INDONESIA by wuyunyi

VIEWS: 83 PAGES: 17

									REPUBLIC OF

INDONESIA
Public Administration
Country Profile

Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM)
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA)
United Nations


February 2005




All papers, statistics and materials contained in the Country Profiles express entirely the opinion of the mentioned authors.
They should not, unless otherwise mentioned, be attributed to the Secretariat of the United Nations.

The designations employed and the presentation of material on maps in the Country Profiles do not imply the expression
of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................... 1

Indonesia...................................................................................................... 2

1. General Information ................................................................................... 3
  1.1 People.................................................................................................. 3
  1.2 Economy .............................................................................................. 3
  1.3 Public Spending ..................................................................................... 4
  1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages....................................................... 4
2. Legal Structure .......................................................................................... 5
  2.1 Legislative Branch.................................................................................. 5
  2.2 Executive Branch ................................................................................... 6
  2.3 Judiciary Branch .................................................................................... 6
  2.4 Local Government.................................................................................. 7
3. The State and Civil Society .......................................................................... 8
  3.1 Ombudsperson ...................................................................................... 8
  3.2 NGOs ................................................................................................... 8
  3.3 Civil Society .......................................................................................... 8
4. Civil Service .............................................................................................. 9
  4.1 Legal basis............................................................................................ 9
  4.2 Recruitment .......................................................................................... 9
  4.3 Promotion............................................................................................10
  4.4 Remuneration ......................................................................................10
  4.5 Training...............................................................................................11
  4.6 Gender................................................................................................11
5. Ethics and Civil Service ..............................................................................12
  5.1 Corruption ...........................................................................................12
  5.2 Ethics..................................................................................................13
6. e-Government ..........................................................................................14
  6.1 e-Government Readiness .......................................................................14
  6.2 e-Participation ......................................................................................15
7. Links .......................................................................................................16
  7.1 National sites .......................................................................................16
  7.2 Miscellaneous sites................................................................................16




                                                        1
                                                        INDONESIA
Indonesia
Click here for detailed map




                                                                  Source: The World Factbook - Indonesia
Government type
Republic                                                  In March 1967, General
                                                          Soeharto      was      named
Independence                                              President. Soeharto proclaim-
                                                          ed a "New Order" in Indo-
17 August 1945 (proclaimed); 27
                                                          nesian politics, and was
December 1949 (recognized by the
                                                          formally selected to 5-year
Netherlands)
                                                          terms as President from 1968
                                                          to 1998.
Constitution
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Consti-                 Amidst     widespread    civil
tution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution               unrest caused in part by the
of 1950, restored 5 July 1959 (in brief)                  Asian financial and economic
                                                          crisis, Soeharto resigned on
Legal system                                              May 21, 1998.
Based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially
modified by indigenous concepts and by                    Indonesia’s first elections in
new criminal procedures and election codes                the    post-Soeharto    period
                                                          were held for the national,
Administrative divisions                                  provincial, and sub-provincial
30 provinces, 2 special regions (Aceh,                    parliaments on June 7, 1999,
Yogyakarta), and 1 special capital city                   and again in 2004.
district (Jakarta Raya)                                   Source: U.S. Dep't of State (Background Notes) -
                                                                                                Indonesia
               Source: The World Factbook - Indonesia



                                                   2
   1. General Information

                                                                                                                                                                   1
1.1 People                                                                                          Indonesia                            Malaysia    Philippines
Population                                                                                                                                                         a

Total estimated population (,000), 2003                                                              219,884                              24,425       79,999
Female estimated population (,000), 2003                                                             109,975                              12,026       39,719
Male estimated population (,000), 2003                                                               109,909                              12,399       40,280
Sex ratio (males per 100 females), 2003                                                                100                                 103           101
Average annual rate of change of pop. (%), 2000-2005                                                   1.26                                1.93         1.79
Youth and Elderly Population                                                                                                                                       b


Total population under age 15 (%), 2003                                                                    30                               33           36
Female population aged 60+ (%), 2003                                                                        9                                7            6
Male population aged 60+ (%), 2003                                                                          7                                6            5
Human Settlements                                                                                                                                                  c

