaseT – 802.3x
                                     80
                                                                                            1998 – 1 Gbps-BaseX – 802.3z
                                     60                                                     1999 – 1 Gbps-BaseT – 802.3ab
                                                                                            2002 – 10 Gbps-LX – 802.3aeb
                                     40
                                                                                            2005 – 10 Gbps-BaseT –
                                     20                                                     Future – 100 Gbps ?

                                      0
                                          1997    1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004     2005   2006


   Source – Fujitsu presentation titled ‘GigE on the desktop and beyond’ at NFOEC/GEC,
   September 9, 2003
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                                                                                                   Newlans


              Growth of Gigabit Ethernet
            Worldwide Installed Base of GigE Ports (Copper and Fiber)

                    60.0
                                                                  55.5 M

                    50.0


                    40.0


                    30.0


                    20.0                   11.2 M


                    10.0


                     0.0
                           1998    1999    2000     2001    2002     2003     2004
   Source – Fujitsu presentation titled „GigE on the desktop and beyond‟ at NFOEC/GEC, September 9 2003
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                                                                                              Newlans


                                   Why GTTD?
 Cost effective location of network resources
       Enables greater centralization of server and storage resources
             o Translates to lower cost, better security, improved manageability
 Improved network efficiency
       GTTD acquires and releases network resources fast
 Enhanced productivity for users and network managers
       Network Managers: Enable remote software installations, software upgrades,
        data backup and better utilization of network resources
       Users: Reduced wait time
 Deployment of new applications
       New generation applications are bandwidth intensive
             o High resolution video conferencing, broadcast video, video-on-demand, online training,
               distance leaning, peer-to-peer collaboration, file transfers, data mining, data base
               applications (CRM, ERP), email with attachments
                   Translates to better productivity
 New computing paradigms
       GigE grid computing
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                                                                                             Newlans


GTTD Improves Network Efficiency
               GigE Switch                                  GigE Edge Switch
                                    GigE Backbone
                                                                               2

                         GigE Link
                                                                      100 Mbps Link

                                                               1          Work Stations
            Server
                                3

 The resources of the server is held by the work station
 FE connection implies that data is buffered at the edge switch
 GTTD eliminates or minimizes the queuing and transmission delay
   GTTD in a client-server scenario can improve the performance by 67%

Source: Dr. Roger Billings, Gigabit Ethernet - Emergence to the edge of the network at GEC
keynote address, Washington D.C., August 2002
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                                                                                                        Newlans


                       Productivity Comparison
                                     900
                                                 Productivity
                                     800
                                                 GigE users spent 88% less time
                                     700         waiting for data when compared to 10
                                                 Mbps users, and 47% less than 100
                    Time (seconds)



                                     600
                                                 Mbps users
                                     500

                                     400

                                     300

                                     200

                                     100

                                        0
                                            50 MB File
                                                          Clarify    Ariba      Outlook   1 GB Backup
                                             Transfer
                               10 Mbps         42.8       142.2      140.0       53.7        849.4
                               100 Mbps        4.2         26.8       35.0        5.2        85.0
                               1 Gbps          0.5         14.2       17.0        2.3         9.6

Source: Cisco white paper – Deploying Gigabit Ethernet To The Desktop: Drivers and Applications
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                                                                                             Newlans


     Additional Benefits of mmwLAN

   Mobility Within Building Or Campus
                              Convenience
                                 Flexibility
 Easier To Set-Up Temporary Spaces
                       Lower Cabling Cost
         Easier Adds, Moves, Changes

                             Time Savings

                        Productivity Gains
                       Collaborative Work

              Improve Company Image
                     Efficient Use of Space
                    Competitive Advantage
                          Reducing Errors                               N = 244, IT respondents

                                           0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%     70%     80%

Sources: Cisco and NOP World, Wireless LAN Benefit Study
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                                                                                  Newlans


       Barriers To mmwLAN Adoption

                                                   3.9
Lack of adequate security

           Limited data rates                      3.8
                                                             Responses
            Limited coverage                       3.8       1 = Strongly Disagree
                                                             2 = Somewhat Disagree
                   Limitations
           (e.g. lack of QoS)                  3.6           3 = Neutral
                                                             4 = Somewhat Agree
        Reliability concerns
                                               3.6           5 = Strongly Agree
      (e.g. RF interference)

                    No Need              2.3


                                 0   1     2   3         4



Derived from Yankee Group Survey
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                                                                         Newlans


                Above 56 GHz Allocations


      57 GHz                                                        64 GHz
                               72.25   73.50     74.75