Urban population (%), 2001                                                                                 42                               58           59
Rural population (%), 2001                                                                                 58                               42           41
Urban average annual rate of change in pop. (%), ‘00-‘05                                               3.59                                2.86         3.19
Rural average annual rate of change in pop/ (%), ‘00-‘05                                              -0.63                                0.07         -0.19
Education                                                                                                                                                          d

                                                                                                                  i
Total school life expectancy, 2000/2001                                                                    10                              12.1          11        1

                                                                                                                       i
Female school life expectancy, 2000/2001                                                               10.4                                12.4          ..        1


Male school life expectancy, 2000/2001                                                                 9.6i                                11.8          ..        1


Female estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 2000                                                 18.1ii                             16.6iii       5.2ii      2


Male estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 2000                                                   8.2ii                               8.6iii       4.9ii      2


Employment                                                                                                                                                         e

Unemployment rate (15+) (%), 2001                                                                      5.5iv                               3.9v         9.8vi      1

                                                                                                                 vii                             v         viii
Female adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 2000                                                    52                                  47           53         2


Male adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 2000                                                      85vii                               83v          82viii     2


Notes: i 1994;   ii
                      1990;   iii
                                    1991;   iv
                                                 Month of May;   v
                                                                     Age 15-64;   vi
                                                                                       Month of October;   vii
                                                                                                                 1999;     viii
                                                                                                                                  2001

                                                                                                                                                                   2
1.2 Economy                                                                                         Indonesia                            Malaysia    Philippines
GDP                                                                                                                                                                a

GDP total (millions US$), 2002                                                                       172,911                              95,157       77,076
GDP per capita (US$), 2002                                                                             817                                3,915          964
PPP GDP total (millions int. US$), 2002                                                              664,409                             216,836i      321,495
PPP GDP per capita(int. US$), 2002                                                                    3,138                               8,921i        4,022
Sectors                                                                                                                                                            b


Value added in agriculture (% of GDP), 2003                                                            16.6                                9.5          14.5
Value added in industry (% of GDP), 2003                                                               43.6                                48.6         32.3
Value added in services (% of GDP), 2003                                                               39.9                                41.9         53.2
Miscellaneous                                                                                                                                                      c


GDP implicit price deflator (annual % growth), 2003                                                        6.6                             3.5           3.7
Private consumption (% of GDP), 2003                                                                   65.6                                43.7         72.3
Government consumption (% of GDP), 2003                                                                    9.2                             13.9         11.4
Notes: i Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark
estimates



   1
     United Nations Statistics Division:
   a
     Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN Secretariat; b Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN
   Secretariat; c Population Division of the UN Secretariat; d1 UNESCO ; d2 UNESCO; e1 ILO; e2 ILO/OECD
   2
     World Bank - Data and Statistics:
   a
     Quick Reference Tables; b Data Profile Tables ; c Country at a Glance




                                                                                                3
1.3 Public Spending                                                           Indonesia                       Malaysia               Philippines
Public expenditures                                                                                                                                               3

Education (% of GNP), 1985-1987                                                    0.9i                            6.9                    2.1                     a


Education (% of GNP), 1995-1997                                                    1.4ii                           4.9                    3.4                     a


Health (% of GDP), 1990                                                            0.6                             1.5                    1.5
Health (% of GDP), 1998                                                            0.8iii                          1.4                    1.6iii
Military (% of GDP), 1990                                                          1.3                             2.6                    1.4                     b


Military (% of GDP), 2000                                                          1.1                             1.9                    1.2                     b


Total debt service (% of GDP), 1990                                                8.7                             9.8                    8.1
Total debt service (% of GDP), 2000                                               12.2                             6.7                      9
         i                                                                                             ii                                            iii
Notes: Data refer to period other than that specified, Data refer to the ministry of education only;        Data refer to central government only;         1999




1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages
                                                                                                  East Asia &                                Low income
                                                                                                                              ..
                                                             Indonesia         Indonesia            Pacific                                    group
Data from the latest year available                                                                                        average4
                                                             1991-1995         1996-2000           average4                                   average4
                                                                                                                          1996-2000
                                                                                                  1996-2000                                  1996-2000
Employment
                                          (,000)                1,283             1,539
Civilian Central Government5
                                          (% pop.)               0.70              0.74                     0.63                ..                 0.46
                                          (,000)                 496              473.7
Sub-national Government5
                                          (% pop.)               0.27              0.23                     0.63                ..                 0.46
                                          (,000)                1,905             1,772
Education employees
                                          (% pop.)               1.03              0.86                     0.76                ..                 0.91
                                          (,000)                 266              193.5
Health employees
                                          (% pop.)               0.14              0.09                     0.16                ..                 0.62
                                          (,000)                   ..              177
Police
                                          (% pop.)                 ..              0.09                     0.26                ..                 0.30
                                          (,000)                 275               291
Armed forces
                                          (% pop.)               0.15              0.14                     0.53                ..                 0.33
                                          (,000)                   ..             975.6
SOE Employees
                                          (% pop.)                 ..              0.49                     1.18                ..                 13.1
                                          (,000)                   ..             5,422
Total Public Employment
                                          (% pop.)                 ..              2.64                      ..                 ..                    ..
Wages
Total Central gov't wage bill             (% of GDP)              3.0               2.9                     9.4                 ..                   5.4
Total Central gov’t wage bill             (% of exp)             13.3               8.6                     24.4                ..                 24.7
Average gov't wage                        (,000 LCU)            2,952             3,245
Real ave. gov’t wage ('97 price)          (,000 LCU)            4,040             3,245
Average gov’t wage to per capita GDP ratio                        1.7               1.0                     2.9                 ..                   4.4
                                                                            Source: World Bank - Public Sector Employment and Wages


   Click here further information on the Shape and Size of Public Employment.


   3
     UNDP - Human Development Report 2002
   a
     Data refer to total public expenditure on education, including current and capital expenditures.
   b
     As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of military expenditure data over time and across
   countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see SIPRI (2001).
   4
     Averages for regions and sub regions are only generated if data is available for at least 35% of the countries in that
   region or sub region.
   5
     Excluding education, health and police – if available (view Country Sources for further explanations).




                                                                          4
2. Legal Structure


The Constitution in force in Indonesia dates from 1945 and has been amended four
times since 1998. The First Amendment altered the status and powers of the
President. The Second Amendment includes Chapter XA on human rights. The Third
Amendment enacted on 9 November 2001, inter alia, expands the powers of the
Supreme Court and provides for the establishment of a Constitutional Court and
Judicial Commission. The Fourth Amendment, adopted in August 2002, provides,
inter alia, for direct election of the President and Vice-President.
                                                 Source: UN OHCHR - Report of the Special Rapporteur (13 January 2003)


2.1 Legislative Branch
Unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members serve five-
year terms)..6
women in parliament: 65 out of 550 seats: (12%).7

The    new     People's    Consultative    Assembly   (Majelis                                   Fact box:
Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has 678 members, consisting                                       elections: last held 5
of the 550 members of the House of Representatives (Dewan                                        April 2004 (next to be
Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) and the 128 representatives of the                                     held in April 2009)
newly-formed     Regional   Representative    Council (Dewan                                     election results: percent
Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), which includes four members from                                      of vote by party - Golkar
                                                                                                 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%,
each of Indonesia’s 32 provinces. The 38 appointed seats
                                                                                                 PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%,
previously reserved in the House of Representatives (DPR) for                                    PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%,
the armed forces have been phased out.                                                           PAN 6.4%, others
The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) meets every five                                        19.9%; seats by party -
                                                                                                 Golkar 129, PDI-P 109,
years to approve broad outlines of national policy and has yearly
                                                                                                 PPP 58, PD 57, PAN
meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes. The
                                                                                                 53, PKB 52, PKS 45,
People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) does not formulate                                          others 47
national policy.
The House of Representatives (DPR) convenes at least once a year. It serves a
legislative, budgetary, and supervisory function.8
The Regional Representative Council (DPD) is established pursuant to Article 22C of
the Constitution and based on Law No. 22 of 2003 on structure and status of the
People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR), the House of Representatives (DPR), the
Regional Representatives Council (DPD) and the Regional House of Representatives
(DPRD). The DPD consists of regional representatives of the provinces who are
elected through general elections. Electoral region for DPD members are the
provinces, and the amount of DPD members for members shall not exceed 1/3 (one
third) of the number of DPR members.9
The constitutionally mandated role of the House of Regional Representatives (DPD)
includes providing legislative input to the House of Representatives (DPR) on issues
affecting regions.
                                                                      Source: Embassy of Indonesia (Germany) - Indonesia