                    71 GHz                                 76 GHz
                               82.25   83.50     84.75




                    81 GHz                                 86 GHz
                                        94.0   94.1



                             92 GHz               95 GHz

       9.9
      19.9 GHz of spectrum for mmwLAN applications
                               broadband applications
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                                                   Newlans


                    60 GHz Band


      57 GHz                               64 GHz


    Unlicensed band governed by Part 15.225
    15 dB/Km of O2 absorption
    Robust PHY layer security
    High frequency reuse
    Connectivity up to 10 Gbps
    Currently used in MAN and campus networks
    New commercial applications: mmwLAN and PAN

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                                                                Newlans


                    70 & 80 GHz Allocation
                             72.25   73.50   74.75




                    71 GHz                           76 GHz
                             82.25   83.50   84.75




                    81 GHz                           86 GHz

    FCC opened these bands for commercial use in October 2003
    Divided into 4 unpaired segments per band
    Segments may be aggregated
    Cross band aggregation permitted with some restriction
    “Pencil-beam” applications
    License based on interference protection on a link-by-link basis
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                                                             Newlans


                    90 GHz Allocation

                                94.0   94.1



                     92 GHz               95 GHz


 FCC opened these bands for commercial use in October 2003
 Divided into 2 unpaired segments
 94 GHz to 94.1 GHz allocated for exclusive Federal use
 Segments may be aggregated
 License based on interference protection on a link-by-link basis
  for outdoor use
 No license required for indoor use


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                                                                                                               Newlans

         56 GHz + Allocations in Other
                   Regions

                56                58               60   62           64   66
                                                                           Broadway - an IST funded program
 Europe                High Density Links
                                                                           Effort to make 59 GHz to 62 GHz unlicensed
               55.78            Military    59.3




 Japan                                                  Unlicensed


               55.78




 U. S. A.                                                                      Governed by Part 15.225




           No allocations for commercial deployment in 70
           GHz, 80 GHz and 90 GHz bands

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November 11, 2003
                                                     Newlans


                    FCC Requirements
                       60 GHz Band
 Average power density ≤ 9 μW/cm2 at 3 m
 Peak power density ≤ 18 μW/cm2 at 3 m
 Power density ≤ 1 mW/cm2 on the general population
  for 30 minutes averaging
 Total peak transmitter output power cannot exceed
  500 mW
 Out of band spurious specifications
 For indoor application, transmit FCC identifier, serial
  number and 24 bytes data every 1 second.
                                                       20
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                                                  Newlans


                    FCC Requirements
                70 GHz, 80 GHz and 90 GHz Bands


                     Awaiting for FCC rules




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                                              Newlans


                    Reflection Coefficients




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                                             Newlans


                    Human Body Attenuation




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                                 Newlans


     Transmission Through Concrete




                                     24
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                              Newlans


Transmission Through Plasterboard




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                                                        Newlans


                    Modem Requirements
 Support multiple bands (≥ 4) in the millimeter wave
  band
 Support a baud rate such that payload throughput is
  equal or greater than 1 Gbps
 FEC should be incorporated such that modem has
  good error performance with ≈ 10 dB SNR
 Modem should be fairly immune to compression,
  phase noise and jitter
 Modem should be fairly immune to 50+ MHz of
  frequency error
 Modem should provide PHY layer Security
 Modem should be inexpensively realizable

       Developing an innovative class of modem is key
                                                          26
November 11, 2003
                                                            Newlans


                      Antenna Requirements
                          Beam Shaped MIMO Antenna


                         Mitigate effects of multipath
                         Maximum coverage
                         Minimum RF exposure
                         Minimize wasted spill of energy


Antenna is an enabler for space, time and frequency diversity


                                                              27
  November 11, 2003
                                                                                                   Newlans


                                Link Performance
              70
                                                                          PT = 23 dBm instantaneous
                                                                          GT = 23.5 dBi peak
              60
                                                                          GR = 17.5 dBi peak

              50

                       42.9 m
 Margin, dB




              40       161.6 feet


              30                    134.4 m
                                    441.1 feet

              20


              10


               0
                   0      100              200     300              400          500         600
                                                 Distance, Meters
                                                                                                      28
November 11, 2003
                                                       Newlans


                      Multipath Effects

                                                Outside
                                            antenna‟s beam
                                               coverage

                     Right Hand




                                             30 feet




PT = 10 dBm
GT = 10 dBi
GR = 10 dBi

                                  30 feet

                                                         29
 November 11, 2003
                                                                                               Newlans


               Wall Propagation Analysis
                                               Example




                                                                             150 m
                    10 m




                                      10 m




                                                     10 m
                               Wall                             Extender                    Margin = 12 dB