6
    Source of fact boxes if nothing else stated: The World Factbook - Indonesia
7
    Inter-Parliamentary Union - Women in National Parliaments
8
    Embassy of Indonesia (Germany) - State Organs
9
    Embassy of Indonesia (Germany) - State Organs




                                                              5
2.2 Executive Branch

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: President and vice president were elected by direct vote of the citizenry.

In 2001 and 2002, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
enacted laws to provide for the direct election, by popular vote,                        Fact box:
of the president and vice president.                                                     chief of state & head of
                                                                                         government: President
Only parties that gain at least 3% of the House of                                       Susilo Bambang
Representatives (DPR) seats or 5% of the vote in national                                YUDHOYONO (since 20
legislative elections are eligible to nominate a presidential and                        October 2004) and Vice
vice presidential ticket. This provision requires that legislative                       President Muhammad
elections be held prior to the direct presidential election.                             Yusuf KALLA (since 20
                                                                                         October 2004)
To be elected a candidate needs a simple majority of the                                 election results:
popular vote. With no one candidate receiving at least 50% of                            YUDHOYONO 60.6%;
the vote, a runoff election between the top two candidates are                           MEGAWATI 39.4%
held.
An People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) decree adopted in November 1998 limits
the president to two terms in office.
The president and the vice president were elected by popular vote for the first time
on September 20, 2004. Previously, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
selected Indonesia’s president.
                                                   Source: U.S. Department of State (Background Notes) - Indonesia

The President executes his or her duties in compliance with the Guideline of the
State Policy as approved by the MPR.
Besides having executive power, the president also shares legislative power with the
House of Representative (DPR). In cooperation with the DPR, the President enacts
laws and prepares annual budget.
The President also has overall control of the armed forces. He or she makes all key
political appointments. All ministers, governors, ambassadors, and members of
judiciary owe their positions to the president.
           Source: Commonwealth Advanced Seminar - Decentralization in the Post New Order Era of Indonesia (2003)


2.3 Judiciary Branch
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved
by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Makhama Konstitusi was invested by the president on
16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for
the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.

There are three main pieces of legislation dealing generally with the judiciary:
Law 14/1970 concerning the Basic Principles of Judicial Power, Law 2/1986
concerning the General Judicial System, and Law 35/1999 on Amendment of Law
14/1970, which included a number of significant changes intended to bring about
greater independence of the courts.
Article 1 of Law 14/1970 provides that the judiciary is the independent power of the
State in administering justice to maintain law and justice based upon “Pancasila”, the
five principles governing the Indonesian State and society.



                                                       6
Article 10 of Law 14/1970 provides that the Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
stands at the apex of the court system. Beneath the Supreme Court, there are four
branches of the judiciary – General Courts of Justice (Peradilan Umum), which
include the High Courts and the District Courts (app. 349 in total); Religious Courts
of Justice (Peradilan Agama), which include the Religious Court of Appeal and
Religious District Courts (app. 383 in total); Military Courts of Justice (Peradilan
Militer), which include the Military Court of Appeal (app. 31 in total); and
Administrative Courts of Justice (Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara), which include the
Administrative Court of Appeal (app. 27 in total). In addition, five new commercial
chambers within the General Courts of Justice have been established, as has a
taxation court.
Law 14/1970 provides that each branch of the judiciary is subject in organization,
administration and finance to the ministry in which its jurisdiction is primarily
concerned.
Article 31 of Law 14/1970 provides that judges are to be appointed and dismissed by
the President. This provision is further amplified by the subsequent law 2/1980,
which provides in article 31 that a judge is appointed and dismissed by the President
on the proposal of the Ministry of Justice in consultation with the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court.
Act No. 24/2003 provides for the Constitutional Court, which was formally set up in
August 2003. The Court rules on the constitutionality of laws. The Constitutional
Court has 9 Justices appointed by Presidential Decree.10
As of February 2005, the Judicial Commission, provided for in Article 24B of the
Constitution, had not been set up.
                                               Source: UN OHCHR - Report of the Special Rapporteur (13 January 2003) 11


2.4 Local Government
Regional government is stratified into two levels of autonomous regions: the
province and the district (the municipality or kotamadya for urban areas and the
regency or kabupaten for elsewhere).
District level is administratively stratified into two levels: kecamatan (sub-district)
and kelurahan for urban areas and desa or village for rural areas.
Each level is headed by a regional head: the governor for the province, the bupati for
the regency and the walikota for the municipality, the camat for the kecamatan, and
the lurah for the kelurahan and the kepala desa for the village. Previously, all
governor, bupati and walikota were also made representatives of the central
government in the regions. They were appointed and accountable to the central
government.
Under the new decentralization law, Law No. 22 of 1999, bupati and walikota only
serve as regional head. They are now elected by and accountable to local councils.
During the period of the New Order Administration, most development activities
taking place in the regions were carried out by the central government, and
therefore, all central departments had their field offices at the provincial and district
levels. In 2001, those regional offices were abolished and the functions were
transferred to the regions and performed by the provincial and district service units.
               Source: Commonwealth Advanced Seminar - Decentralization in the Post New Order Era of Indonesia (2003)

10
     Constitutional Court - Profile of the Constitutional Court
11
     For further information on lower-level justice: World Bank (Indonesia) - Village Justice in Indonesia (February 2004)




                                                               7
3. The State and Civil Society


3.1 Ombudsperson
The National Ombudsmen Commission (click here) was established by presidential
decree in 2000. Its main focus is on maladministration of the Government and the
judiciary. In 2000, 35 per cent of the 1,723 complaints received related to the
functioning of the courts. In 2001, 45 per cent of its 511 cases related to the courts.
A draft law on the establishment of the Ombudsmen is currently (2002) before the
DPR and provides the Ombudsmen with the power to investigate and make
recommendations.
                                 Source: UN OHCHR - Report of the Special Rapporteur (13 January 2003)


3.2 NGOs

                                                                               Source: Institution - Title


3.3 Civil Society

                                                                               Source: Institution - Title




                                            8
4. Civil Service


All civil servants in Indonesia belong to the national civil service, although part are
recruited and administered by regional government (pegawai daerah). The new
decentralization law introduced in 1999 empowers regional governments to manage
civil servants working in the regions, including recruiting new staff and paying their
salaries, based on policies, standards and procedures set by the center.
            Source: Commonwealth Advanced Seminar - Decentralization in the Post New Order Era of Indonesia (2003)


4.1 Legal basis
The civil service system is captured in Law No. 8 of 1974 and its revision of Law No.
43 of 1999. The civil service is managed by a national Civil Service Agency (Badan
Kepegawai Negri - BKN), which keeps all records, and has to give approval to all
appointments above a certain rank. All changes in the civil servant’s position have to
be confirmed by BKN.12
With the new Civil Service Law a heightened emphasis was placed on the duty of the
civil servant to “serve the public” as well as the state; the necessity to combat
corruption, collusion and nepotism was highlighted; recognition of the need for new
approaches to employment practices was given, requiring appointments and
promotions to be based on objective evaluation of performance and competitive
processes; and the need for salary reform was emphasized. An important aspect of
the new law was the prohibition on political party membership.
            Source: University of Sydney - Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia (2001)

The Ministry of Administrative Reform (MENPAN) is responsible for regulations
governing the administration of the country. It carries out this function largely
through policy pronouncements and ministerial decrees. BKN (Badan Kepegawaian
Nasional –National Civil Service Agency) is formally responsible for implementing
Law 8/1974 as amended by Law 43/1999 by issuing guidelines on hiring and firing
and promotions, and regulating the size of the civil service. The budget allocations of
the Ministry of Finance in effect determine the size of the civil service.13
                               Source: World Bank (Indonesia) - Combating Corruption in Indonesia (October 20, 2003)


A number of regulations administer the civil service. Click here for brief overview.