Tx                                                                                                Rx


                           10 dB             10 dB          20 dB
                    10 m




                                      10 m




                                                     10 m




                                                                    10 m




                                                                                     10 m
                               Wall                                                         Margin = 0 dB

Tx                                                                                                Rx


                           10 dB             10 dB          20 dB          10 dB


                                                                                                   30
November 11, 2003
                                                   Newlans


                    Reliability

  Energy contained in a building
  Low probability of interference or jamming
  Effective BER very low due to space, time and
   frequency diversity
  Network management can be used to perform fault
   monitoring and optimization of radio resources,
   and reroutes traffic to keep high availability




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November 11, 2003
                                                                                          Newlans


                                  Reliability
High availability provided
by frequency, space and
time diversity
                                                                5.3 minutes/year

                       99.999 +            99.999%              99.999%




                    Wireless             Fiber                Cat 6

Source: Based on Networld special report titled ‘Supercharging The Desktop’ and Newlans
                                                                                            32
November 11, 2003
                                                                        Newlans


                       Campus Network
Convergence of mmwLAN and campus network

 Seamless network
           Indoor/outdoor mobility
           Security comparable to or better than a wired network
           Availability comparable to or better than a wired network
           Robust QoS
 Lower deployment cost
 Lower product cost
       Indoor and outdoor equipments have common components

                            Untethered Fiber
                                                                          33
November 11, 2003
                                                   Newlans


                    Migration Path

Migration path to 10 GigE – must track migration in the
wired network

 60 GHz and 90 GHz have adequate bandwidth, but
  reduced number of channels
 70 GHz and 80 GHz have 10 GigE backhauling
  capability
 Choose a modulation scheme does not require major
  overhauling, thus minimizing cost impact
 Maintains backward compatibility with 1 GigE

                                                      34
November 11, 2003
                                                            Newlans


                    MAC Layer Requirements
            • High Performance MAC should provide Link
              Layer Control

            • Provide scheduling across space and frequency
              diversity

            • Provide multiple classes of service

            • Should provide a reliable link layer in the
              presence of multiple copies of packets and
              copies with errors

            • High Efficiency > 80%
                                                              35
November 11, 2003
                                                                           Newlans


                                Security

Objectives                                Features
 Mutual authentication for identity       60 GHz propagation facilitates
  confirmation                              confinement of energy in an area
 Block cipher for confidentiality (ex.    AES implemented in hardware at
  use of advanced encryption                NAP and STN at 1 Gbps per channel
  standard)                                Customizable scrambler whose
 Dynamic keying for all of above (ex.      interconnections are customized per
  802.1X key management)                    LAN
 Customizable PHY layer security          Per-channel digital scrambler seed
  option                                    sequences that can be refreshed as
 Low probability of interception and       needed on control channels provide
  jamming                                   added security
                                           Per-channel policies insulate high
                                            and low security users from each
                                            other‟s differing network requirement



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November 11, 2003
                                                                      Newlans


                    Technology Components

                                                          Transmit
                                                          Antenna
       MAC              Modem             Front End
                                                           Receive
                                                           Antenna
 MAC Processor         RFIC             56+ GHz MMICs   MIMO Antennas
 Encryption
 Decryption
                              Available Technologies
 Sub μ CMOS           SiGe             GaAs - PHEMPT    Horn
                      BiCMOS                - NHEMPT    Printed Circuit
                      CMOS             DHBT             Phase Array
                                       InP
                                       GaN
                                       SiGe
                                                                          37
November 11, 2003
                                                                                   Newlans


                           Per Drop Cost
                    100%                                        NIC
                                              12.5%             Switch Interface
                    90%
                                                                Installation
                     80%
                     70%
                     60%                      50.0%
                                                        6.3%
                     50%
                               31.4%
                     40%                                25.0%

                     30%
                                                                          Variable Cost
                     20%
                               22.8%          37.5%
                                                                           Fixed Cost
                     10%                                31.3%
                                                                           Fixed Cost
                      0%               2.0%


                            WLAN
                                           Fiber
Note                                                  Copper
Based on pricing for copper and fiber in 2005
                                                                                        38
November 11, 2003
                                                            Newlans

        Synergy With Other Standards
                   Work

802.11              Wireless LAN (WLAN)
802.15              Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
802.16              Broadband Wireless Access (BBW)
802.18              Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group
802.19              Coexistence Technical Advisory Group
802.20              Mobile Wireless Access




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                          Newlans




                    End




                            40
November 11, 2003

				
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