4.2 Recruitment
Civil servants are divided into four ranks from I (lowest) to IV, each with a basic
salary scale. Each rank is divided into four or five grades (a, b, c, etc), making a
total of 17 grades from Ia to IVe. Educational qualifications and seniority determine a
particular officer’s rank. A university degree is required to be in ranks III and IV.
Departmental positions are of two types: structural (general managerial jobs) and
functional (professional, technical jobs). All structural positions are grouped into
echelons, with echelon I the most senior. Training programs and examinations act as
barriers to promotion between each echelon. Functional positions are grouped into
48 families, based on professions (doctors, paramedics, lecturers and so on).

12
  World Bank (Indonesia) - Shape and Size of Public Employment
13
   It is believed that there are close to one million people who have informal contractual arrangements with the
Government, but who are not subject to civil service rules and do not appear on any government payrolls. It is also
believed that there are number of ghost workers on the payroll, some 10% of the total civil service.




                                                        9
BKN has overall responsibility for recruitment and promotion policy, and keeps
personnel records, issuing certificates of appointment and recording promotions. In
practice, departments and agencies have a high level of control over individual
personnel decisions within these constraints.
         Source: University of Sydney - Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia (2001)


4.3 Promotion
The system is a typical case of a closed career system, with seniority and periodic,
internally managed formal training playing a major role in advancement. The design
and conduct of the training courses and examinations required for advancement is
undertaken by the National Administration Institute (LAN).
The system of appointments and promotions in practice sees most staff advance
through a single agency. Performance appraisals are made and recorded for most
employers by their supervisors, recording judgments under headings such as
“loyalty”, “obedience” and “honesty”. Vacancies are not advertised across the
service. The supervisor puts forwards the names of suitable candidates along with
their CVs and an appraisal. An internal promotion board makes a selection, normally
without interview. Promotions at echelon II and below are effectively made within
each department or agency. Superiors exercise significant influence in this process,
enabling them to act as mentors and patrons, including bringing in selected outsiders
from other agencies. Individuals mostly learn of opportunities for promotion outside
their immediate division by being part of such personal networks.
Appointments to echelon 1 are made with the personal approval of the President (or,
in some cases, the Vice-President by delegation). These positions include the
Secretary General of each department, Directors General (maybe five or six in each
department) and heads of non-ministerial agencies. A high level selection board
(Baperjanas) is appointed, and reviews potential candidates, including probity
reports from the audit agency (BPKP). The names of at least three candidates are
forwarded to the President for final selection. Senior appointments are thus subject
to close political supervision, even if they are in the vast majority of cases from
inside the service.
         Source: University of Sydney - Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia (2001)


4.4 Remuneration
Civil servants are paid according to rank, seniority, and position. The pay scales
according to rank include several elements: a base wage, a family allowance, a
children’s allowance, a food allowance, and some other incidental allowances. Since
the crisis, pay increases have also been given in the form of an allowance, not in the
form of an increased base wage. In addition to the base wage and allowances, many
positions either have a functional allowance, or a structural allowance. These
allowances can for some positions be significantly larger than the other pay
elements. For instance, a Rank IV, Echelon Ia received Rp. 1,150,000 in base wage
and allowances in 2000, but Rp. 4,5 million in structural allowances per month.
There has long been a general perception that Indonesia’s civil service was
underpaid. After heavy pay increases over a couple of years, the average civil
servant no longer seems to be underpaid compared to Indonesia’s private sector.
All civil servants are paid from the central budget--either through the central
allocation for personnel (DIK), or through the Subsidi Daerah Otonom or SDO grant
to the regions. Both DIK funds and SDO funds are first transferred to the regional



                                                     10
treasury offices (KPKNs). For central and deconcentrated units, representatives of
these units deliver a full list of civil servants working in their unit to the KPKN each
month, together with proof of any material change that affects the wage bill
(promotion, marriage, etc.). The KPKNs check their correctness—although they have
no independent source of information, and upon approval, transfer the appropriate
amount of money to the (commercial) bank account of the work unit. The Finance
section in the work unit takes care of payment. For higher-level staff this is
increasingly done by direct deposit of the payroll in an individual civil servant’s
account, but for most staff it is still done in cash.
                                     World Bank (Indonesia) - Shape and Size of Public Sector Employment (2000)
                      See also: World Bank (Indonesia) - "Does Indonesia have a 'low-pay' Civil Service (June 2001)


4.5 Training
The training and leadership preparation normally provided by the internally
conducted training programs in LAN, and in the training arms of departments and
agencies, are focused on assessing and developing personal qualities, knowledge of
the rules and procedures, practical office administration, use and application of new
office technology and the understanding of legal and ideological frameworks relevant
to current civil service employment and functions. The programs tend to reinforce
formalism and conformity more
than develop leadership and management skills. Typical of a career service system,
departments and agencies expend considerable resources on providing staff with the
opportunity to prepare themselves for crossing each of the hurdles required to rise
through the ranks. Large departmental and provincial training establishments and
programs jealously guard their independence and resist efforts at coordination or
rationalization. There is considerable unevenness in quality and effectiveness, as is
to be expected in such an environment.
         Source: University of Sydney - Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia (2001)


4.6 Gender

                                                                                           Source: Institution - Title




                                                     11
    5. Ethics and Civil Service


    5.1 Corruption
    2003 CPI Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by
    business people and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0
    (highly corrupt).

Corruption Perceptions Index
                                                                                                                 90 percent
                                           2003 CPI     Surveys      Standard       High-Low       Number
                                                                                                                 confidence
                                            Score        Used        Deviation       Range          Inst.
                                                                                                                   range
Rank      Country
1         Highly clean                       9.7            8          0.3         9.2 - 10.0          4          9.5 - 9.9
122       Indonesia                          1.9           13          0.5         0.7 – 2.9           9          1.7 – 2.2
133       Highly corrupt                     1.3            8          0.7         0.3 - 2.2           6          0.9 - 1.7
                                                    Source: Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index 2003

    Surveys Used: Refers to the number of surveys that were used to assess a country's performance. 17 surveys were
    used and at least 3 surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.
    Standard Deviation: Indicates differences in the values of the sources. Values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values
    between 0.5 and c. 0.9 indicate some agreement, while values equal or larger than 1 indicate disagreement.
    High-Low Range: Provides the highest and lowest values of the sources.
    Number Institutions: Refers to the number of independent institutions that assessed a country's performance. Since
    some institutions provided more than one survey.
    90 percent confidence range: Provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. With 5 percent probability the score
    is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below.

    Two recent surveys confirm that corruption in the civil service is viewed as a serious
    problem. In 1999/2000 the Institute for Policy and Community Development Studies
    (IPCOS), conducted a survey of 692 public officials (52 heads of agencies/ or
    departments, and 640 officials) from 15 Indonesian agencies. The second survey of
    households, business enterprises and public officials, conducted in 2001 by the
    Partnership for Governance Reform, had as its principal goal understanding
    perceptions and attitudes to corruption. In both surveys, a large majority of public
    officials viewed corruption as a serious problem--94% of those surveyed in
    1999/2000 and 71% of those surveyed in 2001. Further, when asked to rate
    accountability in their organizations, officials in the 2000 survey were willing to rate
    it at only one on a scale of 10.
    In a recent report on intensification and acceleration of the fight against corruption,
    the Ministry of Administrative Reform (MENPAN) has come up with a long list of
    causes of corruption. Factors internal to the civil service include weak sanctions,
    inconsistent law enforcement, inadequate discipline, lack of internal controls, the
    failure of superiors to set a good example and o f those in positions o f authority to
    subject themselves to clear tests of their performance, and low income in relation to
    what it costs to maintain a decent living standard.
    External factors include inadequate external controls by the public and by
    parliament, lack of clarity in regulations, the culture of gift giving, the social norms
    and permissive behavior of society.
    Indonesia’s four million civil servants are subject to Law 8/1974, subsequently
    amended in the post-Soeharto period under Law 43/1999. The law is quite brief and
    relies on the issuance of regulations that define principles and procedures. The



                                                                12
practices of KKN (corruption, collusion and nepotism) are forbidden, and all
appointments and promotions are to be based on an objective evaluation of
performance and competence and undertaken through competition.
Indonesia has one unified national career civil service despite its current
decentralized structure. Law 22/1999 on decentralization allows regional
governments to manage their own establishments and staffing provided that they
follow centrally defined policies and guidelines. Under President Wahid, Regulations
96- 101/2000 were promulgated, covering personnel policy, structural and functional
positions.
Civil servants are also now prohibited from being members of political parties. This
constitutes a radical change from the Soeharto period when the civil service,
represented by the Association of Civil Servants (Korps Pegawai Republik Indonesia-
KORPRI), was one of the three pillars of the Golkar party of government, along with
a civilian wing and the armed forces.
                     Source: World Bank (Indonesia) - Combating Corruption in Indonesia (November 12, 2003)


5.2 Ethics

                                                                                   Source: Institution - Title




                                               13
        6. e-Government


e-Government                    6.1 e-Government Readiness
Readiness Index:
The index refers to the                                           e-Government Readiness Index
generic capacity or
aptitude of the public
sector to use ICT for
                                          0.6
encapsulating in public
services and deploying                    0.5
to the public, high
quality information                       0.4
(explicit knowledge) and
effective communication                   0.3
tools that support
human development.
                                          0.2
The index is comprised
of three sub-indexes:                     0.1
Web Measure Index,
Telecommunications
                                            0
Infrastructure Index and



                                                                                     a
Human Capital Index.




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Web Measure Index:
                                                                                      Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003
A scale based on
progressively
sophisticated web
services present.
Coverage and
sophistication of state-                 Web Measure Index                  Telecom. Infrastructure Index                       Human Capital Index
provided e-service and
e-product availability
correspond to a                             1
numerical classification.
                                          0.9
                                          0.8
Telecommunications                        0.7
Infrastructure Index:                     0.6
A composite, weighted
average index of six                      0.5
primary indices, based                    0.4
on basic infrastructural
                                          0.3
indicators that define a
country's ICT infra-                      0.2
structure capacity.                       0.1
Primary indicators are:
PC’s, Internet users,
                                            0
online population and
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are TVs and telephone
lines.
                                                                                      Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003



Human Capital Index:
A composite of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio, with two thirds of the weight
given to adult literacy and one third to the gross enrolment ratio.



                                                                       14
e-Participation
Index:
                                6.2 e-Participation                   e-Participation Index
Refers to the willing-
ness, on the part of
the government, to                    0.7
use ICT to provide
high quality informa-                 0.6
tion (explicit know-
ledge) and effective                  0.5
communication tools
                                      0.4
for the specific
purpose of empower-
                                      0.3
ring people for able
participation in                      0.2
consultations and
decision-making both                  0.1
in their capacity as
consumers of public                     0
services and as

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e-information:                                                                    Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003 d
The government
websites offer
information on
policies and
programs, budgets,
                                                 e-information             e-decision making                        e-consultation
laws and regulations,
and other briefs of                   20
key public interest.
                                      18
Tools for dissemi-
nating of information                 16
exist for timely access
and use of public                     14
information, including                12
web forums, e-mail
lists, newsgroups and                 10
chat rooms.
                                       8

                                       6
e-decision making:
                                       4
The government
indicates that it will                 2
take citizens input                    0
into account in
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outcome of specific
issues.                                                                           Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003 d



e-consultation:
The government website explains e-consultation mechanisms and tools. It offers a choice of public policy topics online for discussion with
real time and archived access to audios and videos of public meetings. The government encourages citizens to participate in discussions.




                                                                    15
        7. Links


7.1 National sites
Authority                                     Topic
Government links                              http://www.indonesia-berlin.de/mixed/govermentlink.htm


People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)          http://www.mpr.go.id/
House of Representatives (DPR)                http://www.dpr.go.id


Constitutional Court                          http://www.mahkamahkonstitusi.go.id/


Ombudsman                                     http://www.ombudsman.or.id/


Central Bureau of Statistics                  http://www.bps.go.id




7.2 Miscellaneous sites
Institution                                   Topic
Asian Development Bank (ADB)                  http://www.adb.org/Indonesia/default.asp
Development Gateway                           http://www.developmentgateway.org/countryprofile/...
European Union (EU)                           http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/indonesia/intro/index.htm
United Nations in Indonesia                   http://www.un.or.id/
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)   http://www.undp.or.id/
UNPAN                                         http://www.unpan.org/virtual_library-byregion.asp
World Bank (WB)                               http://www.worldbank.org/id




                                                   16

								
